ArticleLiterature Review

Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005: A comparative review and re-analysis of Finnish population samples

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Abstract

A hypothesis concerning habitual sleep reduction and its adverse consequences among general population in modern societies has received wide publicity in the mass media, although scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis is scarce. Similarly, there is an extensively distributed belief, at least in Finland, that the prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms is increasing, but evidence for this is even sparser. These issues are important because of the known increased risk of mortality and health risks associated with sleep duration deviating from 7 to 8 h. To reveal possible trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms, we reanalyzed all available data from surveys carried out in Finland from 1972 to 2005. The main results were that a minor decrease of self-reported sleep duration has taken place in Finland, especially among working aged men. However, the size of the reduction (about 4%) was relatively small, approximately 5.5 min per each 10 years during the 33 years' time interval under study. The proportion of 7 h sleepers has increased and, correspondingly, the proportion of 8 h sleepers has decreased, but the extreme ends of the sleep duration distribution remained unchanged. Tentative evidence suggesting an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among working aged population during the last 10 years was found. In conclusion, the Finnish data during the past 33 years indicate a general decrease in self-reported sleep duration of about 18 min and an increase of sleep complaints, especially among the employed middle-aged population.

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... Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 904 2 of 15 complex network may furthermore be related with changes in immune system that may interfere with a physiological response increasing the susceptibility to viral infections. The following sections provide an overview on published evidence about the interplay between sleep deprivation and immune responses in rats and humans, the two most heavily studied in vivo models. ...
... Léger D et al. showed that in 20% of the young adults analyzed (range 25-45 years old), sleep was reduced by ninety minutes as compared to what is needed for wellbeing [18]. Other authors reported in the last thirty years a consistent decrease in the duration of sleep coming up to about 18 min for night [19,20]. The accelerated rhythms of our society, which keep us ever connected, for work or pleasure, using computers, mobile phones and other devices until late at night, will likely determine an increase of sleep disorders. ...
... Res. Public Health 2022,19, 904 ...
Article
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Sleep health and its adaptation to individual and environmental factors are crucial to promote physical and mental well-being across animal species. In recent years, increasing evidence has been reported regarding the relationship between sleep and the immune system and how sleep disturbances may perturb the delicate balance with severe repercussions on health outcomes. For instance, experimental sleep deprivation studies in vivo have reported several major detrimental effects on immune health, including induced failure of host defense in rats and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and immune suppression in humans. In addition, two novel risk factors for dysregulated metabolic physiology have recently been identified: sleep disruption and circadian misalignment. In light of these recent findings about the interplay between sleep and the immune system, in this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep deprivation and immunity against viruses, with a special interest in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
... The average of 7e8 or 9 h of sleep per night is recommend for adults as habitual sleep duration shorter or longer than this been associated with many health issues, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, impaired cognition [1e7]. Decreases in sleep duration have been observed at national level in Finland since the 1970s to 2005 [8], as well as in some other countries [9], but sleep duration trajectories at population level during the 21st century are known less in detail. ...
... The decrease in daily sleep duration was emphasized among the younger adults, aged 25e34 years. Previous study on sleep behavior of Finnish adults indicates that the decrease in average sleep duration is seen already since the 1970s, but from 1972 to 2005 the decrease in sleep duration was only minor, about 6 min per 10 years, and emphasized among adults older than 30 years [8]. Similar trends in decreasing sleep duration since the 1960s to the 2000s have been reported in Japan, Russia, Germany, Belgium, and Austria [9]. ...
Article
Objectives Short or long sleep duration, insufficient sleep, and Evening chronotype associate with many health issues and increased risk for mortality. Understanding population-level changes in sleep and chronotype frequencies is important for assessing the prospective health status of the society and future challenges on health care at a national level. This study examines the cross-sectional differences in sleep duration, insufficient sleep, and chronotype frequencies indicated by both circadian preference and habitual sleep-wake rhythm among adults living in Finland during a 10-year period of 2007 to 2017. Methods The study sample (N=18,039) was derived from The National FINRISK 2007 and 2012 Studies, and The FinHealth 2017 Study, each consisting of a random sample of adults, aged 25 to 74 years and as stratified by age and sex, and providing the self-reported data on their circadian preference, habitual daily sleep duration, insufficient sleep and bedtimes. Results During the 10 years, sleep duration decreased, insufficient sleep increased and circadian preference towards eveningness increased significantly in each 10-year age group and among both sexes. In general, eveningness was more common among younger adults in all the study years but, as compared to 2012, in 2017 bedtimes and midpoint of sleep were more advanced among this age group while sleep-wake rhythm became more delayed in older adults. The decrease in sleep duration and the increase in insufficient sleep were emphasized in younger adults and especially in women, whereas the increase in eveningness in older adults and in men. Conclusions The evolution of sleep and chronotype frequencies from 2007 to 2017 is alarming, as these might lead to a poorer health status in the adult population and thus cause more strain to the public health. The mismatch between sleep-wake behavior and circadian preference was emphasized in young adults, indicating a greater risk for circadian misalignment in the Finnish adult population in the future, if there will not be any interventions to correct this mismatch.
... Finland and Germany). The Finnish data was based on reanalysis of all available data from surveys carried out from 1972 to 2005, including about 440,000 self-reports of sleep duration [27], to which the present study contributed data from the first three surveys (1975, 1981, and 1990). The decrease in Finland was 18 min during a period of 33 years or about 0.5 min per year of follow-up. ...
... overall mortality [18] or cancer incidence [20]. Sleep lengths in twins have been similar as in other Finnish studies [27]. In addition, our twin cohort has taken part in multiple genome-wide association studies, with cohort specific effect size estimates that do not differ from the metaanalysis results [35,36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods: Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. Conclusions: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
... Finland and Germany). The Finnish data was based on reanalysis of all available data from surveys carried out from 1972 to 2005, including about 440,000 self-reports of sleep duration [27], to which the present study contributed data from the rst three surveys (1975, 1981, and 1990). The decrease in Finland was 18 minutes during a period of 33 years or about 0.5 minutes per year of follow-up. ...
... overall mortality [18] or cancer incidence [20]. Sleep lengths in twins have been similar as in other Finnish studies [27]. In addition, our twin cohort has taken part in multiple genome-wide association studies, with cohort speci c effect size estimates that do not differ from the meta-analysis results [35,36]. ...
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Full-text available
Background Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,506, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,502, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8510, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 minutes in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 hours in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 minutes or about 0.6 minutes per year of follow-up. Conclusions There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
... Finland and Germany). The Finnish data was based on reanalysis of all available data from surveys carried out from 1972 to 2005, including about 440,000 self-reports of sleep duration [27], to which the present study contributed data from the rst three surveys (1975, 1981, and 1990). The decrease in Finland was 18 minutes during a period of 33 years or about 0.5 minutes per year of follow-up. ...
... overall mortality [18] or cancer incidence [20]. Sleep lengths in twins have been similar as in other Finnish studies [27]. In addition, our twin cohort has taken part in multiple genome-wide association studies, with cohort speci c effect size estimates that do not differ from the meta-analysis results [35,36]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods: Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,506, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,502, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8510, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 minutes in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 hours in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 minutes or about 0.6 minutes per year of follow-up. Conclusions: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
... However, sleep apnea constitutes only a portion of sleep disturbance. SD, including short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, etc. [11,12], are common in the general population [13,14]. For example, more than 25% of the Taiwanese adults suffer from insomnia [15]. ...
Article
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Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases. Studies have shown that sleep apnea is associated with NAFLD. However, studies on the association between sleep disorders in general and NAFLD are limited. We conducted a nationwide population-based longitudinal study to evaluate this potential association. Methods: We identified patients diagnosed with sleep disorders in the years 2000 through 2005 in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database and selected an equal number of patients without sleep disorders from the same database as the comparison cohort. The patients were followed from the index date to the diagnosis of NAFLD or the end of 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of NAFLD associated with sleep disorders. Results: A total of 33,045 patients with sleep disorders were identified. The incidence of NAFLD was 14.0 per 10,000 person-year in patients with sleep disorders and 6.2 per 10,000 person-year in the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of NAFLD associated with sleep disorders was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.46-2.16), and other independent risk factors included male sex (AHR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.12-1.54), age 40-59 years (AHR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.21-1.82), and dyslipidemia (AHR = 2.51, 95%CI: 2.08-3.04). In the subgroup analyses, both patients with (AHR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.05-4.77) and without (AHR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.46-2.15) sleep apnea had an increased risk of NAFLD. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are associated with NAFLD, even in patients without sleep apnea. Further studies are warranted to explore the mechanisms of the association.
... The relationship between sleep characteristics and health risks can be altered as a result of these variations. For example, the sleep duration of adults in the U.S. decreased more compared to adults in Finland in the past decade 15 . Similar studies in Iranian populations have yet to be conducted, and it would be particularly interesting to see whether the previous results could be replicated in a large Iranian community. ...
Article
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Recent decades have seen a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity. While genetic factors can influence obesity, environmental factors and lifestyle may play important roles as well. Sleep can be regarded as one of these factors. This study aimed to examine sleep duration, as a potential risk factor for obesity in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, the Fasa PERSIAN cohort study data was used and 10,136 subjects aged 35–70 were entered. Anthropometrics indices have been measured and the total body fat percentage (BFP) was obtained by Bio-Impedance Analysis. Also, physical activity and dietary intake have been recorded. Sleep duration was obtained and individuals categorized into two groups of “< 8” and “≥ 8” h of sleep. The mean age and sleep duration of the participants were 48.63 ± 9.57 years and 6.92 ± 1.62 h in the total population, respectively. All of the anthropometric indices were significantly higher in the “< 8 h of sleep” group than in the “≥ 8 h of sleep” group. Regarding BFP and fat mass index (FMI) the same results was seen ( p -value < 0.05). Body mass index (BMI), Waist and hip circumferences (WC, HC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were in a significant negative association with night time sleep ( p -value < 0.001), while these associations with daytime napping were positive ( p -value < 0.001). After multi-variable adjusting, BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, and wrist circumference showed significant negative associations with 24-h sleep duration ( p -value < 0.05). This study established the association between nocturnal, daytime napping, 24-h sleep duration and obesity parameters. Daytime napping was positively associated with obesity parameters and short 24-h sleep duration was associated with higher risk of overweight/obesity. These results indicate that insufficient sleep can be a screening indicator for an unhealthy lifestyle and poor health outcomes.
