Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: A review

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.8). 03/2008; 25(2):172-80. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701823142
Source: PubMed


The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates, and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins are successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards individual mycotoxins. An impairment of this barrier function due to diseases or the direct antimicrobial effect of certain mycotoxins may increase absorption rates. The rate of absorption determines not only the internal dose and risk for adverse health effects, but also the excretion of mycotoxins and the biologically active metabolites into milk.

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Available from: J. Fink-Gremmels
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    • "Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by a wide range of fungi known to contaminate a variety of food and agricultural commodities worldwide (CAST, 2003). Their occurrence in agricultural commodities has been recognized as a potential threat to humans and animals, either by direct contamination of plant materials or products (Fink-Gremmels, 1999) or by the 'carry over' of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk and eggs after intake of contaminated feed (Fink-Gremmels, 2008; Mavungu et al., 2009). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that approximately 25% of the world's agricultural commodities are contaminated with mycotoxins (Kabak et al., 2006). "
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    • "In addition, high levels of mycotoxins in feed could also alter rumen metabolism [17]. Some trichothecenes in food intended for animal feeding are a major concern, especially DON, T-2 and HT-2. "
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    • "The toxin can be detected in milk 12–24 h after consuming AFB1. When the consumption of contaminated feed is stopped, the concentration of AFM1 in milk decreases to an undetectable level within 4–5 days (Fink-Gremmels 2008; Fallah 2010a). Although the mutagenic and carcinogenic potency of aflatoxin M1 is less when compared to its parent compound AFB1, the carcinogenic damage caused by aflatoxin M1 convinced the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2002) to classify it in class 1 human carcinogenic compounds. "
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