Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of lymph nodes in the radiologically and PET normal mediastinum in patients with lung cancer

ArticleinChest 133(4):887-91 · April 2008with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-2535 · Source: PubMed
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can reliably sample enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and in practice is mostly used to sample nodes visible on CT or positron emission tomography (PET). Few data are available on the use of endoscopic procedures to stage the mediastinum in clinical stage 1 lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the results of EBUS-TBNA in sampling mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer and a radiographically normal mediastinum and no PET activity. From January 2004 to May 2007, patients highly suspicious for NSCLC with CT scans showing no enlarged lymph nodes (no node > 1 cm) and a negative PET finding of the mediastinum underwent EBUS-TBNA. Identifiable lymph nodes at locations 2r, 2L, 4r, 4L, 7, 10r, 10L, 11r, and 11L were aspirated. All patients underwent subsequent surgical staging. Diagnoses based on aspiration results were compared with those based on surgical results. One hundred patients (mean age, 52.4 years; 59 men) were included. After surgery, 97 patients (mean age, 52.9 years; 57 men) had NSCLC confirmed and were included in the analysis. In this group, 156 lymph nodes ranging 5 to 10 mm in size were detected and sampled. Malignancy was detected in nine patients but missed in one patient. Mean diameter of the punctured lymph nodes was 7.9 mm. The sensitivity of EBUS-TBNA for detecting malignancy was 89%, specificity was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 98.9%. No complications occurred. In conclusion, EBUS-TBNA can be used to accurately sample and stage patients with clinical stage 1 lung cancer and no evidence of mediastinal involvement on CT and PET. Potentially operable patients with no signs of mediastinal involvement may benefit from presurgical staging with EBUS-TBNA.
    • "video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM)] in case of a negative endosonography. However, there is evidence coming from prospective studies performed in experienced endosonography centres that mediastinoscopy may not improve sensitivity after a well-performed negative endosonography with needle aspiration of at least three mediastinal nodal stations in patients with low (<35%) prevalence of mediastinal disease [21, 26, 33]. EBUS-TBNA and EUS-FNA are safe procedures with reported minor complications in <1% of cases [27, 28, 34]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate preoperative staging and restaging of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with potentially resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is of paramount importance. In 2007, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) published an algorithm on preoperative mediastinal staging integrating imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a new lymph node map. Some changes in this map have an important impact on mediastinal staging. Moreover, more evidence of the different mediastinal staging technique has become available. Therefore, a revision of the ESTS guidelines was needed. In case of computed tomography (CT)-enlarged or positron emission tomography (PET)-positive mediastinal lymph nodes, tissue confirmation is indicated. Endosonography [endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS)/esophageal ultrasonography (EUS)] with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the first choice (when available), since it is minimally invasive and has a high sensitivity to rule in mediastinal nodal disease. If negative, surgical staging with nodal dissection or biopsy is indicated. Video-assisted mediastinoscopy is preferred to mediastinoscopy. The combined use of endoscopic staging and surgical staging results in the highest accuracy. When there are no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and when there is no uptake in lymph nodes on PET or PET-CT, direct surgical resection with systematic nodal dissection is indicated for tumours ≤3 cm located in the outer third of the lung. In central tumours or N1 nodes, preoperative mediastinal staging is indicated. The choice between endoscopic staging with EBUS/EUS and FNA or video-assisted mediastinoscopy depends on local expertise to adhere to minimal requirements for staging. For tumours >3 cm, preoperative mediastinal staging is advised, mainly in adenocarcinoma with high standardized uptake value. For restaging, invasive techniques providing histological information are advisable. Both endoscopic techniques and surgical procedures are available, but their negative predictive value is lower compared with the results obtained in baseline staging. An integrated strategy using endoscopic staging techniques to prove mediastinal nodal disease and mediastinoscopy to assess nodal response after induction therapy needs further study.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
    • "The EBUS-TBNA procedure can detect metastasis in lymph nodes measuring between 5 and 10 mm with a sensitivity of 89% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.9%.( 17 ) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
    • "According to these findings, the sensitivity of EBUS-TBNA in CT- and PET-negative lung cancer cases was 98.9%. In this study, the mean LN short axis diameter has been reported as 7.9 mm (24). When the researchers have interpreted the results of two studies, they have concluded that the clinical staging done only by radiologic imaging and even by metabolic imaging is not sufficient and that EBUS-guided TBNA is necessary for the cases in which surgery is suggested (25). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the diagnosis of malignant lymph nodes (LNs) and staging of lung cancer, sampling of mediastinal and hilar LNs is essential. Mediastinoscopy is known as the gold standard. Convex probe (CP) endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a noninvasive and highly sensitive diagnostic method in mediastinal and hilar LN sampling. Evaluating the role of CP-EBUS-guided TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar LNs suspicious of malignancy. One hundred twenty patients with a known lung malignancy or hilar/mediastinal LNs detected by thoracic computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT suspicious for malignancy were included in this prospective study. The procedure was performed by Olympus 7.5 MHz CP endoscope and EU C2000 processor by the oral route under topical anesthesia and conscious sedation. After visualization of LNs, their dimensions were recorded. Aspiration was considered as "insufficient" if there were inadequate lymphocytes on the smears. Diagnosis of "malignancy" on cytologic examination was considered as the "final diagnosis". If diagnosis was negative for malignancy, more invasive procedures were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty four females and 96 male patients (mean age, 57.8 ± 9.1) were included. A total of 177 LN stations were aspirated in 120 patients. In 82 patients, the diagnosis was malignant by EBUS-guided TBNA and in the remaining 38; the diagnosis was established by further invasive procedures. Of the 38 EBUS-guided TBNA negative patients, 28 were diagnosed as non-malignant and 10 were malignant. The sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and negative predictive value of CP EBUS-guided TBNA were 89.1%, 91.6% and 73.6%, respectively. No major complications were seen. As an alternative method to mediastinoscopy, EBUS-guided TBNA is a safe and noninvasive procedure with high sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignant mediastinal LNs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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