Article

Postpartum uterine infection in cattle

Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
Animal Reproduction Science (Impact Factor: 1.51). 06/2008; 105(3-4):187-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the cow, as well as the species and number (load or challenge) of bacteria. The postpartum uterus has a disrupted surface epithelium in contact with fluid and tissue debris that can support bacterial growth. A variety of species of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, can be isolated from the early postpartum uterus. Most of these are environmental contaminants that are gradually eliminated during the first 6 weeks postpartum. A normal postpartum cow resolves uterine infection by rapid involution of the uterus and cervix, discharge of uterine content, and mobilization of natural host defenses, including mucus, antibodies and phagocytic cells. Clinical signs of uterine infection vary with the virulence of the causative organisms and the presence of factors that predispose to the disease. The treatment of endometritis and metritis in bovine should be directed towards improving fertility. The antibiotic should be active against the main uterine pathogens and should maintain its activity in the environment of the uterus. Also, should not inhibit the normal defense mechanisms and should be well tolerated and not induce irritation in the endometrium. Effective use of hormones in uterine infection requires knowledge of both normal reproductive endocrinology and the therapeutic characteristics of available hormonal preparations.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Osama Azawi
  • Source
    • "La metritis suele estar asociada con una contaminación del útero por la bacteria Trueperella pyogenes (anteriormente denominada Arcanobacteria pyogenes), ya sea sola o junto con otros microorganismos patógenos: Fusobacterium necrophorum, Bacteroides spp. y Escherichia coli (Dohmen et al., 2000; Azawi 2008). Un estudio reciente ha detectado unos factores de virulencia concretos relacionados con el desarrollo de metritis (Bicalho et al,. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: En el momento del parto, el cérvix se abre produciéndose una contaminación del útero fisiológica (Azawi 2008). El sistema inmunitario es el encargado de afrontar esta infección y, por lo tanto, de él depende una correcta evolución posparto (Frank et al., 1983; Singh et al., 2008). Aunque la mayoría de los animales habrán eliminado estas bacterias antes de las 5 semanas tras el parto, se ha descrito que en las explotaciones de Europa y Norte América existen hasta un 40% de los animales con evidencias de infección uterina posparto, y hasta un 20% de vacas con endometritis subclínica (Sheldon et al., 2009). Otro estudio indica que el 15-20% de las vacas entre la semana 4 y 6 sufren endometritis clínica, mientras que otro 30-35% tiene endometritis subclínica entre la semana 4 y 9 posparto (LeBlanc 2008). Por ello, las patologías uterinas posparto tienen una gran relevancia en las explotaciones de vacuno, no solo por su incidencia sino también por su impacto sobre la producción y reproducción del animal. En el caso de que la contaminación no se resuelva a tiempo, tanto la involución uterina como el retorno a la ciclicidad se podrían ver comprometidos, así como la posterior fertilidad. ¿Por qué están relacionados la involución uterina, el retorno a la ciclicidad y la fertilidad? La presencia de bacterias en el lumen uterino no sólo daña el útero, también reduce la secreción de GnRH y LH y tiene efectos localizados en el ovario, pudiendo producir un anestro prolongado (Sheldon and Dobson, 2004). A su vez estas bacterias estimulan la secreción de prostaglandinas por parte del endometrio. Si el ovario de la vaca ha comenzado a ciclar, las prostaglandinas inducirán la luteolisis temprana del cuerpo lúteo ocasionando ciclos ováricos cortos (Peter and Bosu, 1987). Si estas alteraciones de la función ovárica (anestro y ciclos cortos) se prolongan en el tiempo, la posterior fertilidad podría verse afectada. Por otro lado, numerosos trabajos señalan al ovario como el principal responsable de la inmunomodulación uterina (Lewis 2004). El baño de progesterona durante la fase luteal, podría producir una inmunodepresión que comprometiese la salud del útero. Sin embargo, los estrógenos secretados en la fase folicular podrían estimular el estado inmunitario favoreciendo la resolución de la posible infección. Sin embargo, estudios recientes cuestionan la capacidad inmunosupresora de la progesterona (Subandrio et al., 2000), por lo que la influencia de la fase del ciclo ovárico sobre la recuperación posparto podría no ser tan decisiva. A lo largo de las próximas secciones, describiremos las principales patologías uterinas que pueden tener lugar durante las primeras semanas posparto, su prevalencia, impacto, diagnóstico y alternativas terapéuticas.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2015
