INTRODUCTION: Animal infectious diseases which can be transmitted to humans are as old as the civilization itself. It is thought that 75% of all human infectious diseases are of zoonotic origin. Zoonoses are of significant public health importance, with major social and economic impact. GENERAL FACTS ABOUT ZOONOSES: Depending on their life cycle, four groups of zoonoses are distinguished: orthozoonoses, cyclozoonoses, metazoonoses and saprozoonoses. Some zoonoses are of bacterial or viral origin, some are caused by rickettsia or chlamydia, others are mycotic or parasitic infections, whereas some are caused by arthropods or prions. TRANSMISSION OF ZOONOSES TO HUMANS: Three stages are differentiated during the transmission of the causative agent to humans: excretion, presence in the environment and entry into the new host. There are two transmission mechanisms: transmissive (vector-borne) and non-transmissive (fecally-orally). CONCLUSION: Undoubtedly, new zoonoses will continue to emerge, and that is why we need to take seriously the warning of the Third Congress for the European Society for Emerging Infections "to expect the unexpected".
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a public health problem in countries having such endemic areas. Epidemiological studies of CE, especially pediatric, are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological and clinical characteristics of CE in children in Serbia. Data were obtained retrospectively from the case records of patients under the age of 18 years admitted for surgical treatment of CE at two large pediatric medical institutions in the period 1990-2006. Patients' age, number of cysts and their anatomic location were evaluated in relation to differences by patients' gender and socio-geographic status (urban or rural origin). The study included 149 children with 272 hydatid cysts. The mean age of patients was 10.1+/-3.8 years. There were no significant differences in the number of patients in relation to gender and urban:rural origin. There were no significant differences in patients' age at the time of surgery or the number of cysts per patient when patients' gender or socio-geographic status was evaluated. The anatomic location of cysts was as follows: liver (N=165; 60.7%), lungs (N=82; 30.1%), and other locations (N=25; 9.2%). Multiple cysts, and combined liver/lung involvement were identified in 34.2% (N=51), and 6.0% (N=9) of patients, respectively. Hepatic cysts were significantly more common in girls than in boys. There were no significant differences in anatomic location of cysts between socio-geographic groups. The large number of infected children during a long period of investigation indicates an active transmission of disease and a lack of program for control and prevention of CE in Serbia.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Parasitology International