... Бессонница является наиболее распространенным нарушением сна: считается, что у 30% взрослого населения она возникает периодически, а 10% людей страдают хронической бессонницей [3]. Обструктивное апноэ сна, характеризующееся респираторными нарушениями во время сна, также широко распространено и обнаруживается у 9-21% женщин и у 24-31% мужчин [4]. Проблемы со сном с каждым годом могут только усиливаться. ...
Article
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Objective : to study sleep disorders prevalence and trends among the population of Novosibirsk (age group 25–64 years) in 1988–2018. Patients and methods . We screened a representative sample of a 25–64-year-old population: in 1988–1989 (II screening: 725 men, mean age – 43.4±0.4 years, response – 71.3%; 710 women, mean age – 44.8±0.4 years, response – 72%); in 1994–1995 (III screening: 647 men, mean age – 44.3±0.4 years, response – 82.1%; 391 women, mean age – 45.4±0.4 years, response – 72.5%); in 2003–2005 (IV screening: 576 men, mean age – 54.23±0.2 years, response – 61%; 1074 women, mean age – 54.27±0.2 years, response – 72%); in 2013–2016 (V screening: 427 men, mean age – 34±0.4 years, response – 71%; 548 women, mean age – 35±0.4 years, response – 72%); in 2016–2018 (VI screening: 275 men, mean age – 49±0.4 years, response – 72%; 390 women, mean age – 45±0.4 years, response – 75%) according to the standard MONICA Psychosocial study (MOPSY) protocol. Sleep disorders in the studied population were assessed with Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire. Results and discussion . We found a high prevalence of sleep disorders among the 25–64 years old population with the following trends: decrease from 1988–1989 to 1994–1995 (men – 11 and 8.6%, women – 21.8 and 16.6% respectively); increase in 2003–2018 (men – 13.1%, women – 20.5%). An increase in sleep disorders prevalence in 2003–2018 occurred mainly due to older age groups – 45–64 years (χ ² =122.061; υ=16; p<0.001 – men; χ ² =230.626; υ=16; p<0.001 – women). In 1988–2018 there was a 2-fold increase in sleep disorders prevalence among women than men in all age groups. This increase in sleep disorders prevalence was associated with increasing age, reaching its maximum in the 55–64 age group (men: 1988–1989 – 20.8%, 1994–1995 – 12.1%, 2016–2018 – 19.7%; χ ² =41.093; υ=12; p<0.001; women: 35.8; 21.8; 24.9% respectively; χ ² =22.01; υ=12; p<0.001). Different trends were observed in 25–44 years old women in 1988–2018 and in 35–44 years old men in 2013–2016: sleep disorders prevalence decreased (25–44 years old women: in 1988–1989 – 13.7%, in 1994–1995 – 7.9%, in 2013–2016 – 5.7%; χ ² =24.715; υ=8; p<0.001; 35–44 years old women 35–44: in 1988–1989 – 17.9%, in 1994–1995 – 20%, in 2013–2016 – 14.2%, in 2016–2018 – 10.3%; χ ² =21.177; υ=12; p<0.001 respectively; men: in 1988–1989 – 9.5%, in 1994–1995 – 9.3%, in 2013–2016 – 4.2% and in 2016–2018 – 11%; χ ² =12.67; υ=12; p<0.05 respectively). Conclusion . We found a high prevalence of sleep disorders among the 25–64 years old population with the following trends: a decrease from 1988–1989 to 1994–1995; an increase in 2003–2018 mainly due to older age groups. Sleep disorders prevalence decreased in younger women in 1988–2018. There also was a 2-fold increase in sleep disorders prevalence in women than men in all age groups and with increasing age in 1988–2018.
... At the same time, a study conducted in twenty-three European countries showed that sleep problems were common, with prevalence rates varying from 16·6 % in Denmark and Italy to 31·2 % in Poland (2) . A Finnish population study showed that sleep duration had decreased and sleep complaints increased between 1972 and 2005 (3,4) and that 21 % of women and 17 % of men reported frequent sleep problems which were associated with sickness absence spells (5) . Increased sleep complaints and work stress have been shown to associate with a higher need for recovery (NFR) from work (6,7) . ...
Article
Objective We aimed to examine the association of recovery from work and sleep with workers’ dietary habits. Design Cross-sectional study. Need for recovery (NFR) from work was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Sleep was assessed with five questions from the Nordic Sleep Questionnaire and sleep quality question. Dietary habits were estimated using a validated sixteen food groups-containing questionnaire. Ordered logistic regression was used to explore the associations of NFR and sleep with dietary habits adjusted for age, education, marital status, work schedule, working full or part time and occupation. Setting Follow-up visits of type 2 diabetes prevention study cohort in a Finnish airline company Participants The study included 737 men and 605 women. Results Poor recovery from work was associated with a higher eating frequency (OR = 1·03, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·06), higher intake of fast food (OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·08) and sweets (OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·08) as well as lower intake of vegetables (OR = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·98) and fruits (OR = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·98) among men. In women, poor recovery from work was associated with higher fast food (OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09) and desserts consumption (OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·07). Among men and women, sleep problems were associated with higher eating frequency (men: OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·07, women: OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11), consumption of fast food (men: OR = 1·07, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·11, women: OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) and sweets (men: OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08, women: OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·08). Conclusions Poor recovery from work and sleep problems were associated with unfavourable dietary habits especially in men.
... In the literature, four definitions of insomnia have been used: (1) insomnia symptoms (presence only or with frequency or severity quantifiers), (2) insomnia symptoms with daytime consequences, (3) dissatisfaction with sleep quality or quantity, and (4) insomnia diagnoses 9) . The prevalence of insomnia ranges from 6% (insomnia diagnoses) to 48% (presence of insomnia symptoms) in general populations 9,10) . Although specific criteria to define insomnia differ, most studies use common symptoms of insomnia suggested by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) 11) . ...
Article
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Potential insomnia in healthcare workers is a public health concern as it may degrade the quality of patient care. We examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in healthcare workers and their perceived need for a sleep intervention. Participants were 62 nurses working full-time at a U.S. hospital. These nurses were asked about background characteristics, perceived stress, sleep concerns, and need for a sleep intervention. They also participated in 14-d ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and actigraphy sleep study. A qualitative analysis showed that the majority (92%) of participants reported at least one sleep concern with insomnia-related concerns being most prevalent (68%). Quantitative analyses indicated that those with insomnia-related concerns had higher perceived stress overall and lower EMA sleep sufficiency and sleep quality. Moreover, participants with insomnia concerns had shorter actigraphy-measured nap duration prior to non-workdays than those without. Nearly all (95%) expressed interest in participating in a sleep intervention; an online format and mindfulness contents were most preferred. Our results suggest a high prevalence of insomnia symptoms and a high interest in a sleep intervention in nurses. Information obtained from this study could be used to deliver a tailored sleep intervention for nurses whose role in public health is essential.
... This trend may not be, however, explained only by aging alone as there also is a cohort effect, those born earlier slept more at the same age than those born later (Fig. 2). about 440,000 self-reports of sleep duration [27], to which the present study contributed data from the first three surveys (1975, 1981, and 1990). The decrease in Finland was 18 minutes during a period of 33 years or about 0.5 minutes per year of follow-up. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep durationin a population-based cohort. Methods: Members ofthe Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals,response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,506, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,502,77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8510, 72%, 60 years).Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders.The mean duration was in men 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5minutes in men and 0.9in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 hours in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 hours in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 minutes or about 0.6 minutes per year of follow-up. Conclusions: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up.Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probablemain cause for the change in this study populationis the effect of aging.
... This means that nearly one-third of the adults sleeps at least an hour less than the minimum hours as recommended for adults by the National Sleep Foundation (https://sleepfoundation.org/press-release/national-sleep-foundation-recommends-new-sleeptimes). Similarly in European samples, average sleep duration seems to decline (Kronholm et al., 2008). This sleep loss epidemic is alarming as short sleep duration has been linked to an increased risk of overweight and obesity (Kecklund & Axelsson, 2016;Taheri, 2006;Taheri, Lin, Austin, Young, & Mignot, 2004). ...
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A wealth of cross-sectional studies found a link between sleep deprivation and food-related outcomes like energy intake and BMI. Recent experimental studies suggest that this link is causal. However, the mechanisms through which sleep deprivation influences intake remain unclear. Here, we tested two prevailing hypotheses: that sleep deprivation leads to 1) increased food reward sensitivity and 2) decreased food-related self-control. In a within-subject study (n = 60 normal-weight females), we compared outcome measures under normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation conditions. Our outcome measures were 1) proxies for food reward sensitivity – liking of high and low energy foods, 2) binary food choices ranging in level of self-control conflict, and 3) intake of high and low energy foods. Eye-movements during food choice were measured with an eye-tracker to gain insights in implicit food choice processes. Food reward sensitivity outcomes showed a lower liking of low energy foods after partial sleep deprivation. More high energy foods were chosen after partial sleep deprivation independent of the level of self-control conflict. Intake of high energy foods was higher in the partial sleep deprivation condition. Lastly, the number of gaze switches between high and low energy foods, an implicit measure of conflict in choice, was lower in the high-conflict trials after sleep deprivation than after a normal night sleep. To conclude, the increased intake of high energy foods after sleep deprivation may be driven by a decreased liking of low energy foods, rather than an increased liking of high energy foods. Further, sleep deprivation may affect self-control conflict detection as indicated by a lower number of gaze switches between food options.
