Article

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Tribulus Terrestris L. growing in Iraq

Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Mosul, Mosul-00964, Iraq.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B (Impact Factor: 1.28). 03/2008; 9(2):154-9. DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B0720251
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml.

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    • "These different results relating to the antibacterial activity of TT may be due to using different geographic sources of the plant, types of strains, and assay methods. The methanolic extract of fruits of TT was found to be most active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, while moderate activity was observed in its petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract.[5354] "
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    ABSTRACT: Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    • "Although there is a growing interest in correlating the phytochemical constituents of a medicinal plant with its pharmacological activity [10,11], the toxicological effects of most of these crude extracts are often overlooked based on the facts that plant medicines have better compatibilities with the human body and produce fewer side effects [3]. However, to forestall adverse effects, sometimes life-threatning, allegedly arising from herbal remedies consumption, cytotoxicity testing, an integral component of the biological evaluation of pharmacological materials and an essential part of standard procedures becomes necessary [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 -- 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 -- 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 -- 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 mugmL-1 respectively. The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    • "Although there is a growing interest in correlating the phytochemical constituents of a medicinal plant with its pharmacological activity [23,24], the toxicological effects of most of these crude extracts are often overlooked based on the facts that plant medicines have better compatibility with the human body and produce fewer side effects [25]. However, to forestall adverse effects, sometimes life-threatening, allegedly arising consequential to taking herbal products or traditional medicines [26,27], cytotoxicity testing, an integral component of the biological evaluation of pharmacologically important materials and an essential part of standard screening procedures, becomes essential. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay. The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria (78.1-312.5) μg/mL, gram-negative bacteria (39.1-625) μg/mL and fungal isolates (625-5000) μg/mL differ significantly. The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The antibiosis determination showed that the extract was more (75%) bactericidal than bacteriostatic (25%) and more fungicidal (66.67%) than fungistatic (33.33%). The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between 31.25 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and the LC(50) value (112.36 μg/mL) indicates that the extract was nontoxic in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LC(50) > 100 μg/mL). These results support the use of A. mearnsii in traditional medicine for treatment of microbial infections. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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