Moya A, Pereto J, Gil R, Latorre A.. Learning how to live together: genomic insights into prokaryote-animal symbioses. Nat Rev Genet 9: 218-229

Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, Apartado de correos 22085. 46071 València and CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Spain.
Nature Reviews Genetics (Impact Factor: 36.98). 04/2008; 9(3):218-29. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2319
Source: PubMed


Our understanding of prokaryote-eukaryote symbioses as a source of evolutionary innovation has been rapidly increased by the advent of genomics, which has made possible the biological study of uncultivable endosymbionts. Genomics is allowing the dissection of the evolutionary process that starts with host invasion then progresses from facultative to obligate symbiosis and ends with replacement by, or coexistence with, new symbionts. Moreover, genomics has provided important clues on the mechanisms driving the genome-reduction process, the functions that are retained by the endosymbionts, the role of the host, and the factors that might determine whether the association will become parasitic or mutualistic.

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    • "Many symbionts of insects have been described so far and are thought to contribute greatly to the evolutionary and ecological success of insects in broad ecosystems. By their metabolic potential, endosymbionts help insects to feed on imbalanced food resources such as phloem sap (Moya et al., 2008). For the pea aphid, host plant specialization is related both to chromosomal loci of the aphid and facultative endosymbiotic bacterium (Simon et al., 2003;Leonardo and Muiru, 2003;Tsuchida et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the potential impact of bacterial symbionts on the adaptation of hemipteran insects to plant hosts, we characterized the entire microbial community present in various populations of H. obsoletus. Insects sampled from Lavandula and Salvia were significantly smaller than those sampled from Urtica and Convolvulus. As shown by the two mtDNA markers 16SrRNA-tRNALeu-ND1 and COI-tRNALeu-COII, Hyalesthes specimen from Lavandula were genetically different from that of Salvia as it was the case between specimen from Urtica compared to specimen from Convolvulus. Analysis of their microbiome by deep sequencing of the amplified V4V5 variable region of the 16Sr DNA showed that insects sampled on Lavandula and Salvia possessed a specific bacterium identified by a V4V5 16srDNA sequence 100% identical to the 16SrDNA of a Bacterium of Irenimus aequalis.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2016
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    • "This study suggests that obligate fungal endosymbionts in insects undergo a different pattern of DNA sequence evolution than obligate bacterial endosymbionts when establishing a symbiotic relationship. Obligate bacterial endosymbionts usually show the following main features including genome size reduction, low GC content , and limited metabolic abilities due to the accumulation of deleterious changes by genetic drift, a mutational bias toward AT base pairs, and specialization in a symbiotic relationship , respectively (Wernegreen 2002;Moran et al. 2008;Moya et al. 2008). The YLS genome size (26.8 "
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    ABSTRACT: A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its the evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Genome Biology and Evolution
    • "With a genome size reduction to 533 kb and a GC content of 23.41%, the Westeberhardia genome exhibits features of degenerative genome evolution following the transition to obligate symbiosis (Moya et al., 2008). In addition to reduced effective population sizes in host-associated bacteria compared with free-living relatives, small effective population size of C. obscurior (Schrader et al., 2014) and social insects in general (Romiguier et al., 2014) could lead to even faster genome degeneration. "
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of eukaryotic organisms is often strongly influenced by microbial symbionts that confer novel traits to their hosts. Here we describe the intracellular Enterobacteriaceae symbiont of the invasive ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, 'Candidatus Westeberhardia cardiocondylae'. Upon metamorphosis, Westeberhardia is found in gut-associated bacteriomes that deteriorate following eclosion. Only queens maintain Westeberhardia in the ovarian nurse cells from where the symbionts are transmitted to late-stage oocytes during nurse cell depletion. Functional analyses of the streamlined genome of Westeberhardia (533 kb, 23.41% GC content) indicate that neither vitamins nor essential amino acids are provided for the host. However, the genome encodes for an almost complete shikimate pathway leading to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, which could be converted into tyrosine by the host. Taken together with increasing titers of Westeberhardia during pupal stage, this suggests a contribution of Westeberhardia to cuticle formation. Despite a widespread occurrence of Westeberhardia across host populations, one ant lineage was found to be naturally symbiont-free, pointing to the loss of an otherwise prevalent endosymbiont. This study yields insights into a novel intracellular mutualist that could play a role in the invasive success of C. obscurior.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.119.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The ISME Journal
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