... This is supported by the study done in Finland. The self-study report shows that the average duration of sleeping hours is reduced from 15 to 18 minutes over 33 years (Kronholm et al., 2008) and also National Sleep Foundation reports the duration of sleeping hours has declined from 1.5 to 2 hours over the past 50 yearsn (National Sleep Foundation, 2005). These data suggest an emerging trend of reduced sleep, which leads to a growing sleep debt among the general population. ...
Article
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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body in which the main features are the changes in the level of consciousness, reduced sensory and motor activity and reduced interactions with the environment. We need to have adequate sleep to maintain an optimal health and wellbeing. Human beings need to sleep at least 6 hours during night to maintain optimal health. People who are sleeping ive hours or less than ive hours can alter the level of blood pressure. Sleep promotes general health, concentration and regulates the blood stress hormones and it keeps our nervous system healthy. If a person doesn't have adequate sleep for a longer period, can change the level of stress hormone in the blood and it can increase the level of blood pressure. This study was done to ind out the relationship between quality of sleep and the level of blood pressure among working adults. The descriptive research design was used to assess the relationship between qualities of sleep with the history of changes in the level of blood pressure of working adults. The study was done among the working people who are living in Jazan region. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 30 participants were selected by using convenient sampling technique. The Quality of sleep of the participants was assessed by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). The total number of male participants were 4 and female participants were 26. Majority of them were in the age group between 30 and 40 years, and most of them had a preference for mixed food habits. Majority of them were in the age group between 30 and 40 years, and most of them preferred mixed food habits. Assessment of the quality of sleep of participants shows that overall 60% of the participants have poor sleep quality.
... These lifestyles enhance desynchrony of internal clock with the environmental cues, lead to a constant state of social jetlag. Some studies reported that sleep duration and sleep quality have declined over past decades because of the life pattern changes (Bixler, 2009;Kronholm et al., 2008). Mistimed light exposure resulted in a constant state of social jetlag and increased the risk of diabetes and obesity (Scheer, Hilton, Mantzoros, & Shea, 2009). ...
Article
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The circadian rhythm regulates the daily cycles of various physiological activities. Accumulating evidences revealed that circadian rhythm plays an important role in regulating metabolic homeostasis, and disruptions of circadian rhythms resulting in metabolic disorder. Peripheral clocks are not only controlled by the central clock but also entrained by external cues. Dietary pattern and compounds derived from food are found to play multiple roles in regulating metabolic processes through resetting peripheral clocks. Here we review the recent advance of effects and mechanisms of dietary pattern and compounds modulating peripheral clocks and regulating metabolic processes. Multiple molecular mechanisms linked dietary pattern and compounds with circadian rhythm and metabolism were summarized. Elaboration of crosstalk between diet and circadian rhythm may provide targets for the prevention of metabolic disorder. The exact mechanisms that feeding pattern and dietary compounds linked metabolic process and circadian rhythm need to be further investigated.
... Concurrent with the shift toward a longer daily duration of eating, there is also evidence of reduced sleep duration and quality over the last several decades [30][31][32]. Prospective studies have found associations between short sleep duration and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain over time [33][34][35][36]. Sleep timing has been less well studied, but reports from some studies have shown associations between later chronotype (i.e., the propensity of an individual to sleep at a particular time of day) and higher body mass index (BMI) and poor dietary quality [3,25,37]. ...
Article
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Accumulating evidence suggests that later timing of energy intake (EI) is associated with increased risk of obesity. In this study, 83 individuals with overweight and obesity underwent assessment of a 7-day period of data collection, including measures of body weight and body composition (DXA) and 24-h measures of EI (photographic food records), sleep (actigraphy), and physical activity (PA, activity monitors) for 7 days. Relationships between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (DXA) with meal timing, sleep, and PA were examined. For every 1 h later start of eating, there was a 1.25 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.91) unit increase in percent body fat (False Discovery Rate (FDR) adjusted p value = 0.010). For every 1 h later midpoint of the eating window, there was a 1.35 (95% CI: 0.51, 2.19) unit increase in percent body fat (FDR p value = 0.029). For every 1 h increase in the end of the sleep period, there was a 1.64 (95% CI: 0.56, 2.72) unit increase in percent body fat (FDR p value = 0.044). Later meal and sleep timing were also associated with lower PA levels. In summary, later timing of EI and sleep are associated with higher body fat and lower levels of PA in people with overweight and obesity.
... In the literature, four definitions of insomnia have been used: (1) insomnia symptoms (presence only or with frequency or severity quantifiers), (2) insomnia symptoms with daytime consequences, (3) dissatisfaction with sleep quality or quantity, and (4) insomnia diagnoses 9) . The prevalence of insomnia ranges from 6% (insomnia diagnoses) to 48% (presence of insomnia symptoms) in general populations 9,10) . Although specific criteria to define insomnia differ, most studies use common symptoms of insomnia suggested by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) 11) . ...
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Potential insomnia in healthcare workers is a public health concern as it may degrade the quality of patient care. We examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in healthcare workers and their perceived need for a sleep intervention. Participants were 62 nurses working full-time at a U.S. hospital. These nurses were asked about background characteristics, perceived stress, sleep concerns, and need for a sleep intervention. They also participated in 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and actigraphy sleep study. A qualitative analysis showed that the majority (92%) of participants reported at least one sleep concern with insomnia-related concerns being most prevalent (68%). Quantitative analyses indicated that those with insomnia-related concerns had higher perceived stress overall and lower EMA sleep sufficiency and sleep quality. Moreover, participants with insomnia concerns had shorter actigraphy-measured nap duration prior to non-workdays than those without. Nearly all (95%) expressed interest in participating in a sleep intervention; an online format and mindfulness contents were most preferred. Our results suggest a high prevalence of insomnia symptoms and a high interest in a sleep intervention in nurses. Information obtained from this study could be used to deliver a tailored sleep intervention for nurses whose role in public health is essential.
... Disrupted sleep has been associated with disturbances of hormone secretion and metabolism [1], as well as affecting physical, mental and emotional functions [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Recent data has shown that modern society as whole is severely sleep deprived, and that this chronic state of deprivation has consequences on the persons and society [8][9][10][11]. The underlying mechanisms of by which disrupted sleep patterns alter disease risk, especially cardiometabolic risks, have been demonstrated in several well-conducted sleep restriction experiments in healthy volunteers [12][13][14][15]. These include increased inflammatory markers [14], increased sympathetic nervous system activity [13], abnormal cortisol rhythmicity [13], alterations in appetite regulating hormones and food intake [16], and adipocyte dysfunction [15] which altogether contribute to insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity risks. ...
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Sleep disorders are increasingly being characterized in modern society as contributing to a host of serious medical problems, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been reportedly associated with many of these cardiometabolic outcomes. In this study, we investigated the impact of sleep length on the gut microbiota in a large cohort of 655 participants of African descent, aged 25-45, from Ghana, South Africa (SA), Jamaica, and the United States (US). The sleep duration was self-reported via a questionnaire. Participants were classified into 3 sleep groups: short (
... The results reported an overall mean sleep duration on weekdays of 7:19 hours. When compared to other countries, Mexican adults are sleeping approximately the same amount as individuals in countries such as Poland (7:14 hours), 21 Iceland (7:13 hours), 21 South Africa (7:16 hours), 21 Finland (7:18 hours) 22 , and Russia (7:20 hours). 23 On the other hand, studies performed in countries such as the United States (US), 24,25 Canada 26 or New Zealand 27 have reported shorter adult sleep duration (<6 hours) than what was reported in our results. ...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to investigate self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality and sleep problems in a Mexican adult population by considering age, sex, geographical regions and urban/rural residency. Design/Measurements: Cross-sectional national adult survey based on the 2016 Mexican National Halfway Health and Nutrition Survey data. Setting: Nationally representative survey data. Participants: Mexican adults 18 years, n = 8649 (N weighted = 71,158,260 adults). Results: Overall, mean sleep duration was 7:19 hours, from which 37% had sleep problems, and 45.7% reported very good sleep quality. Furthermore, middle-aged adults slept less than younger and older adults, females were at lower risk of being a short sleeper than males, urban residents slept less than rural residents, and those from the center region of the country slept less than from the northern and southern regions. Mainly, participants from the state of Quintana Roo, Aguascalientes, and Baja California reported sleep duration <7 hours (6:26 hours, 6:45 hours, and 6:55 hours, respectively). Overall Mexicans who obtained sufficient sleep (8 hours) were more likely to be female, in their 20s, reporting perceived "good" or "very good" sleep quality, possessed no self-reported sleep problems, were not a tobacco user, and resided in rural areas. Furthermore, Mexicans who obtained poor sleep quality were more likely to be females that reported sleep problems, took sleep medications, and resided in urban areas. Conclusion: The present study's findings have important implications for understanding the nationwide features of sleep in Mexican adults. Education and public health awareness initiatives regarding good sleep may be warranted.
... Third, it was found that sleep problems are higher with a longer period of sedentary behaviors during work hours. The relationship between sleep problems and sedentary behavior has revealed that sleep problems can cause exhaustion or tiredness, thereby increasing sedentary behaviors (29). If people go to work without enough sleep, the feeling of tiredness and sleepiness dur-ing work hours lowers activity and strengthens sedentary behaviors. ...
Article
Background: We aimed to identify the association between sleep problems and sedentary behaviors during work among Korean workers. Methods: We employed a cross-sectional survey, and analyzed data from the 5th Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2017. The participants were 50,205 workers aged 15 years and above. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation, chi-square distribution, and logistic regression. Results: Sleep problems occurred more frequently among female participants with higher ages; those with low educational levels; skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers; elementary workers; and service and sales workers. With general characteristics as control variables, it was found that the odds of sleep problems were 5.547 times higher if the duration of sedentary behavior was longer. Conclusion: It is important to improving work environment and provide education on various physical activities for workers with a long duration of sedentary behaviors to reduce sleep problems among them.
