ChemInform Abstract: “Green” Pyrotechnics: A Chemists′ Challenge

Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitäten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, Austria.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition (Impact Factor: 11.26). 02/2008; 47(18):3330-47. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704510
Source: PubMed


Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics.

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Available from: Georg Steinhauser, Jun 23, 2015
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    • "Preparation. Ammonium, hydrazinium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium and triaminoguanidinium salts of 5,5'-azotetrazole were synthesized by method published elsewhere [5] [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Salts of 5,5’-azotetrazole with organic bases were studied in respect to their thermodynamic properties. The calorimetric measurements were carried out in a bomb calorimeter with a modified oxygen bomb. Samples to test were burnt in free the pending state, without using a crucible. The enthalpies of formation were calculated from measured heats of combustion using standard enthalpies of formation of the combustion products.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Apr 2015
    • "Fireworks can be " greened " by the application of nitrogen-rich compounds (Steinhauser and Klapotke 2008). High-nitrogen energetic salts can be used in pyrotechnics by replacing perchlorate (Klapotke et al. 2010a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is used in solid rocket propellants, fireworks, munitions, signal flares, etc. The use of fireworks is identified as one of the main contributors in the increasing environmental perchlorate contamination. Although fireworks are displayed for entertainment, its environmental costs are dire. Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites. The health and ecological impacts of perchlorate released in fireworks are yet to be fully assessed. This paper reviews fireworks as a source of perchlorate contamination and its expected adverse impacts.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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    • "Although it served as a low-energy fuel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a known color enhancer and participated as a chlorine donor during the combustion process. Another reason for the utilization of PVC was the volatilization of incandescent MgO by transforming it to the more volatile MgCl species [5]. When chlorine and barium reacted during the combustion process, BaCl formed, and this species provided green light– emitting pyrotechnic qualities. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of using crystalline boron in green-colored handheld signal formulations is described. Due to its chemically inert nature, crystalline boron served to reduce the burn rates of the formulations. By adjusting crystalline boron percentages in the formulations, the pyrotechnic system could be tuned to meet burn time specifications.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Energetic Materials
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