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Can an Angry Woman Get Ahead? Status Conferral, Gender, and Expression of Emotion in the Workplace

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Abstract

Three studies examined the relationships among anger, gender, and status conferral. As in prior research, men who expressed anger in a professional context were conferred higher status than men who expressed sadness. However, both male and female evaluators conferred lower status on angry female professionals than on angry male professionals. This was the case regardless of the actual occupational rank of the target, such that both a female trainee and a female CEO were given lower status if they expressed anger than if they did not. Whereas women's emotional reactions were attributed to internal characteristics (e.g., "she is an angry person,"she is out of control"), men's emotional reactions were attributed to external circumstances. Providing an external attribution for the target person's anger eliminated the gender bias. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed.

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... Finally, direct comparisons of men and women's emotional expression at work supports our prediction that men labeled as emotional will get the benefit of the doubt compared to women labeled similarly. Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) found that participants perceived women leaders who expressed anger to be more out of control than men leaders who expressed the same levels of anger. This belief that men emote more competently than women for the same emotions leads to several consequences, such as women being perceived as less successful in the workplace (Fischbach et al., 2015), women being granted less power and status, and justifying women's lower pay (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). ...
... Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) found that participants perceived women leaders who expressed anger to be more out of control than men leaders who expressed the same levels of anger. This belief that men emote more competently than women for the same emotions leads to several consequences, such as women being perceived as less successful in the workplace (Fischbach et al., 2015), women being granted less power and status, and justifying women's lower pay (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). In sum, if a conversation partner employs an emotional label during a disagreement to delegitimize their partner's argument, they are likely activating observers' stereotypes about women as overemotional and emotionally incompetent, and not similar stereotypes about men-which in turn could have downstream consequences on workplace advancement and success. ...
... A White man played the labeler, and a White woman and man played the two targets (see Method section below for more information and the online Supplemental Materials). Finally, given prior theory and research suggesting that delegitimization has negative consequences for leaders such as decreased compliance, cooperation, and deference from subordinates (e.g., Johnson et al., 2006;Vial et al., 2016) and that being perceived as emotional negatively affects workplace success and compensation for women (e.g., Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Fischbach et al., 2015), we added outcome-based measures to Study 3 to capture the potentially negative effects of being labeled as emotional. In this way, we sought to understand how an emotional label might extend beyond one conversation and affect women's advancement in other arenas. ...
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Article
With one in eight Americans thinking women are too emotional to be in politics (Carnevale et al., 2019), being labeled as emotional during a disagreement may activate stereotypes about a woman's irrationality and affect how legitimate people perceive her arguments to be. We experimentally tested the effects of such labels. In Study 1 ( N = 86), participants who read a vignette where a woman (versus a man) was told to “calm down” during a disagreement, saw her argument as significantly less legitimate. Perceived emotionality mediated the relation between condition and perceived legitimacy. Study 2 replicated this finding ( N = 126) with different vignettes where the character was explicitly labeled as “emotional.” Using video vignettes in Study 3 ( N = 251), we failed to replicate the results observed in Studies 1 and 2. We hope practitioners use these studies to increase awareness of how stereotype-laden labels can delegitimize women's arguments, particularly when heard via writing (e.g., via email, text, or instant messaging) rather than when observed. This work may motivate observers to challenge the use of delegitimizing labels, so that women's claims can be judged based on the soundness of their arguments, rather than stereotypes about their ability to think rationally. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/03616843221123745
... For example, white people are regarded as more effective leaders than Black people (Rosette et al., 2008). Yet, when white women display dominance, they are evaluated more negatively than their male counterparts (Livingston et al., 2012;Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). This has been referred to as the "agency penalty" and is also ascribed to Black men who display dominant behaviors, such as appearing assertive, angry, or competitive (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Karmali, 2019;Livingston & Pierce, 2009;Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010;Rudman & Glick, 2001). ...
... Yet, when white women display dominance, they are evaluated more negatively than their male counterparts (Livingston et al., 2012;Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). This has been referred to as the "agency penalty" and is also ascribed to Black men who display dominant behaviors, such as appearing assertive, angry, or competitive (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Karmali, 2019;Livingston & Pierce, 2009;Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010;Rudman & Glick, 2001). Black women are not merely the additive categories of two marginalized groups (i.e. ...
... In one study by Karmali (2019), Black targets were perceived as larger (and more aggressive), despite their dimensions being identical to white targets. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the same behavior that white men are rewarded for may not yield the same benefits for the Black people that display them, and it is reasonable to assume that expansive behavior would be misconstrued as aggressive if it were being exhibited by a Black person (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). ...
