Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: The ATTICA study

Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 02/2008; 87(2):424-30.
Source: PubMed


Choline and betaine are found in a variety of plant and animal foods and were recently shown to be associated with decreased homocysteine concentrations.
The scope of this work was to investigate the associations between dietary choline and betaine consumption and various markers of low-grade systemic inflammation.
Under the context of a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 1514 men (18-87 y of age) and 1528 women (18-89 y of age) with no history of cardiovascular disease (the ATTICA Study), fasting blood samples were collected and inflammatory markers were measured. Dietary habits were evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and the intakes of choline and betaine were calculated from food-composition tables.
Compared with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.01). Similarly, participants who consumed >360 mg/d of betaine had, on average, 10% lower concentrations of homocysteine (P < 0.01), 19% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.1), and 12% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.05) than did those who consumed <260 mg/d. These findings were independent of various sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of the participants.
Our results support an association between choline and betaine intakes and the inflammation process in free-eating and apparently healthy adults. However, further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings.

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    • "Several metabolites showed gender-specific differences related to MI. Choline and betaine are related to atherogenesis, and intake of these nutrients has both anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects [71] [72]. Although low plasma betaine levels were found in patients with AMI, these levels demonstrated genderdependent differences in those with acute coronary events [73]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death worldwide, results from prolonged myocardial ischemia with necrosis of myocytes due to a blood supply obstruction to an area of the heart. Many studies have reported gender-related differences in the clinical features of MI, but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. In this study, we applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and various statistical methods-such as multivariate, pathway, and correlation analyses-to identify gender-specific metabolic patterns in polar metabolites in serum from healthy individuals and patients with MI. Patients with diagnosed MI (n=68), and age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals (n=68), were included in this study. The partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was generated from metabolic profiling data, and the score plots showed a significant gender-related difference in patients with MI. Many pathways were associated with amino acids and purines; amino acids, acylcarnitines, and purines differed significantly between male and female patients with MI. This approach could be utilized to observe gender-specific metabolic pattern differences between healthy controls and patients with MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    • "The relative importance of these sources varies with dietary patterns. Both choline and betaine are essential for human well-being (Detopoulou et al. 2008). While dietary choline could, in principle, supply all the requirements for both choline and betaine, the converse is not true, and dietary betaine is important for its choline-sparing effect (Dilger et al. 2007). "
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    • "In the current study, the nephroprotective effect of betaine can be attributed to its ability to inhibit NF-␬B signaling pathway activation which promotes overproduction of TNF-␣ and nitric oxide. The anti-inflammatory effect of betaine has been demonstrated in other studies (Detopoulou et al., 2008). Several antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents were proved effective in protecting the kidney against the deleterious effects of cisplatin (Kang et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2009). "
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