Article

Mermin J, Were W, Ekwaru JP, Moore D, Downing R, Behumbiize P, et al. Mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults receiving antiretroviral treatment and survival of their HIV-uninfected children: a prospective cohort study

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Uganda, Global AIDS Program, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Disease, and Tuberculosis Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Entebbe, Uganda.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 03/2008; 371(9614):752-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60345-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available in Africa, but physicians and clinical services are few. We therefore assessed the effect of a home-based ART programme in Uganda on mortality, hospital admissions, and orphanhood in people with HIV-1 and their household members.
In 2001, we enrolled and followed up 466 HIV-infected adults and 1481 HIV-uninfected household members in a prospective cohort study. After 5 months, we provided daily co-trimoxazole (160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole) prophylaxis to HIV-infected participants. Between May, 2003, and December, 2005, we followed up 138 infected adults who were eligible and 907 new HIV-infected participants and their HIV-negative household members in a study of ART (mainly stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine). Households were visited every week by lay providers, and no clinic visits were scheduled after enrolment. We compared rates of death, hospitalisation, and orphanhood during different study periods and calculated the number needed to treat to prevent an outcome.
233 (17%) of 1373 participants with HIV and 40 (1%) of 4601 HIV-uninfected household members died. During the first 16 weeks of ART and co-trimoxazole, mortality in HIV-infected participants was 55% lower than that during co-trimoxazole alone (14 vs 16 deaths per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.74, p=0.0018), and after 16 weeks, was reduced by 92% (3 vs 16 deaths per 100 person-years; 0.08, 0.06-0.13, p<0.0001). Compared with no intervention, ART and co-trimoxazole were associated with a 95% reduction in mortality in HIV-infected participants (5 vs 27 deaths per 100 person-years; 0.05, 0.03-0.08, p<0.0001), 81% reduction in mortality in their uninfected children younger than 10 years (0.2 vs 1.2 deaths per 100 person-years; 0.19, 0.06-0.59, p=0.004), and a 93% estimated reduction in orphanhood (0.9 vs 12.8 per 100 person-years of adults treated; 0.07, 0.04-0.13, p<0.0001).
Expansion of access to ART and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis could substantially reduce mortality and orphanhood among adults with HIV and their families living in resource-poor settings.