... It is common perception that work must be completed within standard 7 to 8 hours per day. (Kronholm et al., 2008). ...
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Long working hours affect the life of both men and women. But the impact of long working hours has been greater on the women as compared to men regarding their family relations. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of working long hours of employed women on family relations. A sample of 160 long hours working "employed" women of public and private sectors from the study areas of Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan has been taken. To find out the impacts of long working hours of women on family relations we had applied linear regression, chi-square test and Cronch Bach's alpha for reliability. Results of the present study concluded that situation of working long hours has a significant positive impact on the employed women family relations. Whereas the women working for long hours had a negative impact on children's grooming and socialization because of lack of their care. Furthermore, the working long hours also had a negative impact on mutual understanding among spouses. Findings of the study concluded that "long working hour's women" experience physical symptoms of stress such as fatigue, irritability, headaches and depression. Therefore, there is a need for protective laws to decrease employed women's working hours, providing training about health safety measures, time management & nutrition education so that these employed women perform their work activities in a better way and play a significant role at their workplaces.
... Физиология сна Введение Данные о времени сна у людей в современных постиндустриальных обществах собираются в ходе анкетных исследований на протяжении последних десятилетий. Согласно результатам большинства опубликованных работ, продолжительность сна достоверно сократилась, а частота симптомов бессонницы увеличилась [1]. Не случайно активно обсуждается «эпидемия недосыпа», охватившая современное общество. ...
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50 парам выборок людей утреннего и вечернего хронотипов. Данные симулированы с помощью модели регуляции «сон-бодрствование». Результаты. Выявлено сходство гомеостатических компонентов механизма регуляции сна-бодрствования у хронотипов одного и того же возраста. Это означает, что они резко различаются исключительно по фазовым характеристикам циркадианного компонента этого механизма. Обнаружены парадоксальные факты, позволяющие пересмотреть представления о степени различий и сходства сна в будни и выходные у утреннего и вечернего хронотипов. Выводы. Возможно, в современном постиндустриальном обществе многие люди независимо от хронотипа жалуются на постоянный недосып из-за ранних пробуждений в будни, что приводит к безвозвратной потере сна. Такую потерю, достигающую в среднем 20% в некоторых возрастных группах, невозможно компенсировать за счет удлинения сна в выходные. Несмотря на это, продолжительность сна в указанные дни вполне адекватна условиям временной среды, она не короче, а, наоборот, значительно длиннее продолжительности сна у бушменов в Африке.
... We speculate there are several potential reasons for the inconsistency of the results. First, the above studies were conducted in different settings and among diverse populations, where sleep duration and subjective sleep quality vary across cultures and countries [19,20], thus may alter the associations between sleep pro les and diabetes risks [21,22]. Second, differences in participants' demographic characteristics may also in uence the correlation between sleep duration and blood glucose. ...
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Background We aim to assess the associations between night sleep duration and fasting glucose (FG), triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and body mass index (BMI) among adults free of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or without diagnosed T2D. Methods We analyzed the baseline data of a cohort. We included adults free of T2D or without diagnosed T2D who completed the validated questionnaire, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Independent association between sleep duration and FG, TG/HDL-C, BMI was evaluated with multiple U-shaped or linear regressions. Results We included 32497 adults with a median of 44 years, 52.5% men. Overall, 12.80% and 9.67% reported night sleep duration <7h and ≥9h, 6.91% were with impaired FG and 3.57% had undiagnosed T2D. Sleep duration was independently U-shaped associated with FG [β1 (linear term) =-0.111, P=0.047; β2 (quadratic term) =0.008, P=0.026] with 6.9-hour sleep had the lowest FG, and negatively associated with BMI (β = -0.154, P<0.001). BMI mediated U-shaped association of sleep duration with TG/HDL-C (β1=-0.040, P=0.017; β2 = 0.003, P=0.023). Conclusions Both short and long night sleep was associated with elevated FG, shorter sleep was associated with increased BMI. BMI mediated the U-shaped association between sleep duration and TG/HDL-C.
... A culture that values healthy lifestyles more than previous generations did has led to interest in and research into better sleep [1]. Unfortunately, current studies have shown a gradual increase in sleep deprivation or sleep-related disorders across generations worldwide [2][3][4][5]. In fact, sleep clinic visits have been increasing [6]. ...
Article
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Background and Objective: As sleep is a predictor of quality of life, studying sleep health and measurement is important. Actigraphy as a physiologic measure based on monitoring an individual’s movement has also been increasing in use as it has several advantages over traditional self-reports. This study aimed to report the research trends of sleep and actigraphy using a bibliometric and keyword analysis. Methods: Using topic search queries, this study collected data from 3955 publications published between 2004 and 2020 and listed in the Web of Science Core Collection. A text-mining unstructured data analysis was performed using author keywords and a bibliographic analysis. Results: Studies on sleep and actigraphy have been actively conducted in the fields of neurosciences and neurology but not in other fields. A gradual increase in publication and the steep increase in citations related to this topic occurring during the period considered. By clustering the author keywords, the analysis revealed five clusters: 1) monitoring physical activity and blood pressure, 2) measuring sleep quality, 3) insomnia and cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents and children, 4) disorders and circadian rhythms, and 5) shift work. The leading research cluster has changed over the time. Conclusions: With the increase in the number of studies and citations on sleep and actigraphy over the past 16 years, the trend of sleep and actigraphy studies have shifted from a focus on sleeprelated psychiatric disorders to a focus on cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents and, more recently, the measurement of sleep quality. Key Words: Actigraphy; Author keywords; Bibliometric; Research trend; Sleep
... We speculate the difference may be partly caused by culture difference. Studies shows that sleep duration varies across cultures and countries [36,37], thus alters the associations between sleep profiles and disease risks [38,39]. Therefore studies on the association between sleep duration and obesity from different countries are needed. ...
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Background The relationship between sleep duration and anthropometric indices are still unclear. This study aimed to explore the association between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF) and visceral fat area (VFA) among Chinese adults, further to explore gender difference in it. Methods We analyzed part of the baseline data of a cohort study among adult attendees at two health-screening centers in China. Sleep duration was self-reported and categorized into short (< 7 h/day), optimal (7-9 h/day) and long sleep (≥ 9 h/day). BMI, PBF and VFA were assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis. Demographic characteristics, chronic diseases and medication history, physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors were measured by an investigator-administrated questionnaire. Results A total of 9059 adult participants (63.08% were females) were included in the analysis. The participants aged from 19 to 91 years with the mean age of 45.0 ± 14.6 years. Short sleep was independently associated with elevated odds of general obesity (defined using BMI) and visceral obesity (defined using VFA) among the total study population, and gender differences were observed in these associations. Among women, short sleep was associated with 62% increased odds of general obesity (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24-2.12) and 22% increased odds of visceral obesity (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45). Among men, long sleep duration was associated with 21% decreased odds of visceral obesity (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99). No association was observed between sleep duration and PBF in both sexes. Conclusions Sleep duration was associated with increased odds of general and visceral obesity, and this association differed between men and women. No association was observed between sleep duration and PBF among either males or females.
... Sleep deprivation also contribute to the psychiatric ailments such as depression, mood swings and anxiety. Today's expeditious life style has led globally to an increase in sleeplessness [3][4][5]. ...
Article
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Sleep is imperative for a healthy life as it rejuvenates memory, cognitive performance, cell repair and eliminates waste from the muscles. Sleep-related disorders such as insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), periodic leg movement (PLM), and bruxism lead to hormonal imbalance, slower reaction time, memory problems, depression, and headaches. This adversity of sleep disorder gained the attention of many sleep researchers. To examine the reasons for sleep disorders, it is imperative to monitor and analyze the sleep of the affected patients. The conventional method of monitoring sleep and identifying the sleep disorders using polysomnographic (PSG) recording is a complicated and cumbersome task in which multiple physiological signals with multiple modalities are recorded for a long (overnight) duration. The PSG recordings are carried out in sophisticated sleep laboratories and cannot be considered suitable for real-time sleep monitoring. Thus, a simple and patient-convenient system is highly desirable to monitor and analyze the quality of sleep. We proposed an automatic detection of sleep disorders using single modal electrooculogram (EOG) and electromyogram (EMG) signals. We have used a new maximally flat multiplier-less biorthogonal filter bank for obtaining discrete wavelet transform of the signals. We computed Hjorth parameters (HOP) such as activity, mobility, and complexity from the wavelet sub-bands. Highly discriminative HOP features are fed to different machine learning classifiers to develop the model. Our results show that the developed system can classify insomnia, narcolepsy, NFLE, PLM, and REM behaviour disorder (RBD) against normal healthy subjects with an accuracy of 99.7%, 97.6%, 97.5%, 97.5%, and 98.3%, respectively using combined features from EOG and EMG signal. The proposed model has yielded an accuracy of 94.3% in classifying six classes using an ensemble bagged trees classifier (EBTC) with a 10-fold cross-validation technique. Hence, EOG and EMG-based proposed methods can be deployed in a portable home-based environment to identify the type of sleep disorders automatically.
... Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are considered global problems. [1][2][3][4][5][6] Although some developed countries are trying to stop the decline of sleeping durations, 7,8 the occurrence of subjective sleep disturbance in adults is still increasing. 5 Sleep health is a well-discussed concept in recent years especially when considering the effects of sleep on health and is a multidimensional pattern of sleepwakefulness, adapted to the individual, social, and environmental demands, that promote physical and mental well-being. ...