Article
How might the typical white perceiver behave while interviewing with a Black manager who puts her hands on her hips when she speaks? Would they act uncomfortable and anxious, leaning away from her? Would they engage with her and smile more? Lastly, would they react differently if the manager was a white man or a Black man? Even though it is known that Black people in expansive positions are perceived more negatively than white people in expansive positions, there has yet to be an observation of white people’s nonverbal behavior in interactions with Black and white individuals in different body positions (Karmali, 2019). White undergraduates from the University of Maine completed a recorded Zoom mock interview with a supposed interviewer (target) whose Zoom photograph differed by race (Black vs. white), gender (male vs. female), and body positioning (expansive vs. restrictive). Participants' impressions of the interviewer and attitudes toward race via the Modern Racism Scale (McConahay, 1986) were collected, and I coded participant’s nonverbal immediacy behavior during the interview. I first hypothesized that participants would show less nonverbal immediacy and positivity toward Black men in restrictive positions, white women in restrictive positions, and white men in expansive positions than all other groups. I also hypothesized that participants would rate white interviewers more positively overall, but among Black interviewers, participants would rate Black women the least positively and participants who interviewed with white interviewers would act more positively overall, but among Black interviewers, those who interviewed with Black men in expansive positions would act the least positively than all other Black interviewers. Lastly, I hypothesized that more negative racial attitudes, as evidenced by participants’ scores on the Modern Racism Scale (McConahay, 1986), would be negatively correlated with their nonverbal immediacy behavior, global positivity, and their positive ratings of the Black interviewer. This research expands our understanding of how to effectively tailor DEI initiatives that foster positive attitudes toward Black people in power.
... We also recently completed a large-scale crowdsourced initiative reexamining the relationships between workplace emotion expression, the gender of person who expresses the emotion, and how social perceivers evaluate that person. This follows on experimental studies conducted approximately two decades ago and published some years later (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008), finding backlash effects against angry women in terms of their perceived competence as well as the degree of social status and respect they receive. Prior work points to the implicit roots of such prescriptive stereotype effects (Rudman & Glick, 2001). ...
... The downstream consequences of expressing anger vs. sadness or neutral emotion were similar for both female and male targets, across nations, in adult and student samples, and among female and male social perceivers. We therefore failed to replicate the original Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) findings of bias against angry women, potentially due to shifts in norms related to gender in the intervening time period (Schaerer et al., 2022) and perhaps also cultural changes in the social signals sent by becoming angry in work settings. ...
... Scientists expected the original Uhlmann and Cohen (2005) pattern of bias against female job candidates to emerge again nearly two decades later, yet the largesample replication revealed directly contrary results. Academic forecasters similarly expected that the original backlash effect against angry women (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008) would replicate, that female targets would be conferred less status than male targets overall, and that recent field audits would reveal selection biases against female candidates for stereotypically male-typed and neutral-typed jobs (Schaerer et al., 2022;Tierney et al., unpublished manuscript). Such strong priors could create ideological blind spots for investigators (Arkes & Tetlock, 2004;Mitchell & Tetlock, 2006), which we argue can be counteracted via open science best practices. ...
... Women are expected to show positive emotions in general more than men (Hess et al., 2005) and their emotional expression at work is scrutinized more closely (Smith et al., 2016). In contrast, men's emotional expression is judged based on a relaxed standard: Whereas women elicit penalties from other people when they express anger in a professional context and their anger is viewed as unjustified, men's anger in the same context is seen as acceptable and warranted (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009; see also Raymondie and Steiner, 2021). In sum, even in the same organizational role, women encounter stronger external pressures than men to practice emotional labor, and are punished when they do not heed them-even when they occupy high-power roles (as we elaborate on the section on The Pressure Route: Emotional Labor Demands Curb Women's Self-Interested Use of Power). ...
... The Pressure Route: Emotional Labor Demands Curb Women's Self-Interested Use of Power Finally, the third and last route is a "pressure" route such that, to some extent, observed gender differences in the prosocial use of power reflect subtly coercive emotional labor demands and looming social threats that impinge on women more strongly than on men (Figure 1, path c). Specifically, we propose that, although attaining structural power could free individuals to behave in more self-serving ways (Kipnis, 1972;Keltner et al., 2003;Van Kleef et al., 2008), the stronger emotional labor demands imposed on women compared to men (e.g., Heilman and Chen, 2005;Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009) do not cease as they accrue power. These demands may effectively constrain powerful women's (but not men's) ability to exercise their authority in self-serving ways, resulting in more prosocial power use. ...
... Thus, the emotional makeup of women is viewed as incompatible with some of the intrapersonal emotional labor requirements of high-level positions (Fischbach et al., 2015), leading to close scrutiny of female powerholders' emotional expression. For example, women in top positions elicit more negative evaluations than men in similar roles for expressing anger (Lewis, 2000;Timmers et al., 2003;Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008), a highly dominant emotion that is typically off limits for low-power individuals (Plant et al., 2000;Tiedens et al., 2000;Petkanopoulou et al., 2019) as well as powerful women (but tends to be condoned in high-power men). But the demand on powerful women to deamplify emotion for the benefit of others does not only target negative emotions, but all emotions more generally (for reviews, see Brescoll, 2016;Smith et al., 2016). ...
