Molecular determinants of Rem2 regulation of N-type calcium channels

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary AB, Canada T2N 4N1.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.3). 05/2008; 368(3):827-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.02.020
Source: PubMed


Rem2 belongs to the RGK family of small GTPases whose members are known to interact with the voltage gated calcium channel beta subunit, and to inhibit or abolish calcium currents. To identify the underlying functional domains of Rem2, we created several N- or C-terminally truncated Rem2 proteins and examined their abilities to interact with the Ca(v) beta subunit and to regulate the activities of Ca(v)2.2 N-type calcium channels. Confocal imaging of Rem2 in tsA-201 cells revealed that it contains a membrane-targeting signal in its C-terminus, consistent with previous studies. Co-precipitation assays showed that Ca(v) beta(3) interaction depends on Rem2 residues 1-123. Only Rem2 proteins that targeted the cell membrane as well as bound the beta subunit were able to reduce whole cell calcium currents.

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    • "Our results are consistent with the findings of earlier structure–function studies demonstrating that the less conserved amino-termini of RGK proteins are largely dispensable for inhibition of cloned high voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels. In particular, RGK proteins minimally require an intact and membrane-targeted core to produce inhibition of Ca 2+ channels in heterologous systems [31] [32] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels supports the plateau phase of ventricular action potentials and is the trigger for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in the myocardium. Rad, a member of the RGK (Rem, Rem2, Rad, Gem/Kir) family of monomeric G proteins, regulates ventricular action potential duration and EC coupling gain through its ability to inhibit cardiac L-type channel activity. In this study, we have investigated the potential dysfunction of a naturally occurring Rad variant (Q66P) that has been associated with congestive heart failure in humans. Specifically, we have tested whether Rad Q66P limits, or even eliminates, the inhibitory actions of Rad on CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, the two L-type channel isoforms known to be expressed in the heart. We have found that mouse Rad Q65P (the murine equivalent of human Rad Q66P) inhibits L-type currents conducted by CaV1.2 or CaV1.3 channels as potently as wild-type Rad (>95% inhibition of both channels). In addition, Rad Q65P attenuates the gating movement of both channels as effectively as wild-type Rad, indicating that the Q65P substitution does not differentially impair any of the three described modes of L-type channel inhibition by RGK proteins. Thus, we conclude that if Rad Q66P contributes to cardiomyopathy, it does so via a mechanism that is not related to its ability to inhibit L-type channel-dependent processes per se. However, our results do not rule out the possibility that decreased expression, mistargeting or altered regulation of Rad Q66P may reduce the RGK protein's efficacy in vivo.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: RGK (Rad-Gem-Rem) GTPases have been described as potent negative regulators of the Ca(2+) influx via high-threshold voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Recent work, mostly performed on Ca(V)1.2 Ca(2+) channels, has highlighted the crucial role played by the channel auxiliary Ca(V)beta subunits and identified several GTPase and beta-subunit protein domains involved in this regulation. We now extend these conclusions by producing the first complete characterization of the effects of Gem, Rem, and Rem2 on the neuronal Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels expressed with Ca(V)beta(1) or Ca(V)beta(2) subunits. Current inhibition is limited to a decrease in amplitude with no modification in the voltage dependence or kinetics of the current. We demonstrate that this inhibition can occur for Ca(V)beta constructs with impaired capacity to induce current potentiation, but that it is lost for Ca(V)beta constructs deleted for their beta-interaction domain. The RGK C-terminal last approximately 80 amino acids are sufficient to allow potent current inhibition and in vivo beta-subunit/Gem interaction. Interestingly, although Gem and Gem carboxy-terminus induce a completely different pattern of beta-subunit cellular localization, they both potently inhibit Ca(V)2.1 channels. These data therefore set the status of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channel inhibition by RGK GTPases, emphasizing the role of short amino acid sequences of both proteins in beta-subunit binding and channel inhibition and revealing a new mechanism for channel inhibition.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · The FASEB Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Rem, Rem2, Rad, and Gem/Kir (RGK) family of small GTP-binding proteins potently inhibits high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels, providing a powerful means of modulating neural, endocrine, and muscle functions. The molecular mechanisms of this inhibition are controversial and remain largely unclear. RGK proteins associate directly with Ca(2+) channel beta subunits (Ca(v)beta), and this interaction is widely thought to be essential for their inhibitory action. In this study, we investigate the molecular underpinnings of Gem inhibition of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. We find that a purified Gem protein markedly and acutely suppresses P/Q channel activity in inside-out membrane patches, that this action requires Ca(v)beta but not the Gem/Ca(v)beta interaction, and that Gem coimmunoprecipitates with the P/Q channel alpha(1) subunit (Ca(v)alpha(1)) in a Ca(v)beta-independent manner. By constructing chimeras between P/Q channels and Gem-insensitive low voltage-activated T-type channels, we identify a region encompassing transmembrane segments S1, S2, and S3 in the second homologous repeat of Ca(v)alpha(1) critical for Gem inhibition. Exchanging this region between P/Q and T channel Ca(v)alpha(1) abolishes Gem inhibition of P/Q channels and confers Ca(v)beta-dependent Gem inhibition to a chimeric T channel that also carries the P/Q I-II loop (a cytoplasmic region of Ca(v)alpha(1) that binds Ca(v)beta). Our results challenge the prevailing view regarding the role of Ca(v)beta in RGK inhibition of high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels and prompt a paradigm in which Gem directly binds and inhibits Ca(v)beta-primed Ca(v)alpha(1) on the plasma membrane.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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