Article
Objectives To examine the impact of sleep health on work in Japan and to investigate the relationship between presenteeism and sleep health. Design Cross sectional analysis of a questionnaire survey. Setting Seventeen offices in Tokyo, Japan. Participants The study included 2897 participants, of which 1835 were men and 1062 women, aged between 18 and 76 years. Measurements Productivity loss was measured using the Short Form of the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-SF). Results The decline in productivity due to presenteeism of people with short sleep duration, between 5 and 6 h (β = 0.068, p = 0.004) and less than 5 h (β = 0.105, p < 0.001), was significantly greater compared with those with long sleep duration (7–8 h). Subjective sleep quality (β = 0.124, p < 0.001), sleep latency (β = 0.073, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance (β = 0.123, p < 0.001), use of sleep medication (β = 0.044, p = 0.007), and daytime dysfunction (β = 0.359, p = 0.001) significantly affected presenteeism. When adjusting for confounding factors, sleep duration on workdays, sleep duration on free days, mid-sleep on free days corrected for sleep debt on workdays (MSFsc), and social jet lag were not associated with presenteeism in the multiple regression analysis. Conclusions Sleep health is associated with presenteeism in Japan. Subjective sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and use of sleep medicine are associated with presenteeism. Good sleep hygiene may be important for workers' productivity.
... 11,39 Over the last decades, there has been an increase in sleep complaints, especially in the middleaged population. 2 Social characteristics, such as lifestyle factors, stress, and anxiety influence sleep patterns. 40 It has been already observed that individuals with insomnia have higher levels of anxiety and depression. ...
Article
Objectives Sleep is essential for health and well-being and lack of sleep can have serious physiological consequences. This study aimed to evaluate sleep patterns and the influence of insomnia on quality of life. Design The epidemiologic sleep study is a population-based study of sleep and risk factors for sleep disturbances. Setting and participants This cross-sectional study recruited 574 men and 468 women aged 18 years or older randomly, to represent the population of Sao Paulo, according to gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Measurements Data from polysomnography were used to assess sleep objectively and a validate questionnaire to assess quality of life. Validated questionnaires based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, assessed the perception of insomnia and categorized the sample as: without insomnia symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and insomnia syndrome. Anthropometric data, objective sleep parameters and quality of life were assessed and the sample was distributed according to age for both genders. Results Participants in both insomnia groups presented a worse perception of quality of life compared to without insomnia symptoms group in both genders. Women had a lower percentage of participants without insomnia symptoms (33.3%), and a higher percentage of insomnia symptoms (48.6%), and insomnia syndrome (18.1%) than men (42.1%, 47.2%, and 10.7%, respectively). Conclusions Women presented more insomnia complaints and had a lower perceived quality of life compared to men, especially at young ages. Men and women with insomnia symptoms or insomnia syndrome had a lower quality of life score.
... Although a global phenomenon, significant differences in the prevalence of sleep deprivation can be seen between different countries, ages and timeframes. Among adults, multiple estimates from the 1990s and 2000s place the prevalence of short sleep between 7.5% and 28.3% [21][22][23][24][25][26]. With the exception of some reports [27,28], more recent evidence points out that approximately one-third of the adult population is sleep deprived: 29.2-35.2% ...
Article
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Sleep is intrinsically tied to mental and overall health. Short sleep duration accompanies the modern lifestyle, possibly reaching epidemic proportions. The pandemic and subsequent lockdowns determined a fundamental shift in the modern lifestyle and had profound effects on sleep and mental health. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relationship between sleep, mental health and COVID-19. Contrasting outcomes on sleep health have been highlighted by most reports during the pandemic in the general population. Consequently, while longer sleep durations have been reported, this change was accompanied by decreases in sleep quality and altered sleep timing. Furthermore, an increased impact of sleep deficiencies and mental health burden was generally reported in health care workers as compared with the adult general population. Although not among the most frequent symptoms during the acute or persistent phase, an increased prevalence of sleep deficiencies has been reported in patients with acute and long COVID. The importance of sleep in immune regulation is well known. Consequently, sleep deficiencies may influence multiple aspects of COVID-19, such as the risk, severity, and prognosis of the infection and even vaccine response.
... However, some people do not meet these recommendations. In the modern world, however, the increase in activities such as the common usage of television, internet, and mobile phones almost 24 h a day leads to a gradual decrease in sleeping time [5], with an epidemiological study reporting an 18 min reduction of overnight sleep during the past 30 years [6]. Sleep researches have shown short sleep duration (generally defined as less than 7 h), poor sleep or insufficient sleep to increase the risk of morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and colorectal cancer [5,[7][8][9], depression [10], and mortality [11,12]. ...
Article
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Purpose Circadian rhythm is a behavioral, physiological, and molecular change with a cycle length of approximately 24 h. Changes to the circadian rhythm can result in sleep difficulty. The healthy beverage index (HBI) is a holistic concept for evaluating the quality of overall beverage intake and its association with health-related outcomes in nutritional epidemiological studies. This study aimed to assess the relationship of HBI with circadian rhythm and sleep quality among overweight/obese women. Methods The current study was conducted among 208 overweight and obese women between 18–48 years in Tehran, Iran. We evaluated potential HBI with a valid food frequency questionnaire. Following standard procedures, trained personnel assessed anthropometric measures, blood samples, and other baseline characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the morning-eveningness questionnaire were applied to evaluate sleep quality and circadian rhythm respectively. Results The mean (SD) BMI for this study was 30.8 (4.2) kg/m². We observed that subjects in the least tertile had significantly high levels of triglyceride (p = 0.04) and low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.009). High-density lipoprotein was significantly different across the tertiles (p = 0.003). After adjusting for potential covariates, subjects in the second tertile of HBI had 5.07 odds of having the worst quality of sleep as compared to those in the third tertile, p < 0.05. We also observed a significant inverse association between the HBI and the “moderately evening type” participants (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.68–0.99; p: 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion Healthy beverage consumption may have the potential of improving sleep quality among overweight and obese subjects. Level of evidence Level IV, evidence obtained from a descriptive study.
... This is supported by the study done in Finland. The self-study report shows that the average duration of sleeping hours is reduced from 15 to 18 minutes over 33 years (Kronholm et al., 2008) and also National Sleep Foundation reports the duration of sleeping hours has declined from 1.5 to 2 hours over the past 50 yearsn (National Sleep Foundation, 2005). These data suggest an emerging trend of reduced sleep, which leads to a growing sleep debt among the general population. ...
Article
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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body in which the main features are the changes in the level of consciousness, reduced sensory and motor activity and reduced interactions with the environment. We need to have adequate sleep to maintain an optimal health and wellbeing. Human beings need to sleep at least 6 hours during night to maintain optimal health. People who are sleeping five hours or less than five hours can alter the level of blood pressure. Sleep promotes general health, concentration and regulates the blood stress hormones and it keeps our nervous system healthy. If a person doesn’t have adequate sleep for a longer period, can change the level of stress hormone in the blood and it can increase the level of blood pressure. This study was done to find out the relationship between quality of sleep and the level of blood pressure among working adults. The descriptive research design was used to assess the relationship between qualities of sleep with the history of changes in the level of blood pressure of working adults. The study was done among the working people who are living in Jazan region. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 30 participants were selected by using convenient sampling technique. The Quality of sleep of the participants was assessed by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). The total number of male participants were 4 and female participants were 26. Majority of them were in the age group between 30 and 40 years, and most of them had a preference for mixed food habits. Majority of them were in the age group between 30 and 40 years, and most of them preferred mixed food habits. Assessment of the quality of sleep of participants shows that overall 60% of the participants have poor sleep quality.
Article
Sleep disturbances have multiple negative effects on psychological, social, and occupational aspects. The effects of sleep disturbances on the risk of taking sick leave was investigated in a meta-analysis. According to the PRISMA protocol, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ResearchGate sites were searched by the researchers until October 2018. Studies with prospective design and also the articles in which sleep disturbances are considered as exposure and sick leave is regarded as an outcome, were eligible. After screening the studies, eligible articles were finally selected and analyzed; besides, several subgroup analyses were done. Random effects method were used to analyze the results. The bias of publication and heterogeneity were reported. Eleven prospective cohort studies were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. Sleep disturbances increase the risk of sick leave up to 23% with confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.30. There was a significant difference in a stratified analysis between men and women. In men, RR was 1.23; CI 1.05–1.46 and in women RR was 1.22; CI 1.09–1.37. Begg test for eleven studies in the meta-analysis showed no release bias in this test (P = 0.102) and Egger test yielded a similar result (P = 0.114). Sleep disturbances are risk factors for sick leave. Sleep problems can lead to various health problems that affect the amount of sick leave. Improving sleep quality can have a decisive impact on job performance. Sleep disturbances are risk factors for increased sick leave. Limitations should be taken into account in interpreting these findings, including the distinction between types of sick leave and possible comorbidities.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. One common factor that may affect CVD risk factors is sleep disturbance. The factors influencing an individual’s sleep may vary among different cultures. The current study investigated sleep quality and quantity in the Fasa cohort population as an Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study using the Fasa PERSIAN cohort study data, 10,129 subjects aged 35–70 were entered. Self-reported sleep duration and cardiovascular events were recorded. The Framingham risk score (FRS) is used to predict cardiovascular events. Adjusted logistic regression showed significant odds ratios in subjects who sleep less than 6 hours for CVD (OR = 1.23; 95% CI:1.03–1.48), coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 1.21; 95% CI:1.009–1.46), and hypertension (HTN) (OR = 1.37; 95% CI:1.16–1.62). Higher risk profiles were also seen in the FRS for short sleepers. The highest significant odds ratios in FRS profiles in the intermediate high-risk group compared with the low-risk group were (1.44; 95% CI:1.18–1.75) in CVD and (1.48; 95% CI:1.16–1.88) in CHD risk score profiles. It can be suggested that participants with short durations of sleep had significantly higher CVD, HTN prevalence, and 10-year FRS. Participants with long sleep durations had no increase in CVD, CHD, myocardial infarction (MI), or HTN prevalence. MI prevalence was at the lowest level in subjects who got 8 to 8.9 hours of sleep.