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Article
Women use power in more prosocial ways than men and they also engage in more emotional labor (i.e., self-regulate their emotions to respond and attend to the needs and emotions of other people in a way that advances organizational goals). However, these two constructs have not been previously connected. We propose that gendered emotional labor practices and pressures result in gender differences in the prosocial use of power. We integrate the literature on emotional labor with research on the psychology of power to articulate three routes through which this happens. First, women may be more adept than men at the intrapersonal and interpersonal processes entailed in emotional labor practices—a skill that they can apply at all hierarchical levels. Second, given women’s stronger internal motivation to perform emotional labor, they construe power in a more interdependent manner than men, which promotes a more prosocial use of power. As a result, female powerholders tend to behave in more prosocial ways. Third, when they have power, women encounter stronger external motivation to engage in emotional labor, which effectively constrains powerful women’s behaviors in a way that fosters a more prosocial use of power. We discuss how, by promoting prosocial behavior among powerholders, emotional labor can be beneficial for subordinates and organizations (e.g., increase employee well-being and organizational trust), while simultaneously creating costs for individual powerholders, which may reduce women’s likelihood of actually attaining and retaining power by (a) making high-power roles less appealing, (b) guiding women toward less prestigious and (c) more precarious leadership roles, (d) draining powerful women’s time and resources without equitable rewards, and (e) making it difficult for women to legitimize their power in the eyes of subordinates (especially men). Thus, emotional labor practices can help explain the underrepresentation of women in top leadership positions.
... In the legal system, for instance, if someone is accused of a crime, both the judge and members of the jury may seek out information from witnesses about the character of the accused and use this testimony to make determinations of guilt and punishment. While such testimonies are not always available, research shows that perceivers frequently rely on their own attributions when judging the character of a target actor (i.e., Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). When evaluating a target actor's behavior, perceivers naturally engage in a cognitive process wherein they infer the cause of the behavior, attributing it to aspects of the target's personal characteristics (internal attributions) or the target's situation (external attributions) (e.g., Kelley, 1967;Kelley & Michela, 1980). ...
... When evaluating a target actor's behavior, perceivers naturally engage in a cognitive process wherein they infer the cause of the behavior, attributing it to aspects of the target's personal characteristics (internal attributions) or the target's situation (external attributions) (e.g., Kelley, 1967;Kelley & Michela, 1980). Studies reveal that these causal inferences-attributions-have significant implications for the judgment of the target, as well as the target's interpersonal and professional relationships (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). To illustrate further, Reeder et al. (2002) show that when aggressive behavior is attributed to internal characteristics like self-interest, the aggressor's character is judged more negatively than when the behavior is perceived to be motivated by external characteristics like threatening stimuli. ...
... Attribution of behavior to internal or external characteristics often relies on information perceivers have about the behavior, event, or target actor. For example, studies have found that knowing the sex of a target can influence the attribution ascribed to their behavior (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) show that when women get angry in the workplace, their outbursts are more strongly attributed to internal characteristics (e.g., a bad temperament), whereas when men get angry, their outbursts are more strongly attributed to external characteristics (e.g., a frustrating situation). ...
Article
As the demand for creativity grows, the vulnerability of ideas to theft becomes increasingly salient. Knowledge workers are keenly aware of idea theft and nearly one-third report having co-workers who steal ideas. However, the severity of consequences people face for stealing ideas is unclear. In this article, I investigate the interpersonal consequences of stealing ideas compared to stealing money. Across a series of experiments, I found that idea thieves are judged to have worse character than money thieves, and that individuals are less willing to offer them co-worker support. Further, I found that stronger internal attributions for idea theft behaviors drive this effect. Furthermore, I tested and found no evidence supporting value as an alternative explanation. Lastly, I found that individuals are judged more negatively for stealing creative (vs. practical) ideas. Taken together, these findings suggest that idea theft has significant interpersonal consequences with negative implications for co-worker dynamics.
... Another reason to focus on anger and anxiety is that they are related to the psychological experiences of power and status (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003;Tiedens, Ellsworth, & Mesquita, 2000), which are central constructs in the analysis of gender (Ridgeway, 2011;Rudman & Glick, 2008). Multiple studies suggest higher power people Anger and Anxiety 6 may be more prone and normatively expected to express anger (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Keltner, Young, Heerey, Oemig, & Monarch, 1998;Ratcliff, Franklin, Nelson, & Vescio, 2012;Tiedens et al., 2000). 1 In contrast, anxiety is a characteristic of those with low power (i.e., those over whom others control resources and opportunities) (Gruenfeld, Inesi, Magee, & Galinsky, 2008;Keltner et al., 2003). ...
... Another reason to focus on anger and anxiety is that they are related to the psychological experiences of power and status (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003;Tiedens, Ellsworth, & Mesquita, 2000), which are central constructs in the analysis of gender (Ridgeway, 2011;Rudman & Glick, 2008). Multiple studies suggest higher power people Anger and Anxiety 6 may be more prone and normatively expected to express anger (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Keltner, Young, Heerey, Oemig, & Monarch, 1998;Ratcliff, Franklin, Nelson, & Vescio, 2012;Tiedens et al., 2000). 1 In contrast, anxiety is a characteristic of those with low power (i.e., those over whom others control resources and opportunities) (Gruenfeld, Inesi, Magee, & Galinsky, 2008;Keltner et al., 2003). ...
... Being perceived as more powerful and higher status likely reinforces perceptions that men are better negotiators than women (Berger et al., 1977;Kray et al., 2001) and that they have stronger alternatives to agreement and can, therefore, demand more value (Galinsky et al., 2017;Pinkley, 1995;Podolny, 2005;Rivera, 2016). More powerful and higher status actors are also granted more Anger and Anxiety 10 social permission to bend social conventions (Hollander, 1958), including cheating (Bowles & Gelfand, 2010) or displaying aggression (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Keltner et al., 1998;Tiedens, 2001), which could gain a negotiator at least short-term bargaining advantages. ...
