Manganese superoxide dismutase gene dosage affects chromosomal instability and tumor onset in a mouse model of T cell lymphoma

Interdisciplinary Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology and Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.74). 05/2008; 44(8):1677-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.01.022
Source: PubMed


Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide have been implicated as causal elements of oncogenesis. A variety of cancers have displayed changes in steady-state levels of key antioxidant enzymes, with the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) being commonly implicated. Increasing MnSOD expression suppresses the malignant phenotype in various cancer cell lines and suppresses tumor formation in xenograft and transgenic mouse models. We examined the impact of MnSOD expression in the development of T cell lymphoma in mice expressing proapoptotic Bax. Lck-Bax38/1 transgenic mice were crossed to mice overexpressing MnSOD (Lck-MnSOD) as well as MnSOD+/- mice. The effects of MnSOD on apoptosis, cell cycle, chromosomal instability (CIN), and lymphoma development were determined. The apoptotic and cell cycle phenotypes observed in thymocytes from control and Bax transgenic mice were unaffected by variations in MnSOD levels. Remarkably, increased gene dosage of MnSOD significantly decreased aneuploidy in premalignant thymocytes as well as the onset of tumor formation in Lck-Bax38/1 mice. The observed effects of MnSOD support a role for ROS in CIN and tumor formation in this mouse model of T cell lymphoma.

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Available from: Brian J Smith, Jun 20, 2014
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    • "It influences the activity of some transcription factors, such as activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NFí µí¼…B), and p53 [80] [81]. MnSOD also protects the normal tissues from chromosomal instability, due to various injuries, causing cancer [82]. Moreover, this enzyme modulates the ROS concentration in cancer cells [83] [84]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a consequence of metabolic reactions in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. This work describes the role of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a biomarker of different human diseases and proposes a new therapeutic application for the prevention of cancer and its treatment. The paper also describes how a new form of human MnSOD was discovered, its initial application, and its clinical potentials. The MnSOD isolated from a human liposarcoma cell line (LSA) was able to kill cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors, but it did not have cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Together with its oncotoxic activity, the recombinant MnSOD (rMnSOD) exerts a radioprotective effect on normal cells irradiated with X-rays. The rMnSOD is characterized by the presence of a leader peptide, which allows the protein to enter cells: this unique property can be used in the radiodiagnosis of cancer or chemotherapy, conjugating radioactive substances or chemotherapic drugs to the leader peptide of the MnSOD. Compared to traditional chemotherapic agents, the drugs conjugated with the leader peptide of MnSOD can selectively reach and enter cancer cells, thus reducing the side effects of traditional treatments.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "Decreased MnSOD expression levels, gene silencing, inactivating mutations or gene polymorphisms, all have been associated with tumorigenesis , also in the case of lymphoma and leukemia development [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]. Moreover, several reports addressed the importance of MnSOD for T cell differentiation and function [23] [32] [34] [35]. In that respect, our results shed a new light on the understanding of a T cell-specific function of MnSOD, one of the catalytically fastest and thus most intriguing enzymes of the human cell. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are indispensible for T cell activation-induced expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and CD95 ligand (CD95L, FasL/Apo-1L) genes, and in turn, for CD95L-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD). Here, we show that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2), a major mitochondrial antioxidative enzyme, constitutes an important control switch in the process of activation-induced oxidative signal generation in T cells. Analysis of the kinetics of T cell receptor (TCR)-triggered ROS production revealed a temporal association between higher MnSOD abundance/activity and a shut-down phase of oxidative signal generation. Transient or inducible MnSOD overexpression abrogated T cell activation-triggered mitochondrial ROS production as well as NF-κB- and AP-1-mediated transcription. Consequently, lowered expression of IL-2 and CD95L genes resulted in decreased IL-2 secretion and CD95L-dependent AICD. Moreover, upregulation of the mitochondrial MnSOD level is dependent on oxidation-sensitive transcription and not on the increase of mitochondrial mass. Thus, MnSOD-mediated negative feedback regulation of activation-induced mitochondrial ROS generation exemplifies a process of retrograde mitochondria-to-nucleus communication. Our finding underlines the critical role for MnSOD and mitochondria in the regulation of human T cell activation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    • "In addition, we also determined whether Casp9DN would promote oncogenesis in two other cancer-prone strains. Lck-Bax38/1 mice were examined since lymphoma formation is thought has been shown to be regulated in part by mitochondrial derived pro-oxidants [35]. In addition, since mitophagy was activated in Lck-Casp9DN mice, we also examined oncogenesis in tumor-prone mice with impaired autophagy (Beclin 1+/−). "
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    ABSTRACT: Caspase-9 is a component of the apoptosome that mediates cell death following release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Inhibition of Caspase-9 with a dominant negative construct (Casp9DN) blocks apoptosome function, promotes viability and has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Inhibition of the apoptosome in vitro impairs mitochondrial function and promotes mitophagy. To examine whether inhibition of the apoptosome would enhance mitophagy and promote oncogenesis in vivo, transgenic mice were generated that express Casp9DN in the T cell lineage. The effects of Casp9DN on thymocyte viability, mitophagy and thymic tumor formation were examined. In primary thymocytes, Casp9DN delayed dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell death, altered mitochondrial structure, and decreased oxidant production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that inhibition of the apoptosome resulted in structurally abnormal mitochondria that in some cases were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitochondria being engulfed by autophagosomes (mitophagy), confocal microscopy showed colocalization of LC3-GFP and mitochondria. However, Casp9DN did not significantly accelerate T-cell lymphoma alone, or in combination with Lck-Bax38/1, or with Beclin 1+/- mice, two tumor-prone strains in which altered mitochondrial function has been implicated in promoting tumor development. In addition, heterozygous disruption of Beclin 1 had no effect on T-cell lymphoma formation in Lck-Bax38/1 mice. Further studies showed that Beclin 1 levels had no effect on Casp9DN-induced loss of mitochondrial function. These results demonstrate that neither inhibition of apoptosome function nor Beclin 1 haploinsufficiency accelerate T-cell lymphoma development in mice.
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