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Moya A, Pereto J, Gil R, Latorre A.. Learning how to live together: genomic insights into prokaryote-animal symbioses. Nat Rev Genet 9: 218-229

Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, Apartado de correos 22085. 46071 València and CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Spain.
Nature Reviews Genetics (Impact Factor: 36.98). 04/2008; 9(3):218-29. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2319
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of prokaryote-eukaryote symbioses as a source of evolutionary innovation has been rapidly increased by the advent of genomics, which has made possible the biological study of uncultivable endosymbionts. Genomics is allowing the dissection of the evolutionary process that starts with host invasion then progresses from facultative to obligate symbiosis and ends with replacement by, or coexistence with, new symbionts. Moreover, genomics has provided important clues on the mechanisms driving the genome-reduction process, the functions that are retained by the endosymbionts, the role of the host, and the factors that might determine whether the association will become parasitic or mutualistic.

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    • "Many symbionts of insects have been described so far and are thought to contribute greatly to the evolutionary and ecological success of insects in broad ecosystems. By their metabolic potential, endosymbionts help insects to feed on imbalanced food resources such as phloem sap (Moya et al., 2008). For the pea aphid, host plant specialization is related both to chromosomal loci of the aphid and facultative endosymbiotic bacterium (Simon et al., 2003;Leonardo and Muiru, 2003;Tsuchida et al., 2004). "
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    • "This study suggests that obligate fungal endosymbionts in insects undergo a different pattern of DNA sequence evolution than obligate bacterial endosymbionts when establishing a symbiotic relationship. Obligate bacterial endosymbionts usually show the following main features including genome size reduction, low GC content , and limited metabolic abilities due to the accumulation of deleterious changes by genetic drift, a mutational bias toward AT base pairs, and specialization in a symbiotic relationship , respectively (Wernegreen 2002;Moran et al. 2008;Moya et al. 2008). The YLS genome size (26.8 "
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    ABSTRACT: A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its the evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Genome Biology and Evolution
    • "With a genome size reduction to 533 kb and a GC content of 23.41%, the Westeberhardia genome exhibits features of degenerative genome evolution following the transition to obligate symbiosis (Moya et al., 2008). In addition to reduced effective population sizes in host-associated bacteria compared with free-living relatives, small effective population size of C. obscurior (Schrader et al., 2014) and social insects in general (Romiguier et al., 2014) could lead to even faster genome degeneration. "
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