Article
Background: Adequate sleep is crucial for normal functioning. However, most people, including middle-aged adults of reproductive age, show a marked reduction in their sleep duration. Thus, sleep is a major issue that should be addressed in health management. We investigated the effects of short-term sleep restriction on subjective parameters (sleepiness, stress, fatigue) and physiological parameters (cortisol, thyrotropin [TSH], thyroxine [T4], triiodothyronine [T3], C-reactive protein [CRP]) in middle-aged adults, the recovery of these parameters after rest, and the associations between parameters. Methods: A total of 118 healthy adults (59 men, 59 women), aged 35-44 years, and without sleep problems, were enrolled. Participants underwent a 4-h sleep restriction per day for 3 day at a hospital, and then returned to their daily lives to take four days of rest. A questionnaire and blood test were administered before and after sleep restriction, and after the recovery period, to assess subjective and physiological parameters. Results: After sleep restriction, sleepiness, fatigue, and stress significantly increased compared to baseline. Cortisol and TSH were elevated after sleep restriction, while T4, T3, and CRP were reduced compared to baseline. After the recovery phase, all parameters were restored to levels similar to baseline levels. Changes in each parameter were mutually associated; fatigue and sleepiness had the strongest association. Conclusion: Our results suggest that even a short period of sleep restriction can have an adverse impact on psychological and physiological stress parameters in middle-aged adults, and that adequate rest and sleep are needed to restore them to normal levels.
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Tunnetun blogistin, toimittajan ja tietokirjailijan käytännönläheinen opaskirja parempaan uneen. Teos käsittelee selkeästi, ytimekkäästi ja monipuolisesti hyvän unen salaisuudet ja keinot taistella unettomuutta vastaan. Kirjan helppoa luettavuutta rytmittää taiteilija Peter Nybergin leikkisä kuvitus. Christer Sundqvist on filosofian tohtori, biologi, terveystoimittaja, ravintovalmentaja, kirjailija sekä Suomen suosituimpia terveys-, ravinto- ja liikuntaluennoitsijoita. Turpaduunarina tunnetun Sundqvistin blogi Iltalehdessä on sivuston luetuimpia viikosta toiseen.
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Objectives We aimed to assess the associations between night-time sleep duration and fasting glucose (FG), triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and body mass index (BMI) among adults free of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or without diagnosed T2D. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Medical examination centres at six hospitals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China. Participants Participants were recruited via multistage, stratified cluster sampling. We included adults free of T2D or without diagnosed T2D who attended for physical examination and completed the validated questionnaire. 32 497 participants were included in the study, of whom 52.50% were men. Primary and secondary outcome measures FG, TG, HDL-C, height and weight were measured. Results Overall, 12.80% and 9.67% reported night sleep duration <7 hours and ≥9 hours, respectively; 6.91% had elevated FG and 3.57% had undiagnosed T2D. Sleep duration had an independent, U-shaped associated with FG (β 1 (linear term)=−0.111, p=0.047; β 2 (quadratic term)=0.008, p=0.026) with 6.9 hours of sleep associated with the lowest FG and a negative association with BMI (β=−0.154, p<0.001). BMI mediated a U-shaped association of sleep duration with TG/HDL-C (β 1 =−0.040, p=0.017; β 2 =0.003, p=0.023). Conclusions Both short and long night-time sleep was associated with elevated FG, and short sleep duration was associated with increased BMI. BMI mediated a U-shaped association between sleep duration and TG/HDL-C.
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Over the past decades, there has been an increase in overweight and obesity worldwide rates in both in adult and children. In parallel, it has been reported a worsening of sleep duration and quality. Some studies have shown an association between obesity and sleep disturbances (SD) vice versa, subjects with obesity have a greater risk of SD. As well as SD influences diet, also food choices have been shown to influence various sleep-related variables, such as duration and quality. For this reason, nutrition could represent an important tool not only to lose weight but also to improve sleep in patients with obesity and sleep disturbances. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that assessed the association between obesity and SD and vice versa, highlighting possible nutritional advices as a tool to improve sleep in patients with obesity and sleep disturbances.
Chapter
Due to healthy lifestyle changes, obesity is one of the serious health problems and has a high prevalence worldwide. In the last three decades, obesity was increased rapidly as it is linked with many comorbidities leading to escalate the risk of disability, illness and fatality, especially by non-communicable diseases. Excessive weight gain is obviously due to overconsumption of calories and these extra calories are stored as fat tissue which may lead to develop certain diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hypertension. Obesity has an important role and impact on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation. Obesity as an essential cause of hypertension and linked with diabetes mellitus, the combination of obesity with anyone of these diseases leads to develop most of the manifestations of CVD. It was reported that increasing body weight will increases the risk of type 2 diabetes at all ages as the body of overweight or obese people make more effort and inability to control blood sugar levels by using insulin and have a high chance to develop diabetes. In addition, abdominal obesity was reported to be related to 2–3 times escalate the risk of hypertension and can be declined with a reduction of waist size. It was also found that there is an association between the presence the risks of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with obesity. Moreover, obesity has a relationship with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), dyslipidemia, reproductive disorders, respiratory diseases, renal diseases, sleep disorders and many other diseases.
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Long working hours affects the life of both men and women. However, the impact of long working hours has greater impact on the women as compared to man. Women who are associated with long working hours experience physical symptoms of stress such as fatigue, irritability, headaches, and depression than men. The aim of the study was to find out how the working woman are socially affected by long working hours and how long working hour's effects the relationship with husband and children. Study has also analyzed how long working hours have affected the life of working women and its impact on the relationship of spouses and children. In order to assess the Impact of long working hour's women on relationship with husband and children. We recruited 160 respondents through multistage sampling technique from Dera Ghazi Khan. The data has been analyzed through SPSS. Results of the study indicates, that about 64.3% of the women are of the view that job requirements including completing the task is a main factor responsible for working long hours. Meanwhile 11.9% of the respondents said that workplace and industry culture is another main factor responsible for working long hours while 15% of the respondents said that to achieve better rewards they work for long hours. Results show that the impact of long working hours has brought about significant changes in the life of working women and it has significant effects on the relationship of husband and children. The results indicated that there was a significant association between the long working hours of women and less children's grooming and socialization.
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Public policies aim to promote the social good, but they do not always meet this goal. We argue that to improve policy and policy analysis, it is important to pay attention to the cumulative effect of policies on how people use their time. In this study, we looked at the effect of certain policies on sleep. Our exploratory study yielded intriguing findings on sleep in Israel in the specific policy context of a dual burden of work and caregiving. We surveyed 671 participants on the effect of work and care hours on sleep. The findings showed participants slept an average of 6.6 hours and expressed the desire to sleep one hour more. The desire to sleep more was higher than for all other uses of time and was evident in all employment categories. Part-time workers slept more than full-time workers and women, and younger people asked to sleep more than older ones. Long work hours and care hours led to lower sleep hours. Our findings suggest the need to be aware of possible ‘side effects’ in the policy design stage and are relevant to other countries with a care-work burden.
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Unhealthy sleep is a modern epidemic, and recent research has linked it to unethical behaviors like deception. Yet, scholars are also starting to examine factors that could curtail unhealthy sleep and its consequences. The current paper reviews evidence that indirectly implies or directly documents a relationship between unhealthy sleep and deception, detailing critical mediators and moderators. It concludes with a discussion of the many intriguing research avenues arising from this nascent literature, each with eminent relevance in a sleep-deprived world.
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Sleep disorders and daytime fatigue are common health problems in middle-aged and elderly populations, and they vary greatly between occupational groups. There is widespread evidence that working hours and job stress may explain these differences. In this study the relationship of job demands and job control to sleep disorders was investigated. The subjects were 3079 middle-aged working men. The data were collected with a questionnaire including scales on sleep quality, job stress and lifestyle. The main effects of job demands and job control on insomnia, sleep deprivation and daytime fatigue were highly significant. Some interaction effects of the stressors were also noted. Lifestyle factors were not found as significant mediators or confounders of the effects. The associations between the stressors and sleep disorders were greater in the daytime workers than in the shift workers. The main conclusion is that job stressors have a direct relationship to sleep disorders, independent of working hours and lifestyle. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Prospective epidemiologic data of the American Cancer Society disclosed that reported usual sleep durations among groups who complained of insomnia and sleeping pill use "often" overlapped with those of groups who had no complaints. Reports of insomnia were not consistently associated with increased mortality when several factors were controlled; however, men who reported usually sleeping less than four hours were 2.80 times as likely to have died within six years as men who reported 7.0 to 7.9 hours of sleep. The ratio for women was 1.48. Men and women who reported sleeping ten hours or more had about 1.8 times the mortality of those who reported 7.0 to 7.9 hours of sleep. Those who reported using sleeping pills "often" had 1.5 times the mortality of those who "never" used sleeping pills. These results do not prove that mortality could be reduced by altering sleep durations or by reducing hypnotic prescribing. Rather, studies are needed to determine the causes of these mortality risk factors.
