Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia associated with Pneumocystis jiroveci infection in orthotopic liver transplantation

Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease, Doha, State of Qatar.
Transplant Infectious Disease (Impact Factor: 2.06). 03/2008; 10(5):339-42. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2008.00300.x
Source: PubMed


We report a patient who presented 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with fever, dyspnea, and pulmonary infiltrates with biopsy-confirmed Pneumocystis jiroveci infection associated with a process of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). We present this second case of BOOP associated with P. carinii pneumonia after OLT to highlight the risk of such disease combination in all transplant patients as well as discuss the protective effect of post-transplant prednisolone with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and the possible duration of prophylaxis.

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    ABSTRACT: At the Tor Vergata University of Rome, ab initio calcineurin inhibitor-based monotherapy immunosuppression (IS) is the standard of treatment after liver transplantation (LT). As the net state of IS determines the onset of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), we hypothesized that, in the presence of weak impairment of the immune function, as determined by the above-mentioned IS, the host is not overexposed to the risk for PCP and consequently the specific anti-PCP prophylaxis is unnecessary. In a single-cohort descriptive study, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of PCP in 203 LT patients who did not receive anti-PCP prophylaxis because they were under monotherapy IS. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of PCP during the first 12 months following LT; secondary endpoints were the incidence of acute rejection requiring additional IS and of CMV infection. No cases of PCP were recorded. The incidence of CMV and acute rejection was 3.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Our data suggest that monotherapy IS after LT may nullify the risk for PCP even in the absence of any specific prophylaxis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Transplant Infectious Disease
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report the association of organizing pneumonia (OP) and a Pneumocystis jiroveci infection in a woman who benefited from a kidney transplant 13 years before and was under corticoids, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. The diagnosis was based on progressive dyspnoea with fever with an alteration in the general state associated with diffuse micronodular pneumopathy suggesting bronchiolitis. The conformation was obtained by the analysis of the alveolar bronchial washings and the histological examination of the distal biopsies revealing endo-alveolar vegetant fibromas. Transbronchial biopsies may be used for the diagnosis and thereby, avoid an invasive surgical pulmonary biopsy. The aetiology of OP may be related to the immunosuppressant treatment or infection by Pneumocystis jiroveci. The evolution in this case was favourable with trimethoprime and sulfamethoxazole associated with a transient increase in the corticoid treatment. This association is rarely described in patients undergoing solid organ transplants.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease involving the distal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, bronchiolar ducts and alveoli. Its cause is generally unknown, but there are several known causes and associated systemic diseases. The clinical features include cough, shortness of breath and bilateral crackles. The vital capacity is slightly decreased, and the diffusing capacity is moderately to severely decreased. The high-resolution chest CT scan shows bilateral ground-glass opacities with air bronchograms and triangular, pleura-based opacities. Corticosteroid therapy is the best treatment option. The outcome of patients suffering from bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia is good, as up to 80% of individuals will be cured.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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