... First, repeated exposure to stereotypes from a young age may lead men and women to internalise expectations relevant to their genders, which then become self-imposed standards against which they regulate their own behaviour (Eagly and Wood, 2012). Second, descriptive stereotypes (e.g., the perceived tendency for women to be emotional) are often thought to lead to prescriptive stereotypes (e.g., the view that women should be emotional), the violation of which leads to the imposition of social sanctions by others which further incentivise conformity with gender-based norms (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008). ...
... Second, male politicians' speech is also thought to feature higher levels of linguistic complexity, marked by formalistic and jargonistic word use (Childs, 2004), while women are thought to be more accessible and clear (Coates, 2015). Third, men are also thought to be more repetitive (Dahlerup, 1988;Childs, 2004, 184), and, fourth, more aggressive, whereas women are said to avoid combative and aggressive styles (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Kathlene, 1994), and empirical work suggests women are significantly less adversarial than men in parliamentary debate (Grey, 2002;Hargrave and Langengen, 2020). Fifth, women are thought to avoid the use of excess negative emotion for fear of backlash (Cassese and Holman, 2018), while men are thought to make greater use of negativity (Brooks, 2011). ...
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Article
Research on political style suggests that where women make arguments that are more emotional, empathetic and positive, men use language that is more analytical, aggressive and complex. However, existing work does not consider how gendered patterns of style vary over time. Focusing on the UK, we argue that pressures for female politicians to conform to stereotypically ‘feminine’ styles have diminished in recent years. To test this argument, we describe novel quantitative text-analysis approaches for measuring a diverse set of styles at scale in political speech data. Analysing UK parliamentary debates between 1997 and 2019, we show that the debating styles of female MPs have changed substantially over time, as women in Parliament have increasingly adopted stylistic traits that are typically associated with ‘masculine’ stereotypes of communication. Our findings imply that prominent gender-based stereotypes of politicians' behaviour are significantly worse descriptors of empirical reality now than they were in the past.
... Among these, 12 studies explicitly adopted Rudman and colleagues' definition of backlash effect, referring to social and economic sanctions for violating gender prescriptions (e.g., Phelan & Rudman, 2010;Rudman, 1998). Although the remaining 10 studies did not explicitly report whether they borrowed the definition or defined it independently, their definitions of backlash also described negative responses toward counter-stereotypical gender behaviors (e.g., Brescoll, 2011;Brescoll, Okimoto, & Vial, 2018;Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Carlsson et al., 2014;Schock, Gruber, Scherndl, & Ortner, 2019). In other words, about half of the studies conceptualized backlash in association with violating traditional gender role prescriptions. ...
... Social identity theory also describes workplace backlash as conflict between social categories (Friedman & Craig, 2004;Leicht et al., 2017). Other theories, including intentional invisibility, organizational socialization theory, attribution theory, work-family conflict model, and self-interest theory also explain workplace backlash as a result of violating social norms or perceived unfairness at work (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Ghislieri et al., 2017;Moss-Racusin & Johnson, 2016;Taylor, 1995). ...
Article
Workplace backlash, the explicit/implicit, and/or intentional/unintentional attempts to reject efforts to promote diversity, taken by both dominant and subordinate social group members to maintain the group-based social hierarchy at work, has emerged as a major threat to fostering diversity and inclusiveness in the workplace. Although intense scholarly attention has been paid to workplace backlash, the literature has a highly individualistic and fragmented perspective of backlash, which hinders theoretical advancement. As a remedy for conceptual and theoretical heterogeneity, I first conducted a systematic review of the literature to present a critical overview of past scholarly endeavors and take stock of the empirical evidence. This article provides an alternative, unified definition of workplace backlash drawn from intergroup relations and the power hierarchy among social group members. Finally, based on the perspective of group-based social hierarchy, this study describes the emergence, development, and maintenance of workplace backlash through the lens of social dominance theory. Implications and future research suggestions are also discussed.
... They experience criticism and penalization from both men and women (Rudman, 1998), and are viewed as less socially skilled and feminine than their male counterparts (Rudman & Glick, 1999;Wang et al., 2018). Also, dominant behavior and appearance fail to increase the perceived attractiveness of women, whereas they do so in men (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Sadalla et al., 1987). In fact, female faces are rated as attractive the more submissive/immature features they contain such as a round face, large eyes, and a small chin (Keating, 1985). ...
... Given that dominant facial appearance is congruent with male representations and incongruent and undesirable for females (e.g. Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Wang et al., 2018), the findings suggest that socially shared expectations associated with each gender group act as cognitive and motivational top-down influences in face evaluation. Interestingly, female participants rated same-sex strangers as more dominant than themselves. ...
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Article
While ample evidence supports an association between power and dominance, little is still known about how temporary experiences of power influence the way people come to see themselves and others. The present research investigates the effect of social power on self- and other-face recognition, and examines whether gender modulates the direction of this effect. Male and female participants were induced to feel either powerful or powerless and had to recognize their own face and those of same-sex strangers from a series of images ranging from a dominant to a submissive version of the original. Results showed that males more frequently chose a dominant self-image under high power, whereas females selected a submissive self-image under low power. When presented with faces of same-sex targets female participants relied on low-power features (i.e., submissiveness) of the self in the perception of others (assimilation effect), whereas male participants more often selected a dominant image of strangers when feeling powerless (constrast effect). The effects of power did not extend to more deliberate judgments of dominance and likability, suggesting that respective biases in face recollection operated at an implicit level. This research underscores the cognitive and motivational underpinnings of power and related gender gaps in power attainment.
