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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill

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Abstract

Extracts obtained from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. For evaluation of its probable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the leaves of the herb were prepared and their analgesic effects were studied in mice using formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Carrageenan test in rats was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of above-mentioned fractions. Results showed that while the hydroalcoholic extract (400-1600 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited only the second phase of formalin test, the polyphenolic fraction (800 and 1600 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) suppressed both phases. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, polyphenolic fraction (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal constrictions. Essential oil at a dose of 200mg/kg also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results of the present study confirm the traditional use of Lavandula angustifolia for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions and calls for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s).

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... Lavandula angustifolia L. is a widely distributed aromatic and medicinal herb worldwide (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002;Hajhashemi et al., 2003). It is commonly known as Lavender or English Lavender. ...
... Its essential oil displays carminative, antiflatulence, and anticolic properties. Aroma therapists use it in the holistic approach (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). This essential oil acts as a central nervous system depressant, anticonvulsant, sedative, spasmolytic agent, local anesthetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and mast cell degranulation inhibitor (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002). ...
... This essential oil acts as a central nervous system depressant, anticonvulsant, sedative, spasmolytic agent, local anesthetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and mast cell degranulation inhibitor (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002). Lavender is comprised of over 100 constituents, among which the primary components are linalool and linalyl acetate, á-pinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, cisandtrans-ocimene, 3-octanone, camphor, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, and flavonoids (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). ...
... Lavandula angustifolia L. is a widely distributed aromatic and medicinal herb worldwide (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002;Hajhashemi et al., 2003). It is commonly known as Lavender or English Lavender. ...
... Its essential oil displays carminative, antiflatulence, and anticolic properties. Aroma therapists use it the holistic approach (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). This essential oil acts as a central nervous system depressant, anticonvulsant, sedative, spasmolytic agent, local anesthetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and mast cell degranulation inhibitor (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002). ...
... This essential oil acts as a central nervous system depressant, anticonvulsant, sedative, spasmolytic agent, local anesthetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and mast cell degranulation inhibitor (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002). Lavender is comprised of over 100 constituents, among which the primary components are linalool and linalyl acetate, á-pinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, cisandtrans-ocimene, 3-octanone, camphor, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, and flavonoids (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). ...
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Lavandula angustifolia L. is an aromatic and medicinal herb with multiple industrial applications. Nevertheless, the over exploitation of wild plantation attempts against to its conservation as natural resource. The aim of this paper was to regenerate plants of L. angustifolia from in vitro leaf explants by indirect organogenesis as conservation strategy. Leaves sections from in vitro plants were cultured in MS with 6-Bencylamino purine (BAP) combined with Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 2,4-Diclophenoxic acetic acid (2,4-D) to induce callus formation. The callus growth was categorized into three types according to the explant area covered by callus and the fresh and dry weigh (mg) per callus were determined. Then, callus were subcultured on MS with BAP and Kinetin combined with NAA or 2,4-D for shoots regeneration. Shoots were cultured in MS with BAP 8.88 µM, indole butyric acid (IBA) 4.92 µM and 2.68µM NAA for rooting. Plantlets were acclimatized and after 50 days of hardening the plants were transferred to the soil. Explants in all treatments formed calli. The higher percentage of callus formation with abundant growth was achieved in MS with 8.88 µM BAP + 5.36 µM NAA (92%). In MS with 4.44 µM BAP + 4.64 µM Kn+ 2.68 µM NAA, 93% of calli regenerating shoots and25-30 multiple shoots were obtained after 63 days of subculture. Shoots developed roots and plants were successfully acclimatized with 93 percentage of surviving. In vitro leaf of L. angustifolia is a suitable explant for plants regeneration.
... The owers and essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (LA) known as "Ostokhoddous", are used in traditional medicines to treat several disorders and conditions. Many studies have reported antinociceptive and anti-in ammatory properties of different parts of LA [9]. The plant essential oil's major components are camphor, 1,8cineole, and endo-borneol [10], which showed percutaneous enhancer effects in studies [11][12][13]. ...
... Many studies have reported the anti-in ammatory and antinociceptive effects of different parts of LA [9,[21][22][23]. Silva et al. studied the anti-in ammatory and antinociceptive activity of LAEO and reported LAEO has an anti-edematogenic effect similar to dexamethasone. ...
... They also reported LAEO at below concentration of 10 µg/ml did not show in vitro cytotoxicity [10]. Hajhashemi et al. evaluated the anti-in ammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oil, polyphenolic fraction, and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of LA [9]. Terpenes are one of the promising clinically acceptable enhancers (at a concentration between 1-5%) Due to their minimal systemic toxicity and dermal irritation with high enhancement activity [7]. ...
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The naproxen bioavailability via percutaneous route is low, and several technologies have been used to overcome the problem. Although the permeation enhancer properties of natural essential oils have been reported, there is no study to show the effectiveness of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the percutaneous absorption of naproxen sodium from a topical gel to overcome poor percutaneous absorption of naproxen. To this end, the naproxen topical gel was formulated using Carbopol 940 (as a gelling agent), and several vehicles. The results showed a greater level of penetration into (222.19 ± 24.87 vs. 107.65 ± 6.38 µg/cm 2 ) and across (22.07 ± 4.42 vs. 13.14 ± 2.87µg/cm 2 ) the skin layers for the formulation containing essential oil in comparison with the naproxen gel ( P < 0.05) . A significant antinociceptive property was observed in naproxen topical gel containing 0.5% essential oil in both the first and late phase of the formalin test. The effect was observed in the late phase of the tail-flick test too. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that Lavandula angustifolia essential oil significantly enhanced the percutaneous absorption of naproxen and the analgesic effects.
... Lavandula angustifolia belonging to the Lamiaceae family is a precious essential oil plant that is grown primarily in Mediterranean and Balkan countries and in many countries around the World (Denner, 2009;Kara & Baydar, 2012). Essential oil of L. angustifolia are reported to have sedative and local anaesthetic effects (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). Phytochemical studies revealed that linalool and linalyl acetate were the main components of the aerial parts and flowers of the plant (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). ...
... Essential oil of L. angustifolia are reported to have sedative and local anaesthetic effects (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). Phytochemical studies revealed that linalool and linalyl acetate were the main components of the aerial parts and flowers of the plant (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). Both components are responsible for the sedative effects associated with the ester and alcohol compounds (Denner, 2009). ...
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In this study, anaesthetic effects of cumin and lavender essential oils by comparing with clove oil were determined on common carp. Fish (mean weight of 10 g) were exposed to nine concentrations of essential oils (5–500 mg L−1). Anaesthesia induction, recovery times and mean lethal dose of essential oils (10 min LC50 concentration) were evaluated separately for each fish. In addition, histopathological effects of essential oils on the fish tissues including hepatopancreas, gill and skin were investigated. The results showed that when the dose of essential oils increased, the time to anaesthesia induction was shortened and the time to recovery from anaesthesia was prolonged. Cumin essential oil at 300 mg L−1 dose and lavender oil at 400 mg L−1 dose on common carp showed similar anaesthetic effects (sedative and deep anaesthesia) to clove oil (p > .05). At these concentrations, sedative (Stage 2) and deep anaesthesia (Stage 4) induction times were 105 and 187.5 s for cumin and 94 and 194 s for lavender respectively. Recovery times at these concentrations were 415 s for cumin and 477.5 s for lavender. Mean lethal dose of essential oils for carp were found as 450 mg L−1 for cumin oil and 500 mg L−1 for lavender oil. Histopathological examination revealed no lesion in gill, skin and hepatopancreas in essential oils group. In the light of these findings, it was determined that lavender and cumin oils can be used as effective and safe anaesthetic in common carp.