Article
Many population-based surveys have reported that the prevalence of poor sleep increases with age. Despite the uniformity of findings, it remains unclear to what extent age-related declines in overall physical health are related to those results. One approach to this problem has been to adjust for such confounding variables multivariately. Some prior studies using this approach have not shown the expected age-related increases in the prevalence of poor sleep. Another approach has been the study of sleep in carefully screened, healthy populations. The current study reports the prevalence of disturbed sleep in a population, ages 50-65, carefully screened for physical health as part of an ongoing study of exercise and cardiovascular function. The prevalence of self-reported trouble falling asleep every night or almost every night (1.1% M, 2.6% F), trouble awakening and returning back to sleep (4.4% M, 3.3% F), and use of hypnotic medication at least twice a week (1.6% M, 2.6% F) were consistently lower than in nearly all previous population-based studies of individuals of comparable age. This implies that when overall physical health factors are taken into account a decline in sleep quality is not necessarily an inevitable component of aging per se. As has been shown in other studies, there were small but statistically significant relationships between self-reported depression and poor sleep. Despite the low prevalence of poor sleep, about a third of the population reported feeling not well-rested and/or not getting the sleep they required. The individuals in this study also reported obtaining significantly less sleep relative to normative data from 30 years ago.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Seven health habits, commonly referred to as the "Alameda 7," were shown to be associated with physical health status and mortality in a pioneer longitudinal study initiated in 1965 in Alameda County, CA. These habits are having never smoked, drinking less than five drinks at one sitting, sleeping 7-8 hours a night, exercising, maintaining desirable weight for height, avoiding snacks, and eating breakfast regularly. The Alameda study focused attention on the importance of everyday practices for the maintenance of good health and, ultimately, for longer life. This report presents selected findings on the prevalence of the seven Alameda practices (defined slightly differently in some cases) among the general U.S. population aged 18 years and older, by sex, according to age, education, income, and race. In general, men are more likely than women to smoke, drink, and exercise. Younger people are more likely than older people to skip breakfast, snack, and drink, and younger women are more likely than older women to smoke. Education, income, and racial differences were found for most health practices. Of all subgroups discussed, blacks, particularly black women, are the most likely to have lifestyles that would be considered unhealthy using the Alameda criteria. Overall, the data reported suggest that although large numbers of U.S. adults have healthy habits, many do not, particularly persons in socially and economically disadvantaged groups.
Article
Self-reported sleep data from 2238 monozygotic and 4545 dizygotic adult twin pairs indicated a significant hereditary effect on sleep length [overall heritability estimate (h2 = 0.44)] and on sleep quality (h2 = 0.44). When the data were examined in subgroups defined by sex, age (18-24 years and 25 or more years of age), and cohabitation status of the twin pair, the highest heritability estimates for sleep length were for twins living together aged 25 or older. For twins living apart the heritability estimates were statistically significant in all women and men aged 25 or older. For sleep quality significant heritability estimates were found for all groups except women living together.
Article
Reports of reduced daytime sleepiness following extended nighttime sleep in normal, regular sleepers suggest that they (and perhaps much of the general population) are chronically sleep deprived. However, 1) the social and environmental contexts of sleep allow for much intraindividual variation in sleep duration and structure; 2) animal studies show that when there is opportunity for sleep and few incentives to remain awake, sleep occurs for reasons other than in response to a physiological requirement, i.e. sleep satiation may precede actual awakening, 3) accounts of increased sleep duration earlier this century are flawed and 4) because increased sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset are features of extended sleep, it would be difficult to persuade people to sleep longer for the small benefits to daytime alertness. Laboratory studies show that 1) following extended sleep the improvements in daytime alertness are minor, even by the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and could be achieved equally successfully and with less disruption to habitual daily patterns by taking a short nap; 2) normal subjects extend sleep at night not necessarily because they are chronically sleepy, because there may be no prior MSLT signs of daytime sleepiness; 3) mood effects of extended sleep are confounded by earlier bedtimes; and 4) extended sleep does not necessarily make subjects feel well rested immediately on waking. In sum, most people are not chronically sleep deprived but have the capacity to take more sleep, in the same way that we eat and drink in excess of physiological needs.
Article
Coronary heart disease mortality has declined in Finland by 55% among men and 68% among women between 1972 and 1992. About three-quarters of this decline has been explained by changes in the main coronary risk factors, the decrease in serum cholesterol being the most important one. The aim of this study was to analyze to what extent dietary changes could explain the change in serum cholesterol. Cardiovascular risk factor surveys have been carried out in Finland from 1972 to 1992 at 5-year intervals. Dietary surveys were carried out in connection with these surveys in 1982 and 1992. An earlier, representative dietary survey carried out in 1969-1972 was used as the baseline measure for diet. The total fat content of the Finnish diet changed from 38% of energy to 34%, saturated fat from 21 to 16%, and polyunsaturated fat from 3 to 5% and the intake of cholesterol decreased by 16%. Based on Keys equation these changes could have decreased serum cholesterol level by 0.6 mmol/liter (23 mg/dl) in both genders. A shift from boiled to filtered coffee could have further decreased serum cholesterol by 0.3 mmol/liter (11 mg/dl). Thus, these changes together could explain the total change in serum cholesterol, which has been on average 1.0 mmol/liter (38 mg/dl). Several other changes in the diet have also been favorable. Fruit and vegetable consumption has increased two- to three-fold during this time period. Supplementation of fertilizers with selenium since 1985 has tripled the intake of selenium. Dietary changes seem to explain the decrease in serum cholesterol. Together with a decline in smoking among males as well as better blood pressure control they have contributed to the dramatic decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland.
Article
Population-based data suggesting that contemporary society does not value sleep are difficult to obtain. In this report, historical change in item endorsements relevant for disturbed sleep and daytime fatigue from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) generated from normative, upper Midwestern adult populations was analyzed. Response rates from the 1930s and 1980 were compared. The data indicated that, relative to individuals in the post-Great Depression/pre-World War II era, contemporary men were more likely to report fatigue and tiredness, although they were no more likely to report disturbed nocturnal sleep. The results are compatible with the voluntary curtailment of sleep typical in modern society described in the report of the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research.
Article
The investigation of sleep in twins represents one of the major methods for measuring the genetic contributions to sleep in humans. This paper reviews two twin studies in which the sleep EEG was recorded during three consecutive nights in young monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) male twins. The analyses, based on average values of repeated sleep recordings, indicate that a significant proportion of variance in stages 2, 4, and delta sleep appears to be genetically determined. Genetic influences on rapid-eye-movement sleep were found inconclusive, but this conclusion is limited by the relatively small size of the sample studied.
Article
This article discusses the hypothesis that the adverse impact of low socioeconomic status (SES) on health may be partly mediated by decrements in sleep duration and quality. Low SES is frequently associated with a diminished opportunity to obtain sufficient sleep or with environmental conditions that compromise sleep quality. In a recent study, we examined carbohydrate metabolism, endocrine function, and sympatho-vagal balance in young, healthy adults studied after restricting sleep to four hours per night for six nights as compared to a fully rested condition obtained by extending the bed-time period to 12 hours per night for six nights. The state of sleep debt was associated with decreased glucose tolerance, elevated evening cortisol levels, and increased sympathetic activity. The alterations in glucose tolerance and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those observed in normal aging. These results indicate that sleep loss can increase the "allostatic load" and facilitate the development of chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, which have an increased prevalence in low SES groups.
Article
It is commonly believed that sleep duration in the population has been declining gradually. Whereas sleep restriction in the laboratory induces sleepiness and mood disturbances, it is not certain whether a short sleep duration impairs the quality of everyday life. Using population-based data, we explored whether greater habitual sleep duration is a predictor of better health-related quality of life, measured by the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) scale. The relationships between QWB and several potential correlates were examined in a stepwise linear regression analysis. Neither subjective nor actigraphic sleep duration were associated with QWB. Greater quality of well-being was associated with greater sleep satisfaction, younger age, less obesity, non-Hispanic White ethnicity, and greater experienced illumination. These data suggest that increasing sleep duration may not directly improve quality of life, despite evidence that curtailment of nocturnal sleep is associated with fatigue.
Article
DESPITE GREAT strides in our understanding of sleep and its disorders, we do not have answers to the most fundamental questions: Why do we sleep? How much sleep do we need? Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats ultimately leads to irreversible metabolic and immunologic effects, then death.1 While similar experiments cannot be conducted in humans, self-reports may provide clues to the effects of sleep. In this issue of the ARCHIVES, Kripke and colleagues2 report analyses from a large epidemiological study that assessed, among other things, self-reported sleep duration and insomnia. Using 6-year follow-up data, the authors analyzed associations between sleep duration and insomnia, and mortality. Both short and long sleep durations were associated with increased mortality, and insomnia with reduced mortality. These findings raise provocative questions: Can sleep be bad for your health? Can insomnia be good?
Article
The study examined the multivariate relationship between disturbed sleep and different work-related and background/life style factors. 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area participated. A factor analysis of eight items provided one main factor: "disturbed sleep." The data were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression analysis against the index disturbed sleep as well as the separate items "not well rested" and "difficulties awakening." The results showed that high work demands [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15] and physical effort at work (OR = 1.94) are risk indicators for disturbed sleep, while high social support is associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.44). In addition, higher age (45+), female gender, a high body mass index (BMI) and lack of exercise are background/life style risk indicators. Introducing into the model an item representing inability to stop thinking about work during free time yielded the highest OR (3.20) and forced work demands out of the regression. With regard to not feeling well rested, the same significant predictors, except physical effort, were obtained, as well as for having night work and being married. In addition, the age effect was reversed--high age predicted reduced risk of not feeling well rested. Difficulties awakening was predicted by high work demands, low social support, being male, low age and smoking. It is notable that, whereas subjective sleep quality decreased with age, the difficulties awakening and feelings of not being well rested after sleep increased with age. It was concluded that stress and the social situation at work are strongly linked to disturbed sleep and impaired awakening, that gender and, even more so, age may modify this and that the inability to stop worrying about work during free time may be an important link in the relation between stress and sleep.