... Gender biased attitudes and beliefs have been identified as principal obstacles for women in power spheres such as politics. In essence, stereotypes about desirable leaders are inconsistent with stereotypes about women (Bohnet 2016;Brescoll, Uhlmann 2008;Rudman et al. 2012). Many studies find that women have to be more qualified and skilled than men in order to be perceived and treated as viable political candidates (Fox, Lawless 2010;Hayes, Lawless 2015). ...
... The finding that women who demonstrate important leadership qualities such as confidence, assertiveness and ambition are seen as unlikeable, in contrast to men who are rewarded for demonstrating the same qualities and behaviour, is well-established (Rudman et al. 2012). Similarly, women are conferred lower status if they express anger, whereas the same behaviour gives men higher status (Brescoll, Uhlmann 2008). The disadvantage of psychological gender bias for women in politics is also evident in voters' treatment of candidates: there is a general tendency to dislike leaders if they are perceived as power-hungry but only female candidates are punished for appearing to be power-seeking (Smith et al. 2006). ...
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Contemporary Issues and Perspectives on Gender Research This thematic collection of papers aims to bring together two fields of inquiry: research on gender politics and policy changes, with particular attention to gender aspects of democratic institutions and research on dynamics of LGBTIQA+ population and understanding of different gender identities. This volume on contemporary challenges in gender research is conceptualized interdisciplinary and covers issues that are currently relevant to gender studies within the social sciences and humanities. The objective was to make a productive and stimulating publication with research across various fields-philosophy, sociology, economy, political science, legal studies, anthropology, cultural studies-in order to facilitate a better understanding of current challenges to gender theory and practice. The volume also aims to move forward in research and theorizing the consequences of increased opposition and attacks to gender equality. Its focus is on analysis and understanding the relation between gender equality and processes of de-democratization, the implications of backlash for equality rights and policies and the dynamics of response of the actors that promote gender and sexuality rights. The fact that gender studies are endangered and suffocated at many universities across Europe indicates the high relevance of this field in theory and research and reveals the revitalization of patriarchal, authoritarian and conservative influence on norms and principles of women's rights and feminist intellectual, activist and artistic practices. The actuality and content of the papers, their scientific foundations and the high quality of research results of fundamental and applicative character, are the key reasons why the collection as a whole meets all the necessary standards for publication. This volume provides a valuable contribution to the development of gender studies, an input into understanding and critically reconsidering basic concepts in creating gender identities and in gendering institutions. Prof. dr Nevena Petrusic This thematic collection of papers is dedicated to current topics of gender studies, abounds with results from recent research projects and provides the review of contemporary relevant literature in these fields. Authors from different disciplines of social sciences and humanities perceive various gender issues in the context of current social situation. The volume is characterized by a remarkable innovation in the selection of topics and unavoidable interdisciplinary approach in the study of gender issues. Prof. dr Sladjana Jovanovic Considering the interdisciplinarity in the study of gender issues, actuality of themes, different approaches and interpretation of particular problems, as well as the informative and epistemological value of the publication, I consider it particularly important to be published in Series Edited Volumes by the Institute of Social Sciences. Dr Zoran Lutovac
... Eagly et al. (2000) menar att generellt betraktas de positioner i samhället som män tenderar att ha som mer kraftfulla och ansvarstagande än de positioner som kvinnor besitter. Ovanstående fynd går även att koppla till arbetslivet där forskning av Brescoll & Uhlmann (2008) visat på hur könsstereotypa uppfattningar lett till diskriminering, då kvinnor och män uppfattas olika vid uppvisande av samma emotioner. Det finns könsstereotypa normer där kvinnor till exempel förväntas vara snällare och mer blygsamma än män, följs inte dessa normer framkallar det en negativ respons från andra människor (Heilman, 2001;Rudman, 1998). ...
... Det finns könsstereotypa normer där kvinnor till exempel förväntas vara snällare och mer blygsamma än män, följs inte dessa normer framkallar det en negativ respons från andra människor (Heilman, 2001;Rudman, 1998). Så när en kvinna till exempel uttrycker ilska tillskrivs emotionen henne som person medan när en man uttrycker ilska tillskrivs emotionen situationen samt att synen på kompetens i arbetssituationen minskar för en kvinna men inte för en man när de uttrycker ilska (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). ...
... When female college instructors evaluated students negatively, they were rated as less competent than male instructors (Sinclair & Kunda, 2002). Moreover, Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) found that angry women are conceded lower status than angry men. While men's anger emotions are attributed to external characteristics like the situation, women's anger is internally attributed. ...