... The scientific name Lavandula angustifolia Mill. is also an other nomenclature of Lavandula officinalis Chaix (Prasad et al., 2015). This plant species has been reported to have several beneficial effects mainly anti-tumor, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihistaminic activities and modulating the central nervous system (Bellakhdar et al., 1991;Hajhashemi et al., 2003;Ogbuewu et al., 2011;Tahraoui et al., 2007;Tawaha et al., 2007). ...
... Our findings showed that H.E. extract of lavender at the dose 600 mg/kg and its P.E. at the dose 200 mg/kg, have the most significant protective effects on inflammation induced by the carrageenan test after 4 h of injection, followed by 300 mg/kg of H.E. extract and its P.E. at the dose 100 mg/kg. Previous studies realized on the ethanolic extract of lavender have also shown its in vivo anti-inflammatory activity at the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg (Cardia et al., 2018;Hajhashemi et al., 2003). The anti-inflammatory activity of P.E. as well as flavonoids has been explained by several mechanisms of action mainly flavone derivatives, which act as proinflammatory molecules modulators and as inhibitors of some transcription factors such as rutin and quercetin (Kim et al., 2004). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevancy: Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are a valuable legacy for human health care and subsistence. Among these MAP, Lavandula officinalis Chaix is traditionally renowned for its ability to treat digestive problems, inflammation, coughing, and to elicit sedative and diuretic effects. Aim of the study: This investigation aimed to assess the effects of Lavandula officinalis Chaix extracts in vivo on the levels of proteins, cholesterol, and estradiol, and study their sub-acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the hydro-ethanolic (H.E.) extract of Lavandula officinalis Chaix plant was analyzed using HPLC. To check sub-acute toxicity, the H.E. extract at both 300 and 600 mg/kg doses were administered to female rats by daily gavage for 28 days, and animals’ weights, biochemical analyses (AST, ALT, ALP, urea and CREA), and histopathological examinations of kidneys and livers were checked. Furthermore, the in vivo estrogenic and anti-inflammatory activities were examined using H.E. and polyphenols (100 and 200 mg/kg) extracts (P.E.) based on serum and ovarian cholesterol, serum estradiol, uterine proteins levels, and edema inhibition using indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and clomiphene citrate (10 mg/kg) as reference drugs. Results: The results showed that the H.E. extract of Lavandula officinalis Chaix contains some phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, quercetin, and myricetin and showed no evidence of nephrotoxicity nor hepatotoxicity. Additionally, both extracts reduced edema in treated rats by 56–76%. Also, significant estrogenic effects were evidenced by 16–35% increase in serum estradiol, but at less extent than the reference drug treated group. As for cholesterol level, it decreased by 20–60% all extracts included. Moreover, significant influence was noticed on uterine proteins using the hydro-ethanolic extract. Lastly, serum estradiol level increased by 16–64% comparatively to control group. Conclusion: Our findings bring new insights on the role of Lavandula officinalis Chaix extracts as beneficial herbal remedies for female infertility disorders and related inflammation symptoms.
... [89,90] Lavandula angustifolia mill essential oil Lavandula angustifolia mill is an aromatic, medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family which is globally distributed. [91,92] The essential oil extracted from L. angustifolia is useful in folk medicine for treating diverse diseases, with activities ranging from carminative, antiflatulence, anticolic and relaxant. [91] In addition, this essential oil has been found to be a central nervous system depressant that acts as an anticonvulsant, spasmolytic agent, sedative, local anaesthetic, antioxidant, bactericidal and mast cell degranulation inhibitor. ...
... [91,92] The essential oil extracted from L. angustifolia is useful in folk medicine for treating diverse diseases, with activities ranging from carminative, antiflatulence, anticolic and relaxant. [91] In addition, this essential oil has been found to be a central nervous system depressant that acts as an anticonvulsant, spasmolytic agent, sedative, local anaesthetic, antioxidant, bactericidal and mast cell degranulation inhibitor. [92,93] However, the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of L. angustifolia essential oil revealed that monoterpenes (45.0%) such as borneol, epi-α-muurolol, d-bisabolol, precocene I and eucalyptol are the main constituents. ...
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Schistosomiasis is a neglected infectious tropical disease that is second in occurrence only to hookworm infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Presently, chemotherapy is the main method of control and treatment of this disease due to the absence of a vaccine. However, Praziquantel, which is the only chemotherapeutic option, lacks efficacy against the early developmental stages of schistosomes. A number of plant-derived compounds, including alkaloids, terpenes and phenolics, have displayed in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Schistosoma species. This review explores how the application of nanotechnology can improve the efficacy of these plant-derived schistosomicidal compounds through the use of nano-enabled drug delivery systems to improve bioavailability.
... Several of these conditions are associated with an inflammatory response and their relief or even treatment may be related to the anti-inflammatory properties of these aromatic plants. Although the anti-inflammatory potential of other lavender species, namely L. angustifolia, L. stoechas, L. multifida and L. viridis [14][15][16][17][18], is known, information on L. luisieri and L. pedunculata essential oils is sparse. Only two studies were carried out on L. luisieri essential oils, one showing its effect on primary human chondrocytes and the intestinal cell line [19], and another highlighting its potential to reduce cytokines and chemokines in human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) [20]. ...
... The latter pointed out a reduction in the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), following LPS stimulation. Regarding other lavender species, studies on L. angustifolia have frequently reported inhibitory effects on carrageenan-induced paw oedema [15], croton oil-induced ear oedema, and dextran-induced paw oedema models [36]. Moreover, decreases in the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and increases in IL-10, were also shown in a rat model of myocardial infarction [37]. ...
Article
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Portuguese lavenders remain undervalued in global markets due to the lack of high-quality end-products and scarcity of scientific-based studies validating their bioactive potential. Moreover, chemical variability is frequent in these species, and can compromise both safety and efficacy. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of L. luisieri and L. pedunculata, two highly prevalent species in Portugal, was assessed and correlated with their chemical variability. Representative samples with distinct chemical profiles were selected to assess the anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated macrophages. L. luisieri essential oil with low quantities of necrodane derivatives was the most potent at inhibiting NO production. Interestingly, the essential oil was more effective than its main compounds (1,8-cineole and fenchone), assessed alone or in combination. Our results also demonstrated a significant effect of the oil on the expression of the inflammatory proteins (iNOS and pro-IL-1β) and on the NF-κB pathway. Overall, this study highlights the impact of chemical variability on oils’ efficacy by showing distinct effects among the chemotypes. We also identify L. luisieri essential oil, which has low quantities of necrodane derivatives, as the most promising in mitigation of the inflammatory response, thus corroborating its traditional uses and paving the way for the development of herbal medicinal products.
... As published by Cano-Lamadrid et al [26] and Veillet et al [27], bornyl acetate was detected in the volatile composition of olive oil (very low amounts). While, revealing this monoterpene in the present study, could be an indication of the biological potential of VOFs, since this volatile exhibits antiinflammatory properties and it is used as an analgesic [9,[28][29]. ...
... The flowers from the Mediterranean region were found to be rich in (Z)-jasmone, while the ones from the arid region were rich in bornyl acetate. Many studies report the high defence level of these two compounds and that their production is related to environmental stress, which induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals [8][9][28][29]. Our study confirmed that the environmental factor is affecting the chemical composition of O. europaea flowers, which led to different chemotypes. Some compounds shared by leaves and flowers, such as nonanal, limonene and p-cymene, are an evidence that the olive tree release substantial quantities of the same volatiles from leaf and floral organs [8,16]. ...
