Jump starting skeletal health: A 4-year longitudinal study assessing the effects of jumping on skeletal development in pre and circum pubertal children

Oregon State University, Bone Research Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 3.97). 05/2008; 42(4):710-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.01.002
Source: PubMed


Evidence suggests bone mineral increases attributable to exercise training prior to puberty may confer a significant advantage into adulthood. However, there is a dearth of supportive prospective longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) over four years in pre-pubertal boys and girls following a 7-month jumping intervention.
The study population included 107 girls and 98 boys aged 8.6+/-0.88 years at baseline. Participating schools were randomly assigned as either intervention or control school. Children at the intervention school (n=101) participated in a jumping intervention embedded within the standard PE curriculum. The control school children (n=104) had similar exposure to PE without the jumping intervention. BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, at 7-month post intervention, and annually thereafter for three years totaling 5 measurement opportunities. Multi-level random effects models were constructed and used to predict change from study entry in BMC parameters at each measurement occasion.
A significant intervention effect was found at all bone sites. The effect was greatest immediately following the intervention (at 7 months) but still significant three years after the intervention. At 7 months, intervention participants had BMC values that were 7.9%, 8.4%, 7.7% and 7.3% greater than the controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB, respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. Three years after the intervention had concluded the intervention group had 2.3%, 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.9% greater BMC than controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled.
This provides evidence that short-term high impact exercise in pre-puberty has a persistent effect over and above the effects of normal growth and development. If the benefits are sustained until BMC plateaus in early adulthood, this could have substantial effects on fracture risk.

Download full-text


Available from: Adam Dominic George Baxter-Jones
  • Source
    • "at FN, TH, and HUM at 8 yr + (continued) 66 Author, year Study Description Population n Results Sustained Effect a Gunter et al., 2008b "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although there is strong and consistent evidence that childhood and adolescent physical activity is osteogenic, the evidence concerning its sustained effects to adult bone health is not conclusive. Therefore the value of interventions, in addition to beneficial bone adaptation, could be exposure to activities children enjoy and therefore continue. As such, interventions should provide skills, pleasure, and supportive environments to ensure continued bone-strengthening physical activity with age. Until the dose-response as well as timing of physical activity to bone health is more fully understood, it is sensible to assume that physical activity is needed throughout the lifespan to improve and maintain skeletal health. Current federal guidelines for health-related physical activity, which explicitly recommend bone-strengthening physical activities for youth, should also apply to adults.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
  • Source
    • "The percentage differences (~1–8%) that we report between high VPA participants (90th percentile) and low (10th percentile) are comparable to differences observed in targeted exercise interventions designed to increase BMC (10). For example, Gunter and colleagues reported that the 7- to 9-year-old children in their intervention group had 7.9% more BMC at the spine and 8.4% more BMC at the hip than the control group after a 7-month jumping intervention (22). Meyer and colleagues reported that the 6–7 and 11–12-year olds in their intervention group had 4.7% more bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and 5.4% more BMD at the hip than the control group after a 9-month multi-component intervention including daily physical education with at least 10 min of jumping or strength training (23). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral content (BMC; gram) from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Participants from the Iowa bone development study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 369, 449, 452, 410, and 307, respectively). MVPA and VPA (minutes per day) were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kilogram), height (centimeter), linear age (year), non-linear age (year(2)), and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity). The interaction effects of PA × maturity and PA × age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile) and most (90th percentile) active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA, did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age neither modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Frontiers in Endocrinology
  • Source
    • "However, pediatric fractures related to growth cannot be considered in isolation from environmental factors, such as exposure to physical activity . Although physical activity has been associated with beneficial increases in bone mass (Daly 2007; Gunter et al. 2008; Karlsson et al. 2008) and bone geometry (Kontulainen et al. 2003; Janz et al. 2004; Macdonald et al. 2008), participation in high intensity physical activity has been shown to increase the probability of sustaining a fracture (Clark et al. 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous fracture may predispose an individual to bone fragility because of impaired bone mineral accrual. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the influence of fractures sustained during childhood and (or) adolescence on total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) bone mineral content (BMC) in young adulthood. It was hypothesized that there would be lower TB, LS, FN, and TH BMC in participants who had sustained a pediatric fracture. Participant anthropometrics, physical activity, and BMC (measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed longitudinally during childhood and adolescence (from 1991 to 1997), and again in young adulthood (2002 to 2006). Sex, adult height, adult lean mass, adult physical activity, and adolescent BMC adjusted TB, LS, FN, and TH BMC in young adulthood, for those who reported 1 or more fractures (n = 42), were compared with those who reported no fractures (n = 101). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in adjusted BMC between fracture and nonfracture groups at the TB, LS, FN, and TH sites in young adulthood. These results suggest that fractures sustained during childhood and adolescence may not interfere with bone mass in young adulthood at clinically relevant bone sites.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
Show more