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We examined whether female leaders would be evaluated less favorably compared to male leaders regarding workplace bullying. Previous research has demonstrated that women violating prescriptive gender norms of communality experience backlash, and that female leaders are stereotyped of having a communality deficit. Building on that, we hypothesized (1) more moral outrage against and (2) more intentions to punish a female leader compared to a male leader. We further hypothesized (3) the accusations of workplace bullying against a female leader were going to be judged as more accurate than against a male leader. Further, defendants that stereotypically fit to the crime they are accused of were found to be judged guilty more often. So, we assumed, (4) a suspected bully that is a female leader was going to be judged as less credible, while (2) the suspected victim of a female leader bully was going to be judged as more credible compared to a male leader. Participants ( N = 202) read a workplace bullying scenario with a female employee accusing either a female or a male leader of bullying. No effect of gender of suspected bully was found for moral outrage measures, punishment intention judgments, and credibility judgments. Contrary to our predictions, participants found the accusations against the male leader significantly more accurate than against the female leader. Gender and sex-role scores of participants were found to be linked to judgments. Implications for future research are discussed.
... • Negotiation 12.5 , . • · � -Review in Advance first posted on (Brescoll & Uhlmann 2008) as well as by the intensity of the anger, with extreme anger actually decreasing perceived status (Gaertig et al. 2019). This is just one example of an area in which we think there is much work to be done as the black box of the negotiation interaction is increasingly pried open with new attention and tools. ...
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In this review, we identify emerging trends in negotiation scholarship that embrace complexity, finding moderators of effects that were initially described as monolithic, examining the nuances of social interaction, and studying negotiation as it occurs in the real world. We also identify areas in which research is lacking and call for scholarship that offers practical advice. All told, the existing research highlights negotiation as an exciting context for examining human behavior, characterized by features such as strong emotions, an intriguing blend of cooperation and competition, the presence of fundamental issues such as power and group identity, and outcomes that deeply affect the trajectory of people's personal and professional lives. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 74 is January 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... The two individuals were male, and men are generally perceived as more assertive and less interpersonally warm than women, given status differences and gender roles (Conway et al., 1996;Eagly, 1987). People expect men to express anger more than women (Fabes & Martin, 1991;Plant et al., 2000;Smith et al., 2015;see Durik et al., 2006 for the importance of ethnicity), and consider angry men as competent and leaderlike (Tiedens, 2001)-which may not be the case for how people perceive women (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Livingston et al., 2012). The gender of the individuals in the video was likely salient, given the little information provided about the individuals (Deaux & Major, 1987). ...
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More frequent gesturing, talking faster, and talking louder are aspects of nonverbal behavior often associated with being perceived as more dominant, assertive, influential, or as leader. The causal hypothesis in Study 1 was that people perceive an individual who gestures faster as more assertive and angrier in the context of a work or task-based interaction such as between coworkers. In the between-subject design of all six studies, participants observed at different speeds a cropped silent video of a dyadic interaction. Only hands, arms, and torsos could be seen, and one individual gestured throughout while the other hardly moved. In Studies 1–6, participants perceived the individual as more assertive and less anxious with faster gesturing, which were small effects across the workplace and other contexts. Findings as a function of context consistently emerged for perceived anger and warmth. In Studies 1, 3, and 4, participants perceived more anger and less warmth at slow and fast relative to moderate speed for the workplace and similar contexts. In Studies 5 and 6, there were no differences for perceived anger and warmth for the context of a one-time meeting between unacquainted students. To a varying degree across studies, participants who perceived the individual as more assertive and angrier rated the individual’s gesturing speed as faster, which contributed to these speed ratings being inflated in the slow video speed condition in Studies 1–4. Findings are discussed in terms of the cropped silent video methodology, context, and the identity of the gesturing individual.
... Through their positionalities, the informants have the capacity to counter the agentic deficiency others in their communities attempt to impose upon them through a stigmatization of women. Consequently, the women experience social backlash for attempting to counter their prescribed gender roles, and thus receive an agentic penalty (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Eagly and Karau, 2002;Rudman and Phelan, 2008). This agentic penalty experience is grounded on both prescriptive and proscriptive stereotypes of the women, which the informants discuss in their narratives. ...
Article
The study explores the intersections of gender and ethnicity as a point of inquiry in the emerging roles of Meranao women who work in the field of leadership. Drawing on qualitative interviews with seven Meranao women leaders in Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur, in The Philippines, this paper examines the multilayered issues and challenges these women face in their roles as leaders, as they leap into higher decision-making positions. I articulate the ideologies that shape their leadership experiences and their performative repertoires, and examine the ways in which they are able to perform their leadership roles given their opportunities and constraints. Finally, the study describes the agentic pathways the women traverse to effect leadership in Meranao politics and socio political development. Results show that intersectional approaches to investigating leadership, taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors of gender and ethnicity, can not only reveal the issues and challenges women leaders face, but also the individual agencies and strategies they use to overcome such constraints. The intersectionality approach challenges essentialist framings of leadership, and emphasizes an individual’s social location, as reflected in the intersecting identities of these Meranao women. This intersectionality, as I reveal, allows for the emergence of a negotiated form of leadership among women, which requires a delicate balance between meeting social expectations as women and fulfilling roles as leaders.
... Within particular cultures, there are often gender stereotypes (e.g., behaviors, characteristics, or attributes) that are deemed to be more normative and/or desirable for one gender than another [1,2]. Adults in the United States who violate gender stereotypes often experience social and/or economic penalties, commonly referred to as backlash [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. For example, women who violate stereotypes by self-promoting on a job interview are less likely to be hired than identical men, while men who violate stereotypes by being self-effacing were less likely to be hired than identical women [8]. ...
