Outside inside signalling in CD40-mediated B cell activation
CD40 is a member of the growing tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family of molecules, and has been shown to play important roles in T cell-mediated B lymphocyte activation. Ligation of B cell CD40 by CD154 expressed on activated T cells stimulates B cell proliferation, differentiation, isotype switching, upregulation of surface molecules contributing to antigen presentation, development of the germinal center, and the humoral memory response. The present review will summarize recent literature data on the various CD40 signalling pathways, which involve both the TNF-R associated factors (TRAFs) and additional signalling proteins, and lead to activation of kinases and transcription factors.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric MALT lymphoma (GML) can be induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/c mice thymectomised at day 3 post-birth (d3Tx). This represented a unique opportunity to investigate the inflammatory process involved in the recruitment, proliferation and structuration of lymphoid infiltrates in the gastric mucosa of mice developing GML. Complementary molecular and proteomic approaches demonstrated that Th1 and Th2 cytokines were upregulated, along with activators/regulators of the lymphoid response and numerous chemokines. Interleukin-4, interferon γ, lymphotoxin-α and -β were significantly upregulated and correlated with the inflammatory scores for all the d3Tx mice. GML lesions in d3Tx mice infected with H. pylori were associated with the presence of the inflammatory response. The dysregulation of numerous members of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily was also evident and suggests that they could play an important role in GML pathology, especially in light of their ability to promote and control lymphocyte proliferation.
- "Finally, it has been shown that in GML CD40 and its receptor CD40L, play an important role in the costimulation of B cells . CD40 signalling in B cells is also known to promote germinal centre formation, and to be essential for the survival of many cell types including gastric cancer B cells under normal and inflammatory conditions . Therefore, the upregulation of these factors could favour the emergence of lymphoid structures in GML. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: System lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an immune-complex-mediated autoimmune condition with protean immunological and clinical manifestation. While SLE has classically been advocated as a B-cell or T-cell disease, it is unlikely that a particular cell type is more pathologically predominant than the others. Indeed, SLE is characterized by an orchestrated interplay amongst different types of immunopathologically important cells participating in both innate and adaptive immunity including the dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as traditional nonimmune cells such as endothelial, epithelial, and renal tubular cells. Amongst the antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes, and between lymphocytes, the costimulatory pathways which involve mutual exchange of information and signalling play an essential role in initiating, perpetuating, and, eventually, attenuating the proinflammatory immune response. In this review, advances in the knowledge of established costimulatory pathways such as CD28/CTLA-4-CD80/86, ICOS-B7RP1, CD70-CD27, OX40-OX40L, and CD137-CD137L as well as their potential roles involved in the pathophysiology of SLE will be discussed. Attempts to target these costimulatory pathways therapeutically will pave more potential treatment avenues for patients with SLE. Preliminary laboratory and clinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value of manipulating these costimulatory pathways in SLE will also be discussed in this review.
- "Signalling of OX40 requires and is controlled by its ligand, OX40L (CD134L), which is constitutively expressed on APCs including B cells, macrophages, DC, and endothelial cells . While OX40 signalling enhances survival of T cells and their subsequent cytokine production and expansion of their memory cell pool, stimulation of OX40L enhances B-cell proliferation and differentiation . A recent study has found that OX40L stimulation inhibited the generation of IL-10-producing CD4+ Tregs cells from memory and naive T cells. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines are centrally involved in leukocyte migration, homing and haematopoiesis. Besides these physiological aspects, their role in pathological processes especially with respect to solid tumour and haematological neoplasias is well established. In this context, the focus was set here on disclosing their contribution in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), which is regarded as the most characteristic low-grade lymphoma. Up to now, it has been demonstrated that several chemokines are involved in migration of B-CLL cells to lymph nodes, secondary lymphoid organs and bone marrow. Moreover, some chemokines are known to have an anti-apoptotic effect and thus contribute to the survival of B-CLL cells. By interfering with both of these aspects, new therapeutic targets for this yet incurable disease may be developed. Furthermore, a correlation can be drawn between the concentration of some chemokines in patients' serum, the expression of their respective receptors on B-CLL cells and well-established predictive clinical parameters. Consequently, further systematic investigation of the chemokine network may lead to the identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers. This review focuses on the impact of chemokines and their receptors on B-CLL pathophysiology and points out potential implications for both treatment and diagnosis.
- "–CD40 is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily and is expressed on all mature B cells, monocytes and DC, but also on endothelial cells within blood vessels747576. Its ligand CD40L (CD154) is a transmembrane protein expressed by various types of cells and tissues and can be detected as a soluble plasma protein (sCD40L). "