... This is possible due to the presence of a set of biologically active substances, especially in essential oil, which possesses a multidirectional therapeutic activity being used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and urinary infections [6]. Scientific studies reported anti-inflammatory [7], antioxidant [8,9], sedative [10], cytotoxic [11,12], analgesic [7], antimicrobial [6,13,14], and anticonvulsive [15] properties of L. angustifolia essential oil. Literature data reveal a huge variation in terms of L. angustifolia essential oil content, with values ranging between 0.5 and 6.25% in the case of essential oil obtained from fresh and dry inflorescences [16]. ...
... This is possible due to the presence of a set of biologically active substances, especially in essential oil, which possesses a multidirectional therapeutic activity being used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and urinary infections [6]. Scientific studies reported anti-inflammatory [7], antioxidant [8,9], sedative [10], cytotoxic [11,12], analgesic [7], antimicrobial [6,13,14], and anticonvulsive [15] properties of L. angustifolia essential oil. Literature data reveal a huge variation in terms of L. angustifolia essential oil content, with values ranging between 0.5 and 6.25% in the case of essential oil obtained from fresh and dry inflorescences [16]. ...
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The producers of essential oils from the Republic of Moldova care about the quality of their products and at the same time, try to capitalize on the waste from processing. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition of lavender (Lavanda angustifolia L.) essential oil and some by-products derived from its production (residual water, residual herbs), as well as to assess their “in vitro” antimicrobial activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oils produced by seven industrial manufacturers led to the identification of 41 constituents that meant 96.80–99.79% of the total. The main constituents are monoterpenes (84.08–92.55%), followed by sesquiterpenes (3.30–13.45%), and some aliphatic compounds (1.42–3.90%). The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis allowed the quantification of known triterpenes, ursolic, and oleanolic acids, in freshly dried lavender plants and in the residual by-products after hydrodistillation of the essential oil. The lavender essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora at 300 μg/mL concentration, and Erwinia amylovora, Candida utilis at 150 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Lavender plant material but also the residual water and ethanolic extracts from the solid waste residue showed high antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, Bacillus sp., and Pseudomonas aeroginosa strains, at 0.75–6.0 μg/mL, 0.08–0.125 μg/mL, and 0.05–4.0 μg/mL, respectively.
... Lavandula officinalis; Lamiaceae family), is an aromatic plant native to the Mediterranean region. Analgesic, antiinflammatory, sedative, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and dementia-preventing properties of this plant have been reported in previous research (12,13,14,15). Lavender is widely distributed in Iran and commonly known as "ostokhoddous", and is traditionally used to treat digestive problems, cough, and inflammation (16). ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extract of lavender could inhibit the second phase of formalin test in mice, and oral administration of lavender essential oil could suppress both phases. Furthermore, essential oil inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreased the number of abdominal constrictions in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (14). ...
Article
Background and purpose: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. Vincristine is prescribed to treat a variety of carcinomas, including lymphoma and leukemia, and may cause progressive peripheral neuropathy due to the damage of microtubules and mitochondria of neurons and affects inflammatory processes. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Lavandula angustifolia hydroalcoholic extract (LHE) of aerial part on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in a rat model. Experimental approach: Neuropathy was induced in rats by daily intraperitoneal administration of vincristine (0.1 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Following the induction of neuropathy, animals were treated with the LHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or pregabalin (20 mg/kg, IP) for 2 weeks, and their responses to vincristine-induced hyperalgesia and locomotor impairment were measured. Findings/Results: LHE, at the dose of 400 mg/kg, showed analgesic effects in response to thermal hyperalgesia, tactile allodynia, and gait impairment. Also, pregabalin (20 mg/kg, IP) improved the symptoms of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions and implications: According to the results, we can conclude that LHE alleviates neuropathic symptoms of vincristine and the effect is probably related to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extract.
... Cowan (1999) reported that approximately 3,000 essential oils are currently known so far. Out of which 300 are of commercially important and widely used in the pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary, cosmetic and perfume industries (Hajhashemi et al., 2003;Perry et al., 2003). PLANTA -Vol.-3, ...
... Nowadays, essential oils are most widely used as an alternative medicine in different industries like pharmaceutical, agricultural, sanitary and food industries due to their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant activity. Cown (1999) reported that approximately 3,000 EOs are currently available so far,out of which only 300 are of commercially Importance (Hajhashemi et al.,2003;Perry et al.,2003). ...
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Red velvet mite (RVM) is an arachnid arthropod, having bright red colour makes the creatures easy to attract. Among the mite species, it is one of the largest and grows up to 15mm to 20 mm. A thick layers of glossy hairs, gives it a velvety appearance. Usually fore pair legs are used for sensations. Like other mites, the adults have 4 pairs of legs while the larvae have only 3 pairs (fig.1). This creature is not only famous for its bright red velvety body which looks beautiful but also known for its therapeutic usage in the treatment of paralysis and sexual dysfunction (Oudhia, 2003). Further, the deep red color indicates the warning behavior to its predators to refrain their consumption. Apart from this, it is graced with dozens of common names such as rain’s insect, scarlet fly, bride of the sea-farer, queen mite, rain mite, velvet bride, little old lady of monsoon and many more that are used invariably.
... The antioxidant potential of the EOs of salvia and lavender was reported by several authors. Salvia EO showed the highest activity for chelating Fe 2þ than BHT and ascorbic acid as well as inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase [39][40][41]. These activities were attributed to the presence of 1, 8-cineole, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene in the EOs. ...
... While the ROS scavenging activity of the lavender EO was shown by Refs. [40,42]; who studied the inhibitory effect of lavender oil on fat oxidation reactions and lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. Chia-Wen et al. [43], Lu et al. [44], and Yang et al. [45] used DPPH assay to study the antioxidant powerful of lavender EO and found that lavender EO exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity similar to limonene. ...
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Nowadays, viral infection is considered a major cause of mortality all over the world such as covid-19 pandemic. In this context, searching for antiviral agents are major researchers interests. In this study, essential oils (EO) of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Salvia officinalis (salvia) were subjected to combat avian influenza H5N1 virus. Laboratory trials were performed to identify Lavender and salvia EOs and evaluate their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity against an avian influenza H5N1 virus. EOs were prepared by the hydrodistillation of air-dried plants and analyzed by GC-MS methods. The results revealed that salvia has the highest EOs yield 1.3% than lavender 1%. The dominant constituents of lavender EO were linalyl acetate and linalool while camphor and α-thujone were the dominant compounds of salvia. Both oils exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS and total antioxidant capacity assays. The results suggest the use of salvia and lavender EOs as effective natural anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral agents.
... Lavandula angustifolia Mill. has also been used in folk and traditional medicine as a diuretic, carminative, anti-rheumatic, anti-epileptic, and pain broker, particularly for migraine and headache (Hajhashemi, Ghannadi, & Sharif, 2003). Zingiber officinale L. belonging to the Zingiberaceae family that is mostly used as a spice includes several bioactive compounds such as shogaols, gingerdione, gingerdiol, andgingerol. ...
