Assessment of Stigma Towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men

ArticleinArchives of Sexual Behavior 37(5):838-44 · March 2008with38 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9305-x · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition. Factor analysis of 10 survey items from 477 MSM from Shanghai yielded two factors: Perceived stigma assessed participants' impressions of the degree of societal stigmatization of homosexuals whereas enacted stigma measured direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviors. Enacted stigma exhibited satisfactory internal reliability and was associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Further research is needed to refine perceived and other stigma constructs for Chinese MSM.
    • "There are several factors including multiple male sex partners, large network size [3][4][5]and high proportion of sexual intercourses without condom [6], those increase the potential risk for being infected with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like syphilis among MSM in China. In the context of the Chinese society, the scenario becomes further complicated for this population resulting from the social pressure on males to meet the perceived masculine responsibility of becoming a father and known high risks for acquisition of HIV and other STDs among MSM [7, 8]. Thus, to comply with the social demand, many MSM marry women, engage in heterosexual activities with them and give birth to babies to conceal their homosexuality and fulfill their social and family responsibilities. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: HIV prevalence has increased rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China reaching alarmingly high levels in some cities. Bisexual MSM have potential to transmit HIV and syphilis to their female partners through condomless vaginal intercourse (CVI). Thus, estimation of the burden of CVI and identification of its associates seemed necessary to control this cross-gender transmission. Method: In a cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven-sampling and snowball sampling, 2958 MSM were recruited from seven Chinese cities, interviewed and tested for HIV and syphilis. Descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic and behaviors followed by simple and multiple logistic regressions [adjusted for income, city, race and social network size to determine adjusted odds ratio (aOR)] were performed using SAS-9.1. Results: Among participating MSM, 19.03% were engaged in CVI. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis among participants involved in CVI were 5.86% and 14.74% respectively. MSM who were older [aOR for aged 40-49 = 2.60 (95% CI: 1.54-4.37)], married [aOR = 6.13 (4.95-7.58)], attended primary school or below [aOR = 3.86 (2.26-6.69)], met male partners at spa/bathhouse/sauna/massage parlor [aOR = 3.52 (2.62-4.72)] and had heterosexual orientation [aOR = 13.81 (7.14-26.70)] were more likely to have CVI. Furthermore, correct knowledge regarding HIV [aOR = 0.70 (0.55, 0.88)] and exposure to HIV prevention interventions [aOR = 0.67 (0.54, 0.82)] were negatively associated with CVI. Conclusions: CVI was found to be common among MSM in China. To minimize the transmission of HIV and syphilis from bisexual MSM to their relatively female partners, targeted interventions should specifically focus on bisexual MSM especially the older and married subgroups.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "Despite the prevalence of male polygamy in China's feudal and imperial eras, extra-marital sex was considered immoral, particularly for females, and was subject to legal punishment (Farrer & Sun, 2003). The emphasis placed by Taoism on a balance between yin (female) and yang (male) has also had a significant effect on Chinese people's views of homosexuality as an " incompatible " form of sexual behavior (Neilands et al., 2008). In the past few decades, however, premarital sex, extra-marital sex, and homosexual sex have all been shown to be on the rise as a result of social changes in China (Burger, 2012; Higgins, Zheng, Liu, & Sun, 2002; Ruan, 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national “sex revolution” is under way. However, China’s internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China’s distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the “rice theory.” The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China’s ideational landscape of sex.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
    • "Jika menggunakan kriteria tiga bulan dianggap terlalu sebentar dan 12 bulan dianggap terlalu lama. Beberapa penelitian mengenai perilaku seks berisiko sebelumnya menggunakan kriteria enam bulan sebagai salah satu kriteria inklusinya (Cooperman, Arnsten, & Klein, 2007; Neilands, Steward, & Choi, 2008; Rahardjo, 2013; Rahardjo, Saputra, & Hapsari, 2015). Di dalam penelitian ini, teknik analisis data yang dilakukan yang paling utama adalah dengan menggunakan analisis jalur dan uji perbedaan untuk beberapa kategori lainnya. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to measure the role of sexual self-esteem, the general and the specific one which describe the sexual competence, and sexual compulsivity to risky sexual behavior. The participants of this research are 84 men and women with HIV/AIDS. This is a quantitative research using path analysis. The result shows that the empirical model has goodness of fit which is mean fit with the data collected. This finding shows the role of sexual self-esteem and sexual compulsivity to risky sexual behavior. Another finding is fact that sexual self-esteem that describe in sexual competence has more significant influence on risky sexual behavior. Abstrak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengukur pengaruh harga diri seksual, baik yang sifatnya umum maupun yang spesifik mengenai kompetensi seksual, dan juga kompulsivitas seksual terhadap perilaku seks berisiko seperti hubungan seks usia dini, jumlah pasangan seks, dan seks dengan orang asing yang dilakukan oleh orang dengan HIV/AIDS. Partisipan penelitian ini berjumlah 84 orang pria dan wanita dengan HIV/AIDS. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitaif dengan menggunakan analisis jalur. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa model empiris yang didapatkan memiliki goodness of fit atau cocok dengan data. Artinya, harga diri seksual dan kompulsivitas seksual memiliki peran terhadap dilakukannya perilaku seks berisiko pada orang dengan HIV/AIDS. Temuan lainnya adalah bahwa harga diri seksual dalam hal kompetensi seksual memiliki peran lebih banyak dalam memengaruhi individu melakukan perilaku seks berisiko. Kata kunci: harga diri seksual, kompulsivitas seksual, perilaku seks berisiko
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Sex Research
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