    • "Broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is usually recommended and deemed appropriate for uterine infections shortly after calving (Azawi, 2008), but its efficacy depends on pathogen susceptibility. A variety of methods are used to evaluate antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogens, including agar zone (or disc) diffusion assays , broth dilution methods or modifications thereof, and procedures to find penicillin-resistant genes (Watson et al., 1991; Salmon et al., 1995; Vintov et al., 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9 antimicrobials for isolates of 2 common bovine intrauterine bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli (n = 209) and Trueperella pyogenes (n = 35), were determined using broth microdilution methodology. The isolates were recovered from dairy cows from 7 herds postpartum using the cytobrush technique. The pathogens were initially identified using phenotypic techniques. Additionally, PCR was used to confirm the identity of T. pyogenes isolates and to categorize the E. coli isolates into phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D. Minimum inhibitory concentrations in excess of published cut-points or bimodal distributions of MIC indicated potential antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cephapirin, and oxytetracycline for E. coli, and to oxytetracycline for T. pyogenes. Of the antimicrobials tested, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, and enrofloxacin had the lowest MIC for these 2 pathogens. Differences in MIC of some antimicrobials were found between herds, age, breeds, and E. coli phylogenetic groups. Isolation of E. coli with an MIC ≥8 μg/mL of oxytetracycline at 23 d postpartum was associated with a lower probability of pregnancy within 6 wk of commencement of breeding compared with those isolates with an MIC <8 μg/mL (relative risk = 0.66). Minimum inhibitory concentrations for uterine pathogens were determined for isolates from New Zealand dairy cows. However, in the absence of either epidemiological or clinical interpretive criteria, the interpretation of these MIC remains unclear. Further studies are required to define interpretative criteria, including determination of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles for antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Dairy Science
  • Source
    • "Many of these bacteria waste during the first 5 weeks after parturition, but the remaining infection causes uterine disease in some cows [2] . These bacterial infections cause histological lesions and inflammation of the endometrium and delay in uterine involution [3] . The continued bacterial contamination of postpartum uterus causes inflammation, pathological changes of the endometrium and delayed uterine involution [4] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of hyperimmune serum (HS) in treatment of postpartum endometritis. Methods: In a field trial, cows with vaginal discharge, 25-35 d in milk were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. In group 1 (n=42), cows received an intrauterine treatment with 50 mL HS. HS was produced against Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli that had already been isolated from the Iranian dairy farms. In group 2 (n=39), cows were treated with one intrauterine infusion of 5 g oxytetracycline (OTC). In group 3 (n=65), cows affected with endometritis were treated with 0.5 mg cloprostenol (PG). Group 4 (n=89) included clinically healthy cows as control (HC) group without any treatment in groups HS, OTC and PG; all cows were re-examined 39-49 d in milk. Reults: Cure rate after treatment defined as the absence of vaginal discharge at the re-examination, was 64.3%, 61.5% and 72.3% in HS, OTC and PG groups, respectively (P>0.05). Cows categorized as E1 and E2 showed higher cure rate and reproductive performance measures than E3 cows in both treatment groups but their differences were not significant. Conception rate to all services for cows with endometritis (category E1, E2 and E3) was 52.9% in HS group, 57.1% in OTC and in PG 62.1% compared to 66.7% in HC (P>0.05). The difference in the conception rate between the HS and HC group was not significant. Conclusions: We suggest that HS could be the no antibiotic alternative treatment choice for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
Show more