Current Utility of Staging Laparoscopy for Pancreatic and Peripancreatic Neoplasms

Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 03/2008; 206(3):445-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.09.021
Source: PubMed


The routine use of staging laparoscopy in patients with radiographically resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic neoplasms remains controversial.
We reviewed a prospective database that identified 1,045 patients who underwent staging laparoscopy for radiographically resectable pancreatic or peripancreatic tumors between 1995 and 2005. Radiographic resectability was determined by review of radiographic reports, surgeons' notes, and cross-sectional imaging studies. Factors were assessed for their association with the laparoscopic identification of radiographically occult unresectable disease. Recursive partitioning was used to build a decision tree, with laparoscopic identification of unresectable disease as the outcomes, including only patients since 1999 (modern imaging) and factors available preoperatively.
Unresectable disease was identified laparoscopically in 145 of the 1,045 radiographically resectable patients (14%). Factors associated with radiographically occult unresectable disease included the time period of the study, whether imaging was performed at our institution (internal versus external imaging), primary site, histology, weight loss, and jaundice. Primary site (pancreatic versus nonpancreatic) was identified as the strongest predictor of yield. In patients with nonpancreatic tumors, the yield of laparoscopy was 4%. In patients with pancreatic tumors, the yield of laparoscopy was 14% overall, but was 8.4% in patients with internal imaging versus 17% in patients with external imaging (p < 0.01). This higher-risk subgroup was partitioned by the presence of weight loss, then by primary site within the pancreas.
During the time period of this study, the yield of staging laparoscopy decreased and exceeded 10% only for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. When high-quality cross-sectional imaging reveals no evidence of unresectable disease, routine staging laparoscopy may not be warranted for pancreatic or peripancreatic tumors other than presumed pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    • "Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with poor prognosis, even in patients who have undergone resection with curative intent[1]. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of patients have unresectable disease with or without distant organ metastasis on imaging modality[1,2]. Despite the advances and resolution improvement of imaging technologies, less-invasive staging modalities are still limited in their ability to identify accurately metastatic disease of small volume, resulting in inappropriate patient selection for therapy[3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of current study is to verify usefulness of staging laparoscopy (stag-lap) for patient’s selection and to find prognostic factors in patients with radiographically defined locally advanced (RD-LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The LA disease was defined as an unresectable disease without distant organ metastasis based on resectability status of NCCN guideline in this study. Stag-lap was performed in 67 patients with RD-LA (2007–2012) which were divided into 4 groups according to metastatic site: group CY (peritoneal fluid or washing cytology positive and without any distant organ metastasis); group P (peritoneal dissemination); group L (liver metastasis); group LA (peritoneal fluid or washing cytology negative and without any distant organ metastasis). Clinical backgrounds, survival curves, and prognostic factors were investigated. There were 16 patients in CY group (24 %), 13 patients in P group (19 %), 10 patients in L group (15 %), and 28 patients in LA group (42 %). Median survival time was 13 months in CY group and 11 months in LA group, which was significantly better than 7 months in P group, respectively (p < 0.05). The rate of emergence of ascites in LA was significantly better than in CY or P groups (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of partial response and administration of second-line chemotherapy were significantly independent prognostic factors. The majority of PDAC patients with RD-LA had occult distant organ metastasis. Clinical features and survival curves were different depending on the site of occult distant organ metastasis. Administration of second-line chemotherapy and responsiveness to chemotherapy were associated with favorable prognosis. Staging laparoscopy should be routinely performed in patients with RD-LA PDAC (UMIN000019936).
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
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    • "We excluded individual patients from the meta-analysis; if patients were diagnosed with unresectable pancreatic cancer during their preoperative workup, but underwent palliative surgery [27] [29] [34] [36] [38], patients did not undergo LUS, but only laparoscopy [34] [36] [37]; patients declined surgery [31] [37]; if patients were diagnosed with other pathology then pancreatic cancer [31] [32] [35] [37]. In two studies on selective use of LUS, it was not possible to extract the subpopulation of patients that received LUS assessment [41] [42]. Therefore, these studies were not included. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. Even the small minority that undergoes resection with curative intent has low 5-year survival rates. This may partly be explained by the high number of irradical resections, which results in local recurrence and impaired overall survival. Currently, ultrasonography is used during surgery for resectability assessment and frozen-section analysis is used for assessment of resection margins in order to decrease the number of irradical resections. The introduction of minimal invasive techniques in pancreatic surgery has deprived surgeons from direct tactile information. To improve intraoperative assessment of pancreatic tumor extension, enhanced or novel intraoperative imaging technologies accurately visualizing and delineating cancer cells are necessary. Emerging modalities are intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and freehand nuclear imaging using tumor-specific targeted contrast agents. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature on laparoscopic ultrasonography and we summarized and discussed current and future intraoperative imaging modalities and their potential for improved tumor demarcation during pancreatic surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BioMed Research International
    • "Using laparoscopic technique, lesions even smaller than 1 cm can be identified, biopsied and ablated. Laparoscopy has been suggested to prevent 10–44% of patients from having an unnecessary laparotomy by identifying those with unresectable disease not identified by imaging.[21–23] "
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic laparoscopy helps in diagnosing and staging Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Routine laparoscopy before laparotomy, especially in cancers that have equivocal operability, helps to avoid unnecessary laparotomies. Present study evaluates utility of laparoscopy in diagnosing and staging GI cancers. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done in 41 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers who were thought to have equivocal operability. Patients with suspected or known non-metastatic GI cancers, in whom resectability was found doubtful by clinical assessment and pre-operative imaging, were included. Patients with non-GI cancers (lymphoma, gynaecologic cancers, genitourinary cancers, retroperitoneal sarcoma, sarcoma and abdominal metastasis of non-GI cancers) and metastatic cancers which were beyond the scope of curative surgery were excluded from the study. After diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) five patients had benign diagnosis. Out of 36 patients with malignant diagnosis, after DL, 22 patients (61.1%) were inoperable, 11 patients (30.6%) were operable, and three (8.3%) patients were of equivocal operability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of laparoscopy in detecting operability were 100%, 91.7%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Laparoscopy helped in a significant number of patients with advanced GI cancers to avoid laparotomy. The morbidity of DL was acceptable.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
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