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The identification and quantification of the volatile organic compounds profile of the plants is an important tool for food quality and authenticity assessment. In that context, herewith the study, we aimed at quantifying the volatile compounds of three plants Artemisia campestris L. subsp. glutinosa, Lavandula angustifolia Mill., and Zingiber officinale Rosch using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Thirty-three volatile compounds were revealed with SPME/GC-MS. Of the identified compounds, α-curcumene (34.41%) and eucalyptol (20.91%), were predominant compounds in Zingiber officinale Rosch. For Artemisia campestris subsp. glutinosa, camphor (31.78%), and α-thujone (16.82%) were noted as the most abundant volatile compounds. Besides eucalyptol (15.10%), and linalool (11.98%) were recorded as major volatile compounds in the Lavandula angustifolia Mill.
... Moreover, lavender essential oil has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties [9,10] as well as antimicrobial activity [11]. Lusby et al. [12] compared the treatment effects of Lavandula x allardii honey and essential oil and a standard therapeutic honey (Medihoney) for wound healing in rats. ...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Norway spruce ointments on wound healing of castration wounds in piglets. This study included 95 male pigs randomly divided into five treatment groups: Norway spruce balm (Vulpuran), Norway spruce resin (Abilar), pork lard (ointment base of Vulpuran), no treatment (negative control) and antibiotic blue spray (Cyclo spray, positive control). Wound healing parameters (such as healing time, wound size, reddening of wound edges and surrounding, swelling, secretion and wound contamination), microbiological status and the haptoglobin level as an inflammation parameter were investigated. In the Norway spruce groups, some positive effects on wound healing parameters were found. In the first 6 days of treatment, Abilar or Vulpuran showed the smallest means of wound areas, and at the end of the study (day 15 + 17), the highest rates of completely closed wounds compared to the other groups. Vulpuran treatment led to significantly lower wound secretion (p = 0.003) and wound contamination (p = 0.015) than the untreated control did. Furthermore, the microbiological status was determined using MALDI-TOF-MS and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing at different days of treatment. A comparison of the five treatment groups on day 3 revealed that Norway spruce led to the lowest rate of wounds colonised with fungi, mainly classified into genus Candida, (Abilar 77%, Vulpuran 70%) in comparison with blue spray (89%), lard (100%) and untreated control (100%). Fungi could only be detected in one of the 13 samples treated with Vulpuran on day 8, which nearly reached significance (p = 0.055).
... These are tannins, coumarins, mucilages, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (Exarchou et al. 2002). In addition, this family is characterized by the presence of essential oils that have found a great place in therapeutics thanks to their broad spectrum of biological activities (Lamiri et al. 2001;Cimanga et al. 2002;Amin and Hamza 2005;Hajhashemi et al. 2003). ...
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An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among herbalists in the north-central region of Morocco using a questionnaire in order to highlight knowledge and know-how and to establish an inventory of herbal remedies used in the treatment of diseases common in the region and rarely cited in the bibliography: in this case, it is insomnia, asthenia, and oral-gum infections. The results showed that 120 herbalists were interviewed in different areas of the Fez-Meknes region, about 86 species were cited and grouped into 60 families (47 plants to treat asthenia, 25 to treat insomnia, and 21 to treat oral and gum infections). The reported plants have been identified and presented with the binomial name, family, part used, and method of preparation. In addition, the versatility was observed in several plants, indicating that the same plant could be used to treat conditions of different groups. Herbalists are people of both sexes belonging to different age groups and have different socioeconomic and intellectual levels. Eighty percent of surveyed herbalists are willing to provide us information about plants in the studied area. The most cited plants for treating these diseases are Lavandula dentata, Matricaria chamomilla, Rosmarinus officinalis, Allium cepa, Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Marrubium vulgare, Lepidium sativum, and Ocimum basilicum. The Lamiaceae are the most quoted family. The leaves are the most commonly used organs. Infusion is the most common form of preparation. The results of this ethnobotanical study could constitute an important source of information and databases for further research in the fields of phytochemistry and pharmacology in order to find new bioactive molecules. In addition, this document can be used in the protection of indigenous knowledge.
... This oil has been reported to possess antispastic, carminative, analgesic, sedative, hypotensive, antiseptic, diuretic, antimicrobial, and tonic actions. On the other hand, lavender can be used for treatment of superficial burns and wounds as well as in hygiene products (B€ uy€ ukokuro glu et al. 2003;Hajhashemi, Ghannadi, and Sharif 2003;Woronuk et al. 2011). ...
Article
Organic fertilizers might have prominent effects on lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plant growth and secondary metabolites composition. A field study was conducted to assess the responses of biomass yield, nutrients, and essential oil components of lavender to different organic fertilizers. The effect of fertilizer treatments included changing the amounts of cow manure (0–40 tonne/ha) and vermicompost (0–15 tonne/ha). The fertilizers enhanced the total area and dry matter of the leaves by 40% with cow manure and 62% with compost compared to no fertilization. The essential oil yield increased by 70% after treatment with cow manure. The highest change in the essential oil composition was marked in the oxygenate monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole, followed by borneol, and camphor. The highest percentage of 1,8-cineole was achieved with a mix of both organic fertilizers. In addition, this combination was able to increase the leaf N concentration by 43% above the unfertilized treatment. These results showed that the use of combined fertilizers enhanced the leaf dry matter and improved the plant nutrient value and essential oil constituents.
... Moreover, its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties may relieve pain and soothe irritated skin. 45 It was also possible to verify the antioxidant potential of the 1,8-cineole (48%) and menthol (39%) also present in this essential oil in another study. 46 ...
Article
Background Essential oils have great interest among the increasing demand for herbal cosmetics in the market. They are natural sources of biologically active ingredients due to the wide application of such compounds as well as their particular chemical composition. Several researches have evaluated the effectiveness of these bioactive ingredients for use in cosmeceuticals, mainly in both hair scalp and shaft hair damage repair. Thus, the amounts and their associations define the properties of these compositions with interest for hair cosmetic use, such as antioxidant, inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Because they are complex compounds, their actions on the skin, hair scalp, and shaft are not yet fully understood. Aims The purpose of this review is to highlight the relevant researches and findings on essential oils in hair care. Methods In order to achieve this objective, the present work comprises an updated bibliographic review related to essential oils used in hair care. Results It was possible to observe that cosmeceuticals containing essential oils applied to the scalp are preferably for topical activity. Also, it was noticed that there are few reports regarding their use in hair shaft. However, it was found that some oils are used to intensify the brightness and fix the hair color. Conclusions This work demonstrated that the use of essential oils in both cosmetic products (industrial application) and those associated with oils carriers (as individual protocols) may lead to satisfactory results in the treatment of some scalp dysfunctions.
... The major components of L. angustifolia are linalool, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, myrcene, 1.8-cineole, and camphor [5]. L. angustifolia possesses various therapeutic properties, such as antibacterial [6], anti-inflammatory [7], analgesic [5], antistress [8,9], anxiolytic [10], and sedative [11] effects. It has also been reported to accelerate the onset of sleep and improve sleep quality [12,13]. ...
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Lavender essential oil (LEO) was reported to improve sleep quality. We investigated the influence of aromatherapy by testing the effects of LEO on stress responses during a short-duration sleep in a single-blind, randomized, crossover trial. The subjects were twelve healthy adults who were nonsmokers without any known disease and who were not prescribed medications, and nine of these completed the study. After the subjects had fallen asleep, they were sprayed with LEO using an aroma diffuser. Before and after 90 min of sleep, α-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and cortisol levels in saliva were measured as objective stress indicators, and the Japanese version of the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist was used as a subjective indicator. A comparison of changes before and after sleep, with and without LEO, revealed that the cortisol level did not significantly change; however, α-amylase (p < 0.05) and CgA (p < 0.01) levels significantly decreased after LEO inhalation. A mood test indicated no change in mood before and after sleep, with or without LEO. Since α-amylase and CgA reflect the sympathetic nervous system response, these results indicate that LEO aromatherapy during a short-duration sleep cycle suppresses the stress response, especially that of the sympathetic nervous system.