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Gender stereotypes shape individuals’ behaviors, expectations, and perceptions of others. However, little is known about the content of gender stereotypes about people of different ages (e.g., do gender stereotypes about 1-year-olds differ from those about older individuals?). In our pre-registered study, 4,598 adults rated either the typicality of characteristics (to assess descriptive stereotypes), or the desirability of characteristics (to assess prescriptive and proscriptive stereotypes) for targets who differed in gender and age. Between-subjects, we manipulated target gender (boy/man vs. girl/woman) and target age (1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, or 35). From this, we generated a normed list of descriptive, prescriptive, and proscriptive gender-stereotyped characteristics about people across the early developmental timespan. We make this archive, as well as our raw data, available to other researchers. We also present preliminary findings, demonstrating that some characteristics are consistently ungendered (e.g., challenges authority), others are gender-stereotypic across the early developmental timespan (e.g., males from age 1 to 35 tend to be dirty), and still others change over development (e.g., girls should be submissive, but only around age 10). Implications for gender stereotyping theory—as well as targets of gender stereotyping, across the lifespan—are discussed.
... For example, Casciaro and Lobo (2008) found that people who show competence and positive interpersonal affect (e.g., being liked) can get important positions and status in a network. According to some researchers, perceived competence mediates the relationships between status characteristics and actual status (e.g., Anderson & Kilduff, 2009;Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008;Fragale, 2006;Tiedens, 2001). The basic logic behind the competence route is that outstanding task skills or expertise induces the belief that a (competent) actor is instrumental in contributing to the group, which elicits others' respect for skills, leading them to confer status on the competent. ...
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Despite research having identified two major routes to status: dominance and competence, both routes seem inadequate to capture the “whole picture” of how people get ahead in organizations. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify two novel paths and their important boundary conditions by which employees with status motivation can achieve status. Specifically, we propose that employees with status motivation obtain status (operationalized as other-perceived status and promotability) by engaging in ingratiation toward their supervisors and organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. In addition, these relationships are weakened in teams where the procedural justice climate is high. Results from four studies conducted in China and the United States, which consist of three experiments (Study 1: N = 240; Study 2: N = 180; Study 4: N = 309) and one field study of 427 employees from 74 teams (Study 3), provide support for most of the propositions we proposed. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Such strong men might also be more likely to have outbursts of anger unpredictably (i.e., not only in reaction to being undervalued; Cheng et al., 2010). The same behavior would be taboo in a faculty meeting, however, even if an ostensibly lowerstatus adjunct undervalued a seeming higher-status full professor; and the same behavior is less likely to be observed among women, who might be more likely to hide their anger and later engage in forms of indirect aggression that allow the aggressor to remain anonymous (see Krems et al., 2015; see also Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008). These brief examples suggest that anger displays from those who derive status from prestige or benefit generation (and withholding; for reviews see, e.g., Maner, 2017;Cheng, 2020; see also Case et al., 2021) might be less likely to engage in overt and perhaps male-typical anger displays (i.e., anger displays as traditionally conceptualized). ...
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Status is a universal feature of human sociality. A lesser-studied adaptive problem surrounding status is assessing who has which levels of status in a given group (e.g., identifying which people possess high status). Here, we integrate theory and methods from evolutionary social science, animal behavior, and social psychology, and we use an emotion inference paradigm to investigate what cues render people high status in the eyes of social perceivers. This paradigm relies on robust associations between status and emotion display—particularly the anger display. If a target is expected to enact (but not necessarily feel) anger, this would suggest that social perceivers view that target as higher status. By varying target attributes, we test whether those attributes are considered status cues in the eyes of social perceivers. In two well-powered, pre-registered experiments in the United States (N = 451) and India (N = 378), participants read one of eight vignettes about a male or female target—described as high or low in either physical strength or physical attractiveness (possible status cues)—who is thwarted by another person, and then reported expectations of the target’s felt and enacted anger. We find that people expected physically stronger (versus less strong) men and more (versus less) physically attractive women to enact greater anger when thwarted by a same-sex other. Strength had no significant effect on estimations of female status and attractiveness had no significant effect on estimations of male status. There were no differences in expectations of felt anger. Results suggest that people use men’s strength and women’s attractiveness as status cues. Moreover, results underscore the notion that focusing on male-typical cues of status might obscure our understanding of the female status landscape. We discuss how this paradigm might be fruitfully employed to examine and discover other unexplored cues of male and female status.
... For example, agentic behavior by women is positively related to hiring discrimination (Rudman and Glick, 2001;Phelan and Rudman, 2010) and negatively impacts voting preferences, whereas no such relationship exists for men (Okimoto and Brescoll, 2010). Furthermore, people assign less status and lower salaries to women expressing anger as compared to men expressing anger (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008). Specifically for a leadership context, gender has been found to impact the relationship between leader narcissism and perceived leader effectiveness where female narcissistic leaders are rated as less effective than male narcissistic leaders (De Hoogh et al., 2015). ...
