Profile of Female Sex Workers in a Chinese County: Does It Differ by Where They Came From and Where They Work?

Beijing Normal University Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing, China.
World health & population 02/2007; 9(1):46-64. DOI: 10.12927/whp.2007.18695
Source: PubMed


Since the 1980s, informal or clandestine sex work in the service or entertainment industry has spread from municipalities to small towns in most areas of China. Despite recognition of the important role of female sex workers in HIV and STD epidemics in China, limited data are available regarding their individual characteristics and the social and environmental context of their work. Furthermore, most existing studies on commercial sex in China have been conducted in large cities or tourist attractions. Using data from 454 female sex workers in a rural Chinese county, the current study was designed to explore the individual profiles of commercial sex workers and to examine whether the profile and sexual risk behaviour differ by where the female sex workers came from and where they work. The sample in the current study was different from previous studies in a number of key individual characteristics. However, similarly to previous studies, the subjects in the current study were driven into commercial sex by poverty or limited employment opportunities, lived a stressful life, were subject to sexual harassment and related violence, and engaged in a number of health-compromising behaviours including behaviours that put them at risk of HIV/STD infection and depression. The findings of the current study underscore the urgent need for effective HIV/STD prevention, intervention and mental health promotion programs among female sex workers in China. The data in the current study suggest a strong association of individual profile with the economic conditions of work sites and residence status (in-province residency vs. out-of-province residency), which suggests that such efforts must take the social and cultural contextual factors of working environment (and sexual risks) into consideration.

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Available from: Xiaoyi Fang, Jul 21, 2014
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    • "Guangxi has the second largest number of reported HIV cases among 31 provinces in China (China Ministry of Health, 2012). There Factors affecting maladaptive response (No condom use) Factors affecting adaptive response (Use of condoms) *Extrinsic rewards *Intrinsic rewards *Vulnerability to risks *Severity of risks *Response efficacy *Self-efficacy *Response costs Threat appraisal Coping appraisal Protection motivation (Intention of consistent condom use) FIGURE 1 Hypothesized model of condom use based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). is high demand and a big market for commercial sex in Guangxi due to the prosperous economic development and tourism, with a large number of FSWs providing sexual service primarily through commercial sex venues (Fang et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Health Care For Women International
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    • "For the purpose of data analysis in the current study, we categorized ethnicity into Han or non-Han, educational attainment into less than middle school versus at least middle school, and marital status into ever married versus never married. Because of the substantial differences between FSWs in different venues in terms of their age and income (Fang et al., 2007; Hong & Li, 2008; Huang, Henderson, Pan, & Cohen, 2004; Zhang, Li, Hong, Zhou, Liu, & Stanton, 2013), venues were categorized into four levels based on FSWs' average monthly incomes (AMIs) at each venue: level one were those venues with AMIs less than 1,000 yuan (e.g., roadside restaurants, mini hotels , and streets), level two were those venues with AMI between 1,000 and 2,000 yuan (e.g., massage parlors and hair salons), level three were those venues with AMIs between 2,000 and 3,000 yuan (e.g., nightclubs, karaokes [KTV], bars, and dancing halls), and level four were those venues with AMIs higher than 3,000 yuan (in this study, only FSWs working at sauna houses had AMIs higher than 3,000 yuan). HIV-related risk behaviors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSW) in the context of stable partnership. Among 743 out of recruited 1022 FSW who reported a stable partnership, more than half reported ever experiencing IPV from stable partners. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent frictions, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSW. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSW need to consider the influence of their stable partners.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Health Care For Women International
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    • "Other studies using the PLACE method have found high rates of new sexual partnerships among people at venues identified as places where people meet new sexual partners [24, 25], but this is the first study to assess the difference in syphilis among female venue workers by type of venue. This study contributes to the growing literature in China comparing HIV/STI risk behaviors among service and entertainment venues [3, 15–19, 22, 26, 27]. Surveillance in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, respectively, found higher rates of syphilis, HIV, HSV-2, and chlamydia among female sex workers at lower-end venues such as beauty salons compared to those working in higher-end venues such as karaoke bars or nightclubs [3, 16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The re-emerging syphilis epidemic in China is documented among sex workers, but little is known about STI risk among the broader group of women who work at entertainment and service venues, many of whom do not self-identify as sex workers. In 2009 in Liuzhou, China, community informants identified venues where people meet sexual partners. Characteristics of a stratified random sample of venues were collected during venue visits. Female staff at 42 venues were interviewed and tested for syphilis. The results showed that venue characteristics, worker behaviors, and syphilis prevalence differed by venue type. Service venue workers had more sexual partners, were more likely to report sex work, and more likely to have a positive syphilis test than entertainment venue workers (prevalence ratio: 5.4; 95 % CI 1.4-20.6). To conclude, risk of syphilis differs by venue type and is higher at service venues, even among women who do not report commercial sex.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · AIDS and Behavior
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