... It is similar to Ustukhuddoos in most applications for various therapeutic purposes in Unani system 17 . It has good antioxidant 18 , sedative 19 , antitumor, anti inflammatory, antihistaminic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial activity along with central nervous system modulator [20][21][22][23][24][25] . It is also useful for nervous breakdown, nervous tension [26][27][28] , alopecia 29 , enhancing cognitive performance and mood behaviour 30 . ...
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Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant of traditional Unani, Iranian and Tunisian systems of medicine. It has a unique attribute to expel out and remove all impurities and obstructions and reinvigorate the brain power, honored as broom of brain in classical Unani literatures. To establish clear identification between L. stoechas (LS) and L. officinalis (LO) standard operating parameters, TLC fingerprinting and physicochemical and histo-anatomical studies were done. LS exhibited significantly higher physical values for their standardization and quality parameters with respect to LO. Histo-anatomical disquisition and chemo-microscopic studies of the drug revealed that presence of substantial and marked diagnostic feature to LS having large bract, brown colored flexible peduncle, presence of exorbitant number of uniseriate and multi seriate covering and uniseriate glandular trichomes leading to soft stem and peduncle. It has distinguished and well-developed phloem, centrally filled with parenchymatous cells, with camphoric stench along with bitter in taste while LO has lesser hairs, hard stem and peduncle, greenish color, presence of centrally hollow pith, indiscriminate bract, and flowers are without stalks with pleasant aroma. Seeds of LS are yellowish brown, frivolous weight and very small in size while LO have blackish seeds and are comparatively larger in size and weight.
... Additionally, essential oil of many other plants Ocimum sanctum [194], Baphia nitida [195], Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha sp., Eucalyptus sp. [196][197][198][199] pine, clove, myrrh oils [200,201] Llicium verum, Citrus aurantium, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Juniperus communis, Lavandula officinalis, T. vulgaris and Cananga odorata also possess some antiinflammatory potential [202]. Though these plants are endowed with much potential and a variety of constituents, still much research is needed to explore the potential of each constituent and its related mechanism of action. ...
Background Aromatherapy is a traditional practice of employing essential oils for the therapeutic purposes, currently headed under the category of complementary and adjuvant medicine. Objective The aim of this review article is to summarize the potential health benefits of aromatic essential oil from traditional times till the present. It also proposed some mechanisms which can be utilized as basis for using aromatherapy in cancer and cancer linked complications. Methods To find out the relevant and authentic data, several search engines like Science direct, Pubmed, research gate, etc. were thoroughly checked by inserting key words like aromatherapy, complementary, adjuvant therapy etc. to collect the relevant material in context of article. Also, the chemical components of essential oil were classified based on the presence of functional groups, which are further explored for their cytotoxic potential. Results The result depicted the anti-cancer potential of chemical constituents of essential oil against different types of cancer. Moreover, the essential oils show promising anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-mutagenic potential in several studies, which collectively can form the basis for initiation of its anti-cancer utility. Conclusion Aromatherapy can serve as adjuvant economic therapy in cancer after the standardization of protocol.
... The essential oil of Lamiaceae species is particularly rich in volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes, which are constituted with 10, 15, and 20 carbon atoms, respectively. Among monoterpenes, the main compounds are -pinene, -pinene, 1,8-cineole, menthol, limonene, and terpinene [25][26][27][28][29][30]. Indeed, germacrene D, caryophyllene, and spathulenol represent the main sesquiterpene compounds [31][32][33][34]. ...
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Clinopodium sericeum is widely used in Peruvian folk medicine in the form of infusion to treat stomach distress, indigestion and antiflu. In this study, the essential oil from C. sericeum was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 73 compounds were identified. Major components of the oil were b-germacrene-D (15%), b-caryophyllene (13.8%), and sabinene (11.2%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro biological activities displayed by the oil obtained from the aerial parts of C. sericeum, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. The antioxidant activities of the essential oil were evaluated by FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The essential oil displays antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains (MIC 50-200 µg/mL) in a dose-range close to standard antibiotics. Such activity may be related to the presence of terpene compounds. The antiproliferative activity of the essential oil was measured in vitro using the MTT colorimetric assay in healthy non-tumorigenic cells (HEK-293) and in three human cancer cell lines (T24, DU-145, and MCF-7). The calculated IC50 values were around 0.2 mg/mL. Since the essential oil was almost devoid of antioxidant activity, its anti-proliferative action is unlikely related to oxidative stress and relies on other unknown mechanisms.
... Essential oils are valuable not only for their natural protective function for host plants but also because they possess properties that are several times more potent than dried herbs. Antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti fungal properties, as well as certain specific therapeutic effects, render essential oils a precious factor [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
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Ferula is a genus of perennial herbs in the Apiaceae family. Members of this genus are found mainly in the Mediterranean region and Central Asia, and they have a long history of utilization in traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. The species of this plant have been used for the ole-gum resin, plant extracts, and essential oils. Ferula species typically have a heavy fragrance due to the presence of essential oils or oleoresins in them. This review aimed to investigate the antibacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant activity of essential oils and plant extracts of ferula species and their potential to be used as natural food preservatives. Potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity due to the specific chemical compounds have approved that the essential oils and extracts of different species of this plant can be utilized as natural food preservatives. Although an array of studies have approved these activities, there are still some vague aspects of their application for the extension of different food products' shelf life and replacement for synthetic (artificial) preservatives.
... Mass spectra are normally recorded at 70 eV, and the identification of the different types of compounds is performed by comparing the retention times of the samples with standards published in the literature and spectrum libraries. 15,[25][26][27]55,70 5.1.2. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. ...
... A recent study showed that Z. majdae has also an effective on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice [8]. Essential oils are recognized as valuable products worthy of industrial exploitation, since they show a wide range of biological properties including antimicrobial, antidiabetic, repellent, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory [17][18][19][20][21]. Thus, they are extensively used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and perfume industries [1,[22][23][24][25][26]. Notably, there is a growing interest in the use of plant essential oils as natural substitutes for synthetic compounds in human health [27]. ...
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Zhumeria majdae (Rech. F. & Wendelbo) is an aromatic herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family, traditionally employed in the Persian medicine for the treatment of a wide number of diseases. In the present study, the chemical composition of Z. majdae essential oil obtained from the plant’s aerial features, and stored at various temperatures (refrigerator temperature 4 °C, freezer temperature −20 °C, and room temperature 20 ± 3 °C) and times (0, 3, 6, and 9 months) was studied. The essential oil was isolated through hydrodistillation, and its composition was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the composition of essential oils changed as a function of the various storage temperatures and times. Linalool (34.85–48.45%), camphor (27.09–39.17%), limonene (1.97–4.88%), and camphene (1.6–4.84%) made up the main volatile compounds which showed differences in their concentrations according to the various storage conditions. Notably, when compared to a non-stored treatment sample (analyzed immediately after essential oil collection), the amount of linalool and camphor increased in all samples stored in all conditions of temperature and time, with the exception of the samples stored for nine months at room temperature. On the other hand, limonene and camphene contents decreased during the storage treatments, showing that the highest content of these compounds occurred in the non-stored treatment. Essential oil storage at the freezer temperature and for three months storage time resulted in the highest average value of the major constituents, highlighting these as the best conditions for obtaining the highest content of the major compounds.
