Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Kõljalg U.. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula. Environ Microbiol 10: 1189-1201

Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Street 51005 Tartu, Estonia.
Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 6.2). 06/2008; 10(5):1189-201. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01535.x
Source: PubMed


Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems.

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Available from: Leho Tedersoo, Feb 11, 2015
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    • "Soft rot is caused by ascomycetous microfungi under humid conditions and also relative concentration of lignin increases. Because the decomposition of lignocellulose is a key determinant of the humus formation on the forest floor (Stevenson, 1982), decay types have marked effects on the community structure of detritus-dwelling organisms such as bacteria (Jurgensen et al., 1989; Folman et al., 2008; Hoppe et al., 2014), fungi (Tedersoo et al., 2008; Lindner et al., 2011), invertebrates (Araya, 1993; Cornelius et al., 2002; Wardlaw et al., 2009; Fukasawa et al., 2015), and the plants that grow above the detritus substrates (Bače et al., 2012; Fukasawa, 2012; Fukasawa et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The decay process of coarse woody debris (CWD) is crucial for biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Wood decay types, traditionally categorized into white, brown, and soft rots, are the consequence of fungal decay activities and strongly structure the communities inhabiting CWD. It is important to evaluate the occurrence patterns of the decay types along a geographical range to understand forest biodiversity in wide scale. I examined the effects of environmental variables on the occurrence of wood decay types in pine logs in 30 sites covering a latitudinal gradient in Japan, including sites damaged by pine wilt disease (PWD) in recent decades. Among the wood decay types, the frequency of brown rot was negatively correlated with latitudinal gradient and that of soft rot was positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), suggesting that lignin accumulation during pine log decomposition is more prominent in the warmer lower-latitude areas than in the cooler higher-latitude areas of Japan. In contrast, white rot was negatively correlated with MAT. The effects of precipitation, PWD, log diameter, soil contact, and bark and moss covers on decay type were also apparent. Number of different decay types within a log was negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with pesticide. The effects of current vegetation was not detected.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Forest Ecology and Management
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    • "The addition of Ca and Mg to forest soils has been shown to affect ECMF community structure (Qian et al. 1998; Rineau and Garbaye 2009). Alternatively, T. sublilacina has been shown to exclude other ECMF through direct competition (Lilleskov and Bruns 2003; Tedersoo et al. 2008; Burke et al. 2009) and may have prevented Lactarius spp. from colonizing seedling root tips when present. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coarse woody debris (CWD)is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediatedeffects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominatedstands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurringbirch and hemlock, representing 75 % of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrientconcentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Mycorrhiza
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    • "Without statistical approaches or information about EcM morphology and behavior in culture, it is difficult to assign a nutritional mode to an individual species in this group. An additional problem is the thin mantle and sometimes poorly developed Hartig net in these helotialean EcM (Yu et al., 2001; Tedersoo et al., 2008b; M€ unzenberger et al., 2009). These anatomical features have led to many ambiguous reports on EcM formation between Helotiales and various plants (Kohn et al., 1986; Haug et al., 2004; Peterson et al., 2008; Comandini et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the fungal kingdom, the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis has evolved independently in multiple groups that are referred to as lineages. A growing number of molecular studies in the fields of mycology, ecology, soil science, and microbiology generate vast amounts of sequence data from fungi in their natural habitats, particularly from soil and roots. However, as the number and diversity of sequences has increased, it has become increasingly difficult to accurately identify the fungal species in these samples and to determine their trophic modes. In particular, there has been significant controversy regarding which fungal groups form ectomycorrhizas, the morphological “exploration types” that these fungi form on roots, and the ecological strategies that they use to obtain nutrients. To address this problem, we have synthesized the phylogenetic and taxonomic breadth of EcM fungi by using the wealth of accumulated sequence data. We also compile available information about exploration types of 143 genera of EcM fungi (including 67 new reports) that can be tentatively used to help infer the ecological strategies of different fungal groups. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU sequences enabled us to recognize 20 novel lineages of EcM fungi. Most of these are rare and have a limited distribution. Five new lineages occur exclusively in tropical and subtropical habitats. Altogether 46 fungal genera were added to the list of EcM fungal taxa and we anticipate that this number will continue to grow rapidly as taxonomic works segregate species-rich genera into smaller, monophyletic units. Three genera were removed from the list of EcM groups due to refined taxonomic and phylogenetic information. In all, we suggest that EcM symbiosis has arisen independently in 78–82 fungal lineages that comprise 251–256 genera. The EcM fungal diversity of tropical and southern temperate ecosystems remains significantly understudied and we expect that these regions are most likely to reveal additional EcM taxa.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Fungal Biology Reviews
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