Effects of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) on Water and Electrolyte Balance in Healthy Mice

Department of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Journal of Renal Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.87). 04/2008; 18(2):230-8. DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2007.08.004
Source: PubMed


Gum arabic (GA) is a dietary fiber derived from the dried exudates of Acacia senegal. It is widely used in both the pharmaceutical and food industries as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is also used in the traditional treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease in Middle Eastern countries. However, the effects of GA on renal function remain ill-defined.
We explored the effects of GA on the water and electrolyte balance of healthy wild-type 129S1/SvImJ mice (n = 18). Feces and urine were collected in metabolic cages before and after 3 or 14 days of treatment with 10% GA in drinking water.
The GA solutions contained particularly high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Because of enhanced uptake, treatment with GA significantly increased both the intestinal and renal excretion of Mg2+ and Ca(2+). The latter was accompanied by decreased urinary excretion of inorganic phosphate and decreased plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Moreover, GA significantly increased fecal weight and Na+ excretion. Gum arabic increased 24-h creatinine clearance (from 283 +/- 35 to 382 +/- 40 muL/min [SEM]) and urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion, and decreased daily urine output (from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 mL/24 h) as well as the urinary excretion of Na(+) (from 226 +/- 22 to 196 +/- 19 mumol/24 h). In conclusion, treatment with GA resulted in moderate but significant increases of creatinine clearance and altered electrolyte excretion, i.e., effects favorable in renal insufficiency.

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    • "It also resulted in the over-exploitation of resources as producers seek to increase the availability of gum Arabic (Lelon et al., 2010). Gum Arabic is rich in dietary fiber that is derived from dried exudates of A. senegal (Nasir et al., 2008), It contains a high molecular weight (lipoprotein) heterogeneous gum polysaccharides (Abd-Razig et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of citrus oil emulsion concentrates in soft drinks.
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    ABSTRACT: Gum arabic (GA) is a branched-chain, complex polysaccharide, either neutral or slightly acidic, found as a mixed calcium, magnesium and potassium salt of a polysaccharidic acid. The backbone is composed of 1,3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. The side chains are composed of two to five 1,3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, joined to the main chain by 1,6-linkages. Pharmacologically, GA has been claimed to act as an anti-oxidant, and to protect against experimental hepatic-, renal- and cardiac toxicities in rats. These reports could not be confirmed by others. GA has been claimed to alleviate the adverse effects of chronic renal failure in humans. This could not be corroborated experimentally in rats. Reports on the effects of GA on lipid metabolism in humans and rats are at variance, but mostly suggest that GA ingestion can reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats. GA has proabsorptive properties and can be used in diarrhoea. It enhances dental remineralization, and has some antimicrobial activity, suggesting a possible use in dentistry. GA has been shown to have an adverse effect on electrolyte balance and vitamin D in mice, and to cause hypersensitivity in humans. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of GA can be utilized in therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
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