... It is a native of the Mediterranean area, where it finds its phytosociological optimal environment, expressing a large quantity of secondary metabolites, able to exert biological activities and hence to provide health benefits to humans [1]. Thanks to its phytochemical composition, it is well known worldwide as a powerful aromatic and medicinal herb and is largely used in the toiletry, perfumery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries [2,3]. It contains a large amount of volatile (e.g., aromatic compounds) and non-volatile (e.g., phenolic compounds) phytochemicals, which both may have positive effects on human health [3]. ...
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Culture of plant cells or tissues is a scalable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly approach to obtain extracts and secondary metabolites of uniform quality that can be continuously supplied in controlled conditions, independent of geographical and seasonal variations, environmental factors, and negative biological influences. In addition, tissues and cells can be extracted/obtained from the by-products of other industrial cultivations such as that of Lavandula angustifolia Miller (L. angustifolia), which is largely cultivated for the collection of flowers. Given that, an extract rich in rosmarinic acid was biotechnologically produced starting from cell suspension of L. angustifolia, which was then loaded in hyalurosomes, special phospholipid vesicles enriched with sodium hyaluronate, which in turn are capable of both immobilizing and stabilizing the system. These vesicles have demonstrated to be good candidates for skin delivery as their high viscosity favors their residence at the application site, thus promoting their interaction with the skin components. The main physico-chemical and technological characteristics of vesicles (i.e., mean diameter, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of extract in vesicles) were measured along with their biological properties in vitro: biocompatibility against fibroblasts and ability to protect the cells from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Overall, preliminary results disclosed the promising properties of obtained formulations to be used for the treatment of skin diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.
... Lavender EOs have a long history of use as fragrance and aromatherapy ingredients. The plant is used in traditional and folk medicines in different parts of the world for the treatment of several gastrointestinal, nervous and rheumatic disorders and is also used for anxiety, stress and insomnia [182][183][184]. Over the years, application of lavender extract, oil and essence in food and beverage products has also increased to a substantial level and is forecasted to grow at an increasing rate in each sector ( Figure 3). ...
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The potential value of DNA barcoding for the identification of medicinal plants and authentication of traded plant materials has been widely recognized; however, a number of challenges remain before DNA methods are fully accepted as an essential quality control method by industry and regulatory authorities. The successes and limitations of conventional DNA barcoding are considered in relation to important members of the Lamiaceae. The mint family (Lamiaceae) contains over one thousand species recorded as having a medicinal use, with many more exploited in food and cosmetics for their aromatic properties. The family is characterized by a diversity of secondary products, most notably the essential oils (EOs) produced in external glandular structures on the aerial parts of the plant that typify well-known plants of the basil (Ocimum), lavender (Lavandula), mint (Mentha), thyme (Thymus), sage (Salvia) and related genera. This complex, species-rich family includes widely cultivated commercial hybrids and endangered wild-harvested traditional medicines, and examples of potential toxic adulterants within the family are explored in detail. The opportunities provided by next generation sequencing technologies to whole plastome barcoding and nuclear genome sequencing are also discussed with relevant examples.
... essential oil. Reports have shown inhibitory effects using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema (Hajhashemi et al., 2003), croton oil-induced ear oedema and dextran-induced paw oedema models (Cardia et al., 2018). Furthermore, the ability of this species to decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and increase those of IL-10 in a rat model of myocardial infarction has been demonstrated (Souri et al., 2019). ...
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Lavandula viridis L´Hér. is an endemic Iberian species with a high essential oil yield and a pleasant lemon scent. Despite these interesting features, this species remains unrecognized and poorly explored by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Nevertheless, it has been valued in traditional medicine being used against flu, circulatory problems and to relieve headaches. Since these disorders trigger inflammatory responses, it is relevant to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of L. viridis L´Hér. essential oil in an attempt to validate its traditional use and concomitantly to increment its industrial exploitation. Therefore, in the present study the chemical composition of this volatile extract as well as the effect on ROS production, inflammatory response and proteasome activity on LPS-stimulated macrophages were disclosed. Also, its safety profile on keratinocytes, hepatocytes and alveolar epithelial cells was depicted, envisioning a future human administration. The essential oil was characterized by high quantities of 1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene. From a pharmacological point of view, the essential oil showed a potent antioxidant effect and inhibited nitric oxide production through down-modulation of nuclear factor kappa B-dependent Nos2 transcription and consequently iNOS protein expression as well as a decrease in proteasomal activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was also evidenced by a strong inhibition of LPS-induced Il1b and Il6 transcriptions and downregulation of COX-2 levels. Overall, bioactive safe concentrations of L. viridis L´Hér. essential oil were disclosed, thus corroborating the traditional usage of this species and paving the way for the development of plant-based therapies.
... Eucalyptol (7.32%) and Camphor (3.79%) are the main compounds. Caryophyllene (24.12%) and Eucalyptol (15.69%) were identified in L. angustifolia EO collected from west Romania (Germinara et al., 2017), and 1,8-cineole (65.40%), borneol (11.50%), and camphor (9.50%) as the most abundant compounds in the EO of L. angustifolia from Iran (Hajhashemi et al., 2003). ...
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Present study reports the chemical composition and the contact toxicity of Lavender derived essential oil and its effects on the biochemical composition (carbohydrates, lipids, ad proteins) and the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Chemical composition analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that Linalool (20.48%) and linalyl acetate (13.24%) were the major compounds. The EO exhibit contact toxicity against Rhyzopertha dominica, with dose-response relationship. Moreover, EO of L. angustifolia induce a decrease of the lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents in adults. Biomarkers determined in adults treated with LC25 and LC50 revealed an induction of the detoxification system via an increase in activity of Catalase and Superoxyde dismutase and no effect on GPx activity. L. angustifolia essential oil could be considered as alternative to chemical insecticides for pest control.
... 2% relative to the dry matter. The EO of L. angustifolia from Iran contains 1,8-cineole (65.40%), borneol (11.50%), and camphor (9.50%) as the most abundant compounds(Hajhashemi et al., 2003). Whereas, 1,8-cineole is the primary compound (38.40%), ...
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Sayada et al.: Evaluation of a botanical insecticide, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia (M.)) essential oil as toxicant, repellent and antifeedant against lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica (F.))-1301-APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 20(2): 1301-1324. Abstract. In this study, the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia (Miller.1768) have been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, we have evaluated the fumigant toxicity, the repellent and antifeedant properties, and also the effects on some biomarkers of essential oil extracted from L. angustifolia on adult of Rhyzopertha dominica (F. 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). GC-MS analysis showed that this oil contains 56 compounds with linalool (20.42%) and linalyl acetate (13.24%) as the major components. This essential oil was found to exhibit insecticidal activity depending on the concentration and exposure period. In addition, the obtained results revealed an increase in the percent repellency. The enzymatic measurements showed a neurotoxic activity as evidenced by an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In addition, we observe a stimulation of the detoxification system as showed by an increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and a decrease in gluthatione (GSH) rate. Lastly, essential oil was investigated on nutritional indices. Results showed a decrease in the relative growth rate, relative consumption rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, and an increase in feeding deterrent index, accompanied by a decrease in digestive enzymes tested, α-amylase and protease in treated series when compared with control.