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    • "Worldwide, inequity in access is a crucial challenge dealing with HIV. However, most studies look at inequity from the second perspective, focusing on increasing international rates of access to ART where it is needed[8], its role on prevention[9], on mortality[10], its impact in different groups of individuals as sex workers[11]or injecting drug users[12], or early diagnosis in infants[13]. We contribute to the literature by developing a different analysis looking at the first mentioned reality: HIV health policy and planning in developed countries where access to ART is guaranteed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Access to ART and health services is guaranteed under universal coverage to improve life expectancy and quality of life for HIV patients. However, it remains unknown whether patients of different socioeconomic background equally use different types of health services. We use one-year (2010–2011) data on individual healthcare utilization and expenditures for the total population (N = 2262698) of the Basque Country. We observe the prevalence of HIV and use OLS regressions to estimate the impact on health utilization of demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health status in such patients. HIV prevalence per 1000 individuals is greater the lower the socioeconomic status (0.784 for highest; 2.135 for lowest), for males (1.616) versus females (0.729), and for middle-age groups (26–45 and 46–65). Health expenditures are 11826€ greater for HIV patients than for others, but with differences by socioeconomic group derived from a different mix of services utilization (total cost of 13058€ for poorest, 14960€ for richest). Controlling for health status and demographic variables, poor HIV patients consume more on pharmaceuticals; rich in specialists and hospital care. Therefore, there is inequity in health services utilization by socioeconomic groups. Equity in health provision for HIV patients represents a challenge even if access to treatment is guaranteed. Lack of information in poorer individuals might lead to under-provision while richer individuals might demand over-provision. We recommend establishing accurate clinical guidelines with the appropriate mix of health provision by validated need for all socioeconomic groups; promoting educational programs so that patients demand the appropriate mix of services, and stimulating integrated care for HIV patients with multiple chronic conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal for Equity in Health
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    • "However, little is known about the personal social networks among older people living with HIV/AIDS (OPLWHA) in Africa in general, and in Togo in particular, and whether or not these networks correlate with self-reported health. It is important to study the social networks and health among OPLWHA in Africa because the expanding distribution of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved survival among OPLWHA, causing this population to grow (Negin and Cumming 2010; Mermin et al. 2008). In fact, Negin and Cumming (2010) estimated that nearly 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are over 50 years old. "
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    ABSTRACT: Personal social networks and their association with the health of older people have been explored, but there are few studies that examined the relationship between the general health of older people living with HIV/AIDS (OPLWHA) and their personal social networks. This exploratory study investigates the characteristics of personal networks among OPLWHA and the relationship between the self-rated health and personal social networks of OPLWHA in Lomé, Togo. Forty-nine OPLWHA were interviewed via an egocentric survey. We examined the composition and size of the networks of OPLWHA. Also, the correlation between networks and self-reported health was examined. Findings show that the OPLWHA had personal social networks that included three types of people: immediate kin, extended kin, and non-kin. Additionally, these networks varied by size. While the mean number of people in the smaller network (people from whom the OPLWHA can borrow an important sum of money) was less than one person (0.55), the mean number of people in the larger network was three (people with whom the OPLWHA enjoy socializing). Furthermore, only the network of people with whom OPLWHA enjoy socializing had a significant positive correlation on the self-rated health of OPLWHA. Consistent with prior research, we found that the mere existence of a network does not imply that the network has a positive correlation with the subject or that the network provides the social support needed to positively influence health. A study of the correlation between social network characteristics and health in the population of older people with HIV/AIDS is important as the number of OPLWHA continues to grow.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
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    • "Treatment with ART was estimated to avert 7.3 discounted DALYs among HIV-infected individuals who survived >16 weeks. This value was drawn from the same Zambian analysis used to estimate treatment costs, and it was obtained by comparing deaths in the Zambian ART program with deaths observed in a prior, well-characterized home-based AIDS care (HBAC) cohort of 466 HIV-infected patients not receiving ART in Tororo District, Uganda, adjusted for differences in CD4+ T-cell counts and sex distribution between groups [16,19,24,25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Low body mass index (BMI) individuals starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa have high rates of death and loss to follow-up in the first 6 months of treatment. Nutritional supplementation may improve health outcomes in this population, but the anticipated benefit of any intervention should be commensurate with the cost given resource limitations and the need to expand access to ART in the region. Methods We used Markov models incorporating historical data and program-wide estimates of treatment costs and health benefits from the Zambian national ART program to estimate the improvements in 6-month survival and program retention among malnourished adults necessary for a combined nutrition support and ART treatment program to maintain cost-effectiveness parity with ART treatment alone. Patients were stratified according to World Health Organization criteria for severe (BMI <16.0 kg/m2), moderate (16.00-16.99 kg/m2), and mild (17.00-18.49 kg/m2) malnutrition categories. Results 19,247 patients contributed data between May 2004 and October 2010. Quarterly survival and retention were lowest in the BMI <16.0 kg/m2 category compared to higher BMI levels, and there was less variation in both measures across BMI strata after 180 days. ART treatment was estimated to cost $556 per year and averted 7.3 disability-adjusted life years. To maintain cost-effectiveness parity with ART alone, a supplement needed to cost $10.99 per quarter and confer a 20% reduction in both 6-month mortality and loss to follow-up among BMI <16.0 kg/m2 patients. Among BMI 17.00-18.49 kg/m2 patients, supplement costs accompanying a 20% reduction in mortality and loss to follow-up could not exceed $5.18 per quarter. In sensitivity analyses, the maximum permitted supplement cost increased if the ART program cost rose, and fell if patients classified as lost to follow-up at 6 months subsequently returned to care. Conclusions Low BMI adults starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk of early mortality and loss to follow-up. The expense of providing nutrition supplementation would require only modest improvements in survival and program retention to be cost-effective for the most severely malnourished individuals starting ART, but interventions are unlikely to be cost-effective among those in higher BMI strata.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
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