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Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance is ambiguous and often even found to be negative. For women, narcissism seems especially likely to lead to negative evaluations. Since narcissists have the tendency to be impulsive and change their minds on a whim, they may come across as inconsistent. We propose “inconsistent leader behavior” as a new mechanism in the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance and argue that leader gender plays an important role in whether narcissistic leaders are perceived as inconsistent. Specifically, we expect leader narcissism to have a negative relationship with follower performance through perceived inconsistent leader behavior, especially for female leaders. Thus, we examine leader gender as a personal factor moderating the relationship between narcissism and perceived inconsistent behavior. Also, as perceived inconsistency is likely less problematic when a good relationship exists, we examine leader–member exchange (LMX) as a contextual condition moderating the relationship between leader behavior and follower performance. We test our moderated mediation model in a multi-source study with 165 unique leader–follower dyads. As expected, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived inconsistent leader behavior, and this relationship was stronger for female leaders. Inconsistent leader behavior was negatively related to follower performance, but only when LMX was low. Our research highlights that perceived behavioral inconsistency can be problematic and—for female leaders—provides an explanation of the negative relation of leader narcissism with follower performance and of the inconsistencies in evaluations of narcissistic leaders’ effectiveness.
... In order to draw generalizable conclusions, Tierney et al. (in preparation) assigned teams of doctoral students and professors to separately create conceptual replication designs testing for backlash against angry women. The original study finds that although male managers who express anger (relative to sadness or neutral emotions) experience a boost in status, female managers who express anger are accorded less social status and respect (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). Participants in this ongoing data collection across over 50 laboratories are randomly assigned to one of 27 study designs (the original design and 26 conceptual replication designs) testing the hypothesized interaction between target gender and emotion expression. ...
Article
Emphasizing the predictive success and practical utility of psychological science is an admirable goal but it will require a substantive shift in how we design research. Applied research often assumes that findings are transferable to all practices, insensitive to variation between implementations. We describe efforts to quantify and close this practice-to-practice gap in education research.
... In order to draw generalizable conclusions, Tierney et al. (in preparation) assigned teams of doctoral students and professors to separately create conceptual replication designs testing for backlash against angry women. The original study finds that although male managers who express anger (relative to sadness or neutral emotions) experience a boost in status, female managers who express anger are accorded less social status and respect (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). Participants in this ongoing data collection across over 50 laboratories are randomly assigned to one of 27 study designs (the original design and 26 conceptual replication designs) testing the hypothesized interaction between target gender and emotion expression. ...
Article
Yarkoni's analysis clearly articulates a number of concerns limiting the generalizability and explanatory power of psychological findings, many of which are compounded in infancy research. ManyBabies addresses these concerns via a radically collaborative, large-scale and open approach to research that is grounded in theory-building, committed to diversification, and focused on understanding sources of variation.
... One potential explanation for this comes from social role theory [149]: women's lower status across societies results from social norms emphasizing that women ought to be communal-warm, nurturing, kind-while men should strive to be agentic-assertive, authoritative and independent [150][151][152]. A proclivity to sanction gender norm violations [153,154] may result in backlash against women who exercise dominance, who are often described by scholars as overly agentic relative to norm expectations [155][156][157][158]. Backlash occurs even when dominant women seek to lead groups with communal and other-serving (stereotypically feminine) goals [159], and among same-sex sanctioners [160]. ...
Article
Dominance captures behavioural patterns found in social hierarchies that arise from agonistic interactions in which some individuals coercively exploit their control over costs and benefits to extract deference from others, often through aggression, threats and/or intimidation. Accumulating evidence points to its importance in humans and its separation from prestige—an alternate avenue to high status in which status arises from information (e.g. knowledge, skill, etc.) or other non-rival goods. In this review, we provide an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of dominance as a concept within evolutionary biology, discuss the challenges of applying it to humans and consider alternative theoretical accounts which assert that dominance is relevant to understanding status in humans. We then review empirical evidence for its continued importance in human groups, including the effects of dominance—independently of prestige—on measurable outcomes such as social influence and reproductive fitness, evidence for specialized dominance psychology, and evidence for gender-specific effects. Finally, because human-specific factors such as norms and coalitions may place bounds on purely coercive status-attainment strategies, we end by considering key situations and contexts that increase the likelihood for dominance status to coexist alongside prestige status within the same individual, including how: (i) institutional power and authority tend to elicit dominance; (ii) dominance-enhancing traits can at times generate benefits for others (prestige); and (iii) certain dominance cues and ethology may lead to mis-attributions of prestige. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies’.
... Alternatively, a counter-stereotypical individual might be at greater risk for interpersonal rejection. Researchers have reported that women who exhibit non-stereotypical traits and do not conform to ascribed gender roles are perceived as being more competent and having more agency than the stereotypical women (Song and Liu, 2021), yet are still more negatively evaluated at work compared to men (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008). Counterstereotyped women are often perceived as interpersonally deficient (Rudman and Glick, 1999), insufficiently "nice" (Brescoll et al., 2010), and less feminine, and they are often not welcomed by their male counterparts (Song et al., 2017;Song and Liu, 2021), compared to stereotyped women. ...
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Individuals voluntarily internalize gender stereotypes and present personality characteristics and behaviors that conform to gender role requirements. The aim of the current study was to explore the