Chapter
Aromatic flavoring plants are important ingredients of the Mediterranean diet, one of the healthiest and most sustainable dietary forms, often associated with greater longevity as well as contributing to the reduction of some chronic pathologies with high mortality and morbidity. Their essential oils (EOs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents and food supplements, due to their antioxidants, anti-inflammatory or anti-tumoral properties. The Health benefits of essential oils are closely related with their chemical constituents. The 1,8-cineole, a naturally cyclic oxygenated monoterpene, has been attributed several biological properties such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory or antitumoral. Nevertheless, the EO properties are attributed not only to their main components but also to the synergistic effect of minor components. This review chapter focused on the chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of EOs of flavoring Lamiaceae plants, with high content in 1,8-cineole, including chemotypes of genera Lavandula, Calamintha, Rosmarinus, and Thymus, often used in the Mediterranean diet.
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The present research work investigated antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal properties of essential oils from the leaves of Mentha rotundifolia var. apodysa Briq. (EOR). Hydro-distillation was used to extract EOR before being subjected to the chemical characterization by the use of GC/MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the use of three bioassays namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Antimicrobial potency was tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae , Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumonia , while antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, and Fusarium oxysporum . EOR yield was determined to be 1.31%, with 20 compounds wherein Menthol (31.28%) and Isomenthol (14.28%) constituted the greatest amount. Regarding antioxidant activity, EOR exhibited potent antioxidant power: DPPH (IC 50 value of 0.36 ± 0.03 mg/mL), FRAP (EC 50 value of 0.35 ± 0.03 mg/mL), and TAC (697.45 ± 1.07 mg EAA/g). Antibacterial activity results showed that EOR had broad antibacterial activity on the tested strains. Eventually, EOR resulted in the greatest inhibition zone diameters vs S. aureus (18.20 ± 0.41 mm) followed by E. coli (17.02 ± 0.5 mm). Antifungal activity results showed that EOR exhibited potent antifungal activity and resulted in the greatest inhibition zone diameters up to 51.32 ± 1.32 mm against Aspergillus flavus , and 34.51 ± 1.07 mm against Aspergillus niger.
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This investigation aims to determine the chemical composition of Pinus brutia leaves essential oil and evaluate its anti-inflammatory property using Human Red Blood Cells (HRBC) membrane stabilization assay and Albumin denaturation assay. The chemical composition of essential oil (EO) obtained by hydro-distillation of leaves of Pinus brutia was investigated by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory effect of EO was evaluated using Human Red Blood Cells (HRBC) membrane stabilization assay and Albumin denaturation assay. The main constituents of EO were α-Terpineol (66.16%), 3-Carene (4.90%), Carveol (4.55%) and cis-Verbenol (3.22%). The inhibion of hemolysis was observed at concentrations (2.5-12.5) µg/ml. Moreover, albumin denaturation test showed protection effect at concentrations (8-40) µg/ml. We concluded that, Pinusbrutia EO shows strong anti-inflammatory activity at different concentration when compared to standard drug of Diclofenac sodium. In addition, GC-MS analysis of Pinus brutia EO showed the presence of α-Terpineol as major compound in the oil. It reveals that this constituent is responsible to maximum protection of albumin denaturation and membrane stabilization assay. The future work will be determination of anti-inflammatory by in vivo models.
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In this study, anesthetic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustofolia) and laurel (Laurus nobilis) essential oils were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (avarege 10 g) were exposed to different concentrations of essential oils (5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg L⁻¹). Anesthesia induction and recovery times were evaluated. In addition, histopathological effects of the essential oils in fish tissues were determined after deep anesthesia. As a result of this study, lavender oil at 200 mg L⁻¹ dose and laurel essential oil at 400 mg L⁻¹ dose showed ideal anesthetic effects on rainbow trout. At these concentrations, deep anesthesia (Stage 4) induction times were 258.0 s for lavender and 189.5 s for laurel. Recovery times at these concentrations were 41 s for lavender and 129.5 s for laurel. No histopathological finding in gill, liver and kidney was observed. Consequently, this study was demostrated that lavender and laurel essential oils can be used as effective anesthetic in rainbow trout.
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One of the most frequent forms of dementia in neurological disorders is Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by impaired learning and memory. Pathological symptoms as extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles occur in AD. Due to the aging of the population and increased prevalence of AD, discovery of new therapeutic agents with the highest effectiveness and fewer side effect seems to be necessary. Numerous synthetic medicines such as tacrine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, ubiquinone, ibuprofen, and ladostigil are routinely used for reduction of the symptoms and prevention of disease progression. Nowadays, herbal medicines have attracted popular attention for numerous beneficial effects with little side effects. Lavandula angustifolia, Ginkgo biloba, Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus, Ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Magnolia officinalis have been widely used for relief of symptoms of some neurological disorders. This paper reviews the therapeutic effects of phytomedicines with prominent effects against various factors implicated in the emergence and progression of AD. © 2021 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Encapsulation in liposomes has been an efficient strategy to improve the stability of sensitive bioactive compounds such as essential oils (EOs). However, the stability of liposomal formulations remains a key parameter controlling the delivery of encapsulated ingredients. Cholesterol (Chol) modulates the membrane properties conferring stability to the lipid bilayer. Thus, the Chol content in the liposome formulations encapsulating EO components should be carefully chosen. In this work, various liposome formulations differing by Chol content (DPPC:Chol 100:10; 100:25; 100:50; 100:75; 100:100) were exposed to a series of 22 EO components at DPPC/EO 100/25. The formulations were characterized for their final composition and their permeability to the hydrophilic fluorophore, sulforhodamine B (SRB), was monitored. Results showed that the Chol content experimentally determined for the various formulations (above 10% Chol) was below the theoretical weighed Chol. Among the tested components, 13 molecules displayed a significant permeabilizing effect on 10% Chol membranes. Most of these possess a hydroxyl group. The EO induced permeability was dependent on the Chol content which affects the membrane phase: their effect was reduced upon increasing Chol content keeping five EOs components effective at 40% Chol. The EO’s effect was also linked to the hydrophobicity of the molecule. Hence, the DPPC:Chol ratio of the formulation is chosen considering the structure of the compound, its hydrophobicity and its effect on the permeability at different Chol content: a formulation comprising 40% Chol is suggested for highly hydrophobic molecules whereas a formulation with higher Chol content could be selected for less hydrophobic compounds. Graphic Abstract
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Bulgarian Rosa alba L. essential oil is widely used in perfumery, cosmetics and pharmacy. The scarce data about its cytotoxic/genotoxic effect and anti-cytotoxic/anti-genotoxic potential gave us a reason to set our aim: i) to study its cytotoxic/genotoxic activities, iii) to explore its cytoprotective/genoprotective potential against the experimental mutagen N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in two experimental test-systems - barley and human lymphocytes using appropriate endpoints and iii) to assess its antioxidant properties. Findings about chemical composition of rose essential oil would help us to explain its activities. Chromatogaphic profile of rose essential oil was obtained by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and quantificaton of particular constituents was done with a Gas Chromatography-FID system. Superoxide anion radical scavenging, DPPH inhibition and iron ion chelating activity were used to study a possible antioxidant potential of the rose oil. Its defense potential was investigated by induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in both test-systems. Cytogenetic analysis showed a low cytotoxic effect in both test-systems and no high genotoxic effect in human lymphocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Rose oil possessed a well-expressed anti-cytotoxic/antigenotoxic potential against MNNG manifested by decreasing both of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei regardless of the experimental schemes used. A well expressed concentration-depended free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil was obtained. Current data suggest a promising ethnopharmacological potential of Bulgarian white rose essential oil.
