Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2008; 98(6):1112-5. DOI: 10.1017/S000711450778145X
Source: PubMed


It was the aim of the present study to estimate the intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) from meat, which have been associated with cancer risk in several epidemiological studies, of 21 462 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg. This was accomplished by using a detailed dietary questionnaire that assessed meat consumption, cooking methods, and degree of browning of the respective food items. Median total HCA intake from meat was 31 ng/d (mean 69 ng/d), which was lower than results observed in previous studies. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine was the most common HCA in this cohort (median 17; mean 48 ng/d). The present study offers the opportunity of a detailed examination of the associations between meat cooking as well as HCA intake from meat and cancer risk in a prospective way.

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Available from: Sabine Rohrmann, Jan 20, 2014
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    • "Epidemiological studies in the past indicate that a correlation between the consumption of high amounts of strongly heated red meat and the development of colorectal cancer may in fact exist (Scheppach et al., 1999; Chao et al., 2005; Norat et al., 2005; Sinha et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006; Rohrmann et al., 2007). As to the compounds possibly being involved in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells in the colon and rectum, a number of toxic substances, including the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), have been identified in heated red meat. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that in the rat, the colon carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is only absorbed to a limited extent in the small intestines and that a major fraction of unmetabolised PhIP reaches the colon. Moreover, PhIP is extensively metabolised when incubated with human stool samples to a major derivative, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido [3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1). In the present study, the uptake and transport of PhIP-M1 in Ussing chamber experiments, its cytotoxicity in the different segments of the Fischer 344 rat gut and its transforming potential in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay were analysed. At the most, 10-20% of the PhIP-M1 amount added to the mucosal compartment of the Ussing chambers per segment were absorbed within 90min. Therefore, the amount of PhIP-M1 detected in the tissues as well as in the serosal compartment of the Ussing chambers was extremely low. Moreover, human-relevant concentrations of PhIP-M1 were not cytotoxic and did not induce the malignant transformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells. In conclusion, even if one would assume that 100% of the daily amount of PhIP ingested by a human being is converted into PhIP-M1 in the colon, this concentration most probably would not lead to cytotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity in the colorectal mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Toxicology Letters
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    • "Since humans take up less than 1 lg HCAs per day (SKLM 1998), even if one supposed that 100 % of the daily amount of PhIP ingested by a human being is converted into PhIP-M1 in the colon, the concentration needed to induce DNA damage in the epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa is definitely not reached. A number of epidemiological studies have pointed out that a positive association between the consumption of red and processed meat and colorectal cancer risk exists (Scheppach et al. 1999; Chao et al. 2005; Norat et al. 2005; Sinha et al. 2005; Wu et al. 2006; Rohrmann et al. 2007). Furthermore, it has been postulated that haem iron, nitrate/ nitrite as well as HCAs present in red and processed meat might explain the above-mentioned association (Cross et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies show that a positive correlation exists between the consumption of strongly heated meat and fish and the development of colorectal tumours. In this context, it has been postulated that the uptake of toxic substances formed during meat and fish processing such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) may be causally related to colon carcinogenesis. In a previous study, we have shown that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundantly formed HCA in the above-mentioned food items, is mainly absorbed in the small intestine (i.e. proximal jejunum) of the rat. In the present study, we analysed whether PhIP can actively be secreted by enterocytes in the rat proximal jejunum and distal colon. Unidirectional PhIP flux rates from the mucosal-to-the serosal compartment (J ms ) and in the opposite direction (J sm ) were examined in Ussing chambers with 14C-PhIP as radiotracer and in the absence of electrochemical gradients. Under these experimental conditions, significant negative net flux rates (J net = J ms − J sm ) can only be explained by an active secretion of PhIP into the luminal compartment, and such an effect was observed in the rat distal colon, but not in the proximal jejunum. Moreover, the data obtained suggest that the breast cancer resistance protein, the multidrug resistance protein 4 and P-glycoprotein are not involved in the active secretion of PhIP in the rat distal colon. The potential role of PhIP transport in colon carcinogenesis is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Archives of Toxicology
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    • "In some casecontrol studies, the risk of breast cancer was positively associated with the intake of protein rich foods and, more specifically, animal protein (Egeberg et al 2008). A recent study has shown that women, both pre-and post-menopausal, who consumed the most meat, and in particular processed meat, in their diet had the highest risk of breast cancer (Taylor et al 2007) Other food constituents such as heterocyclic amines, consumed with charbroiled food, have a carcinogenic potential (Rohrmann et al 2007). "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008
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