Article
There is increasing concern for sleeplessness-related risks in modern society. Some recent epidemiological data seem to support the view that many segments of the adult population have chronically inadequate sleep. On the other hand, some experts have claimed that our core, basic amount of sleep is around 6 h per night, and that the rest of our sleep can be easily curtailed, being unnecessary to fulfill any sleep need. However, experimental data on the effects of both acute and cumulative partial sleep deprivation (PSD) consistently point out that sleep restriction has substantial negative effects on sleepiness, motor and cognitive performance and mood, as well as on some metabolic, hormonal and immunological variables. As chronic PSD may have serious long-term adverse health effects, it should be avoided in the general population. In the short-term, the effects of sleep curtailment seem to accumulate linearly, while the effects of long-term PSD should be further investigated, as the few available studies are flawed by methodological weaknesses. On the other hand, there is evidence that extending sleep by 2-3 h beyond the norm produces only marginal benefits for an average individual. Finally, it is underlined that, as large individual differences do exist in the need for sleep, the search for the sleep need may be vain. A somnotypology, taking into account age, gender and the position in both the sleep-alert and the morningness-eveningness continuum, should help in the search for the actual individual sleep need. 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd
Article
Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that sleeping >8 h per night is associated with increased mortality. Indeed, the most recent American Cancer Society data of 1.1 million respondents showed that sleeping longer than 7.5 h was associated with approximately 5% of the total mortality of the sample. The excess mortality was found even after controlling for 32 potentially confounding risk factors. Although epidemiologic data cannot prove that long sleep duration causes mortality, there is sufficient evidence to warrant future testing of the hypothesis that mild sleep restriction would decrease mortality in long sleepers. Sleep restriction might resemble dietary restriction as a potential aid to survival. Sleep restriction has several potential benefits besides possible enhanced survival. Acute sleep restriction can have dramatic antidepressant effects. Also, chronic sleep restriction is perhaps the most effective treatment for primary insomnia. Conversely, spending excessive time in bed can elicit daytime lethargy and exacerbate sleep fragmentation, resulting in a vicious cycle of further time in bed and further sleep fragmentation. Sleep restriction may be most beneficial for older adults, who tend to spend excessive time in bed and have more sleep fragmentation compared with young adults.
Article
To present sleep patterns in elderly individuals and factors associated with short sleep and long daytime and nighttime sleep. A total of 8091 subjects aged between 55 and 101 years representative of the noninstitutionalized general population of seven European countries (France, Finland, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and UK) were interviewed by telephone about their sleep habits and sleep disorders. The average sleep duration was 6 h and 57 min. Sleep duration was longer in men than in women. Five percent of the sample slept 5 h or less and 5% slept 9 h or more per night. Factors associated with short sleep (lower fifth percentile) were age, living in UK, no physical exercise, drinking six cups of coffee or more per day, taking a medication for sleep, difficulty initiating sleep, disrupted sleep, early morning awakening, and presence of an anxiety disorder. Factors associated with long sleep (> or =95th percentile) were age, living in France, Portugal, or Spain, being underweight, no physical exercise, disrupted sleep, taking a medication for sleep, and presence of an anxiety disorder. Long daytime sleep (54 min or more) were age, being a man, being overweight or obese, physical disease, being dissatisfied with one's social life, smoking, drinking alcohol, and having a major depressive disorder. Sleep patterns considerably varied among the countries in the elderly population. Extreme values of sleep duration (short and long sleep) were associated with several sleep and mental health problems.
Article
Sleep problems and sleep restriction are popular topics of discussion, but few representative data are available. We document Britain's sleep based on a nationally representative sample of 1997, 16-93 year olds, who participated in face-to-face interviews. Fifty-eight per cent of respondents reported sleep problems on one or more nights the previous week and 18% reported that the sleep they obtained was insufficient on the majority of nights. Sleep durations were longest in the youngest participants (16-24 years), who slept on average 1 h longer than the 7.04 (SD 1.55) sample average. Sleep duration showed no appreciable change beyond middle age. Men and women reported sleeping similar amounts but women reported more sleep problems. Men reported sleeping less when there were more children in their household. Workers (i.e. employees) reported sleeping less on workdays than on non-workdays, but those based at home and those not employed did not. Inability to switch off from work was related to sleep duration on non-workdays. Across all participants average sleep duration exhibited a non-monotonic association with quality of life (i.e. contribution of sleep to energy, satisfaction and success in work, home and leisure activities). Quality of life was positively associated with sleep duration, for durations up to 9 h, but negatively associated with quality of life beyond this. Comparison of our data with the US national sleep poll revealed that Britain sleeps as little or less, whereas a comparison with data reported 40 years ago revealed no statistically reliable reductions. Although we may not sleep less than four decades ago, when we report sleeping less we also tend to associate that lack of sleep with poor performance and quality of life.
Article
The complexity of sleep-wake regulation, in addition to the many environmental influences, includes genetic predisposing factors, which begin to be discovered. Most of the current progress in the study of sleep genetics comes from animal models (dogs, mice, and drosophila). Multiple approaches using both animal models and different genetic techniques are needed to follow the segregation and ultimately to identify 'sleep genes' and molecular bases of sleep disorders. Recent progress in molecular genetics and the development of detailed human genome map have already led to the identification of genetic factors in several complex disorders. Only a few genes are known for which a mutation causes a sleep disorder. However, single gene disorders are rare and most common disorders are complex in terms of their genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions. We review here the current progress in the genetics of normal and pathological sleep and suggest a few future perspectives.
Article
To determine whether variation in sleep duration reflects variation in sleep need or self-imposed sleep restriction. After habitual bedrest duration of participants was assessed during a 2-week outpatient protocol, volunteers were scheduled to sleep according to this schedule for 1 week prior to and the first night after admission to a general clinical research center. The inpatient protocol included multiple sleep latency testing on the second day and sleep recordings during a bedrest extension protocol that included 16 hours of sleep opportunity (12 hours at night and 4 hours at midday) for 3 consecutive days. Outpatient monitoring followed by inpatient assessment of sleep. Seventeen healthy volunteers (10 women) aged 18-32 years without clinical sleep disorders. Extension of sleep opportunity. The habitual bedrest duration varied from 6.1 to 10.3 hours. Individuals with shorter habitual bedrest duration fell asleep more quickly and frequently during the multiple sleep latency test than did those with longer habitual bedrest duration. On the first day of extended sleep opportunity, the total sleep time of all individuals was greater than their habitual bedrest duration; the average increase in total sleep time was 4.9 hours (P = 0.001). The increase in total sleep time declined across the 3 day bedrest-extension protocol (P = 0.003 for trend). During the third day of increased sleep opportunity, the total sleep time was negatively associated with habitual bedrest duration (P = 0.005); individuals with shorter habitual bedrest duration continued to sleep more than those with longer habitual bedrest duration. Those individuals with shorter habitual sleep durations carry a higher sleep debt than do those with longer habitual sleep duration. Interindividual variation in sleep duration may primarily reflect variation in self-selected sleep restriction or wake extension.
Article
This study examined whether sleep disturbances after family death or illness are associated with an increase in health problems and delayed recovery. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Ten cities in Finland. A population of 6032 male and 20,933 female city employees. N/A. Self-reports of a family death or illness, the timing of the event, and postevent sleep duration and quality, measured by the Jenkins Scale, were linked with monthly sickness absence records from 36 months prior to the event to 30 months after the event. A repeated-measures Poisson regression analysis with the generalized estimating equation method showed no differences in the preevent absence rates between the employees with and without disturbed sleep. For employees with disturbed sleep, the rate of absence in the month the event occurred was 2.08-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.71, 2.53) compared with the employee's baseline level of sickness absence, and it was still 1.67-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 1.98) 19 to 30 months after the event. The corresponding rate ratios were lower for the employees with undisturbed sleep after the event (1.49 and 1.16, respectively). Delayed recovery with disturbed sleep was observed after family illness but not after family death. These findings suggest that a long-term increase in sickness absence is particularly likely if a family illness is associated with sleep disturbances. Identifying people with sleep disturbances may be important in preventing health problems in the aftermath of a family death or illness.
Article
Self-reported short or long sleep duration has been repeatedly found to be associated with increased mortality and health risks. However, there is still an insufficient amount of detailed knowledge available to characterize the short and long sleep duration groups in general population. Consequently, the underlying mechanisms potentially explaining the health risks associated with short and long sleep duration are unclear. In the present study, the self-reported sleep duration in a sample of Finnish general population was studied, and its possible associations with such factors as self-perceived health, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, sleep difficulties and daytime concomitants were analyzed. In particular, an effort was made to define mutually statistically-independent determinants of sleep duration. In the Finnish Health 2000 Survey, a representative sample of 8,028 subjects of 30 years of age or older and a sample of 1,894 subjects of 18-29 years of age were invited to take part in the health interview and health examination. The participation rate of the study was over 80%. The most important and statistically-independent determinants of short and long sleep duration were gender, physical tiredness, sleep problems, marital status, main occupation and physical activity. However, in the multivariable model they only accounted for approximately 16% of the variance in sleep duration in short and long sleepers, suggesting multiple sources of variance. The present study also suggests a dose-response like relationship between the sleep duration and many of its determinants within both short and long sleepers. A more detailed analysis of the clinical status of the short and long sleep duration groups is needed to evaluate the possible importance of these findings for health risks associated with sleep duration.
Article
Both long and short sleep durations have been associated with negative health outcomes in middle-aged and older adults. This study assessed the relationship between sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 17 465 university students aged 17 to 30 years who were taking non-health-related courses at 27 universities in 24 countries. The response rate was greater than 90%. Sleep duration was measured by self-report; the health outcome was self-rated health; and age, sex, socioeconomic background, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, depression (Beck Depression Inventory), recent use of health services, and country of origin were included as covariates. Sixty-three percent of respondents slept for 7 to 8 hours; 21% were short sleepers (6%, <6 hours; 15%, 6-7 hours); and 16% were long sleepers (10%, 8-10 hours; 6%, >10 hours). Compared with the reference category (7-8 hours), the adjusted odds ratio of poor health was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.99) for respondents sleeping 6 to 7 hours and 1.99 (95% CI, 1.31-3.03) for those sleeping less than 6 hours. The same significant pattern was seen when the results were analyzed separately by sex. When respondents from Japan, Korea, and Thailand (