Jackowski AP, Douglas-Palumberi H, Jackowski M, Win L, Schultz RT, Staib LW et al. Corpus callosum in maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. J Psychiatry Res 162: 256-261

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 05/2008; 162(3):256-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.08.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Contrary to expectations derived from preclinical studies of the effects of stress, and imaging studies of adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of hippocampus atrophy in children with PTSD. Multiple pediatric studies have reported reductions in the corpus callosum--the primary white matter tract in the brain. Consequently, in the present study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess white matter integrity in the corpus callosum in 17 maltreated children with PTSD and 15 demographically matched normal controls. Children with PTSD had reduced fractional anisotropy in the medial and posterior corpus, a region which contains interhemispheric projections from brain structures involved in circuits that mediate the processing of emotional stimuli and various memory functions--core disturbances associated with a history of trauma. Further exploration of the effects of stress on the corpus callosum and white matter development appears a promising strategy to better understand the pathophysiology of PTSD in children.

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Available from: Joan Kaufman, Jul 05, 2015
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    • "During the last few decades, researchers have made considerable progress in elucidating the neurobiological consequences of exposure to child abuse or maltreatment. Most studies have focused on individuals exposed to multiple forms of trauma (typically CSA and/or PA) who are highly symptomatic (Bremner et al., 1997; Carrion et al., 2007; De Bellis et al., 1999, 2002a,b; Jackowski et al., 2008; Richert et al., 2006; Stein et al., 1997; Teicher et al., 2004; Vermetten et al., 2006; Vythilingam et al., 2002). These studies have predominantly identified alterations in corpus callosum, hippocampus and frontal cortex. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "During the last few decades, researchers have made considerable progress in elucidating the neurobiological consequences of exposure to child abuse or maltreatment. Most studies have focused on individuals exposed to multiple forms of trauma (typically CSA and/or PA) who are highly symptomatic (Bremner et al., 1997; Carrion et al., 2007; De Bellis et al., 1999, 2002a,b; Jackowski et al., 2008; Richert et al., 2006; Stein et al., 1997; Teicher et al., 2004; Vermetten et al., 2006; Vythilingam et al., 2002). These studies have predominantly identified alterations in corpus callosum, hippocampus and frontal cortex. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "In addition, studies examining white matter in stress-related psychiatric disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder) are of interest because these disorders are often accompanied by an unbalanced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, resulting in increased levels of cortisol, as well as psychiatric symptoms similar to those reported by Cushing's disease patients. Stress-related psychiatric disorders have been related to reduced white matter integrity in mainly the corpus callosum, the cingulum and the uncinate fasciculus (Cullen et al., 2010; Eluvathingal et al., 2006; Jackowski et al., 2008; Kieseppa et al., 2010; Schuff et al., 2011; Sexton et al., 2009; Villarreal et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hypercortisolism leads to various physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, which may partly persist after treatment of Cushing's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease, and their relation with psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. Methods In patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 22) we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter in a region-of-interest (ROI; bilateral cingulate cingulum, bilateral hippocampal cingulum, bilateral uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum) and the whole brain, using 3 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach. Psychological and cognitive functioning were assessed with validated questionnaires and clinical severity was assessed using the Cushing's syndrome Severity Index. Results The ROI analysis showed FA reductions in all of the hypothesized regions, with the exception of the bilateral hippocampal cingulum, in patients when compared to controls. The exploratory whole brain analysis showed multiple regions with lower FA values throughout the brain. Patients reported more apathy (p = .003) and more depressive symptoms (p < .001), whereas depression symptom severity in the patient group was negatively associated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed increased radial and mean diffusivity in the patient group. Conclusion Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical neuroimaging
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