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Summary -1- The aerial parts of 16 Syrian medicinal plants related to Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. The yield of extracts (48 extracts) ranged between 1.42% in petroleum ether extract of Melissa officinalis to 22.55% in chloroform extract of Inula viscosa . Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids and steroidal triterpenes in the most of tested extracts. saponins were not observed in any extract. Antimicrobial activity screening at the concentration of 1 mg extract/1ml medium showed that 13 extracts related to 6 plants showed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism. Only Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all tested extracts in this research. Antimicrobial activities of these extracts were determined by agar well diffusion method. 20, 40 or 80 microliters (µl) of the plant extract (at a concentration of 5%) were poured in the wells. Most of tested extracts showed some Antimicrobial activities but the greatest activity was exhibited by the petroleum ether extracts of Thymus cilicicus and Origanum syriacum. For instance when we used 80 µl of the petroleum ether extracts of Origanum syriacum the diameter of the inhibition zone was 52 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 22.67 mm for Escherishia coli and 35 mm for Candida albicans. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for the most active extracts. For instance MIC was 0.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus when we used chloroform extracts of Thymus syriacus. In general the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were more active than ethanol extracts. Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to tested plant extracts than gram negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of Centaurea ptosimopappa and Inula graveolens has been reported here for the first time. -2- We have predicted during several field tours which included spring and summer of 2003- 2005 indivisuals of the species Centaurea ptosimopappa in the northern areas of Lattakia. We have registered its existence in these sites: Fronlok, Ainelharamiyah, Ommuttoyour, and to the north of Fronlok in the direction of Kessab. It drew our attention in nature and during the examination of samples in the Lab. That some morphological differences are essentially occurant between two groups of the individuals of this species without expressing geographic isolation in regards to its gathering sites, nevertheless they were detected growing side by side in several places especially in Ommuttoyour. These morphological differences had been prominent in a few characteristics, they are: 1- Leaf Pilosity. 2- Stem Pilosity. 3- Color of Base Leaves (bluish green or whitish green). 4- Lamina (blade) of Base Leaves Shape (Oblong-Spatulate or Oblong-Linear). 5- Dimensions of Base Leaves (length, width, and the ratio of length/width). 6- Dimensions of Stem Leaves (length, width, and the ratio of length/width). 7- Dimensions of Heads (length, width, and the ratio of length/width). The detection of the active constituents in the extracts of the individuals of these two groups of this species, and the yield of the extracts, and its antimicrobial activity enhanced (enforced) these differences between the two groups. The multiplicity and the importance of different morphological characteristics and their reflex concerning active constituents and antimicrobial activity asserted the nomenclature of two subspecies are mentioned for the first time in our recent research: Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek nova subsp. glabra Bello(2005) Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek nova subsp. Canescens Bello(2005). -3- We have described the studied plants species and verified their scientific names definitely depending on modern Floras. Plant species related to Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families have been defined as they were mentioned in the sources of the Arab scientific heritage. The most important of these are "Al-Qanoon" for Ibn-Sina, "Al-Jamie" for Ibn-Albitar and "Attathkara" for Al-Antaki. The Arabs used these plants in phytotherapy. We have verified their scientific names, then we have made a well-planned comparative study of some chosen species concerning: 1- Comparison the nomenclature and plant description as mentioned in the sources of the Arab scientific heritage with those in the available Floras especially Post Flora and Mouterde Flora. 2- Comparison the traditional medical uses as they were stated in heritage sources with the modern uses as in the recent medicinal plant books and the latest scientific researches in the field of herbal medicine. The most important results that we extracted in this matter: 1- Some medicinal plants which the Arab physicians and herbalists used in the past are no longer used now neither in folk medicine nor in modern herbal medicine (they were not studied in the recent researches), some of these forgotten plants are: Lycopus europaeus and Phlomis spp. From Lamiaceae, Ambrosia maritime, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Aster tripolium, Chondrilla juncea, Onopordon spp., Tragopogon pratensis and Xanthium spinosum from Asteraceae. 2- Some plants are still have the same old uses, these can be divided into two types: a- plants that their properties have have been proved, for instance: Antitussive and Antispasmodic activity for Thymus spp. and Antidepressive for Meliss officinalis. b- Plants used in folk medicine without making sure of their activities clinically or scientifically, for instance: 3- Some other plants were early used to treat some diseases, but some new bioactivities have been discovered recently, especially concerning Antimicrobial activity for Inula viscosa, Antioxidant activity for Origanum vulgare and Hypoglycemic activity for Cichorium intypus. 4- Some other plants were not used in the past and they have been added to the list of medicinal plants lately and/or some bioactivities have been reported for them recently, such as: Echinacea purpurea and Centaurea ptosimopappa. We have proved or refused the old uses for the chosen plants and asserted the best medical uses. These uses that were mentioned in the Arab scientific heritage sources and they have been proved lately in our recent research and/or other modern researches. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemical screening, Plant extracts, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Syrian Medicinal Plants, Centaurea ptosimopappa, Pilosity, Oblong-Spatulate, Oblong-Linear, Heads, subsp. glabra Bello(2005), subsp. Canescens Bello(2005), Arab scientific heritage, Al-Qanoon" for Ibn-Sina, "Al-Jamie" for Ibn-Albitar, "Attathkara" for Al-Antaki, phytotherapy, herbal medicine, Post Flora, Mouterde Flora, herbalists, Antioxidant activity, Hypoglycemic.
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Extracts obtained from aerial parts of Stachys inflata have been used in Iranian folk medicine in infective, rheumatic and other inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of total methanol extract isolated from aerial parts of Stachys inflata were investigated in two well-characterised inflammatory models in rats, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw licking. Intraperitoneal injection of the extract, 60 min before induction of inflammation, revealed a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema over the dose range 50-200 mg/kg. In the formalin test, the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) had no effect against the first phase (0-5 min) of the formalin-induced pain, but all three doses produced a significant blockade of the second phase (P < 0.001). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined, and a histopathological study was carried out in paw tissue 4 h after induction of inflammation. The hydroalcoholic extract (200 mg/kg) substantially reduced MPO activity (P < 0.05), which was increased in the control group. Histological examination showed a marked reduction in tissue injury and inhibition in neutrophil infiltration in rats treated with the extract (200 mg/kg).
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The aqueous leaf extract of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit (Lamiaceae), popularly known in Brazil as "sambaicatá" or "canudinho", was tested for its antinociceptive effects using the abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models, and for its aniedematogenic effects using the carrageenin and arachidonic acid-induced rat paw edema. The aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, with 43, 51 and 54% reduction of writhes, respectively, compared to the control. An increase in hot-plate latency of 47 and 37.5% was also observed in animals receiving doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. when placed on a hot plate. In the formalin test, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. had no significant effect during the first phase of the test (0-5 min), while the dose of 200 mg/kg, p.o. reduced the nociceptive effect by 70% during the second phase (20-25 min). At the dose of 600 mg/kg, p.o., the aqueous extract inhibited carrageenin-induced rat paw edema by 34.1%, and the dose of 300 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally inhibited the rat paw edema induced by subplantar injection of arachidonic acid by 32.8%. These results suggest that the aqueous extract from the Hyptis pectinata leaves produces antiedematogenic and antinociceptive effects. The antinocipetion observed with the hot-plate test probably involves the participation of the opioid system.
Article
A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
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