Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation (Impact Factor: 5.09). 03/2008; 86(2):140-6. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.07.040089
Source: PubMed


In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health.

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Available from: Sanjoy K Datta, Feb 04, 2014
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    • "It is generally accepted that immunisations prevent diseases and save millions of lives each year678. Apart from access to clean water, no health intervention is as effective in reducing disease burden[8]. Currently, immunisations can prevent an increasing number of infectious diseases[7]. Despite this success, it is estimated that 2.5 million children die each year due to vaccine preventable diseases[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In recent years, vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis have been re-emerging in Western countries, maybe because of decreasing participation in childhood vaccination programs in some countries. There is clear evidence for vaccine efficacy and the risk of adverse effects is low. This needs to be communicated to the general public. The aim of the study was to evaluate the public opinion on childhood vaccinations in Iceland. Materials and methods: An internet based study was used to evaluate the opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. The cohort was divided in three groups: (a) general public (b) employees of the University Hospital Iceland and (c) employees (teachers and staff) of the University of Iceland. The cohorts could be stratified according to age, gender, education, household income, parenthood and residency. Results: Responses were received from 5584 individuals (53% response rate). When asked about childhood vaccinations in the first and second year of life, approximately 95% of participants were "positive" or "very positive", approximately 1% were "negative" or "very negative". When participants were asked whether they would have their child immunized according to the Icelandic childhood vaccination schedule, 96% were "positive" or "very positive", 1.2% were "negative" or "very negative". Similarly, 92% trust Icelandic Health authorities to decide on childhood vaccination schedule, 2.3% did not. In total, 9.3% "rather" or "strongly" agreed to the statement "I fear that vaccinations can cause severe adverse effects", 17.5% were undecided and 66.9% "disagreed" or "strongly disagreed". Individuals with higher education were more likely to disagree with this statement (OR=1.45, CI95=1.29-1.64, p<0.001) as did males (OR=1.22, CI95=1.087-1.379, p=0.001). Conclusion: This study shows a very positive attitude towards vaccinations raising expectations for an ongoing success in preventing preventable communicable diseases in childhood in Iceland.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Vaccine
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    • "Because most immunizations are administered to healthy persons (frequently babies) to prevent illness, are commonly recommended for near-universal use, and are often legally required for school entry, the tolerance for risks is much lower than most other medical interventions (generally targeted at treating ill patients). (2) Increasing maturity of National Immunization Programs (NIP): Most NIPs are maturing with high coverage and effectiveness of most commonly used immunizations, resulting in (near) elimination of their target vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) [123] but also an increased number of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI; both true reactions and temporally coincidental events). (3) Limited clinical trial sample size: The inherent limits of sample size in pre-licensure clinical trials usually means rare, AEFIs are likely to be detectable only in post-licensure settings once larger populations are immunized [124]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Vaccine
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    • "Vaccination has played a crucial role in decreasing global infectious diseases. After almost 220 years since the creation of the first vaccine by Edward Jenner, vaccination is still considered the most feasible and effective means of protection from multiple infectious diseases [1]. However, some individuals experience vaccine-preventable illnesses and complications even after vaccination . "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high success of protection against several infectious diseases through effective vaccines, some sub-populations have been observed to respond poorly to vaccines, putting them at increased risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. In particular, the limited data concerning the effect of obesity on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy suggests that obesity is a factor that increases the likelihood of a poor vaccine-induced immune response. Obesity occurs through the deposition of excess lipids into adipose tissue through the production of adipocytes, and is defined as a body-mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2). The immune system is adversely affected by obesity, and these "immune consequences" raise concern for the lack of vaccine-induced immunity in the obese patient requiring discussion of how this sub-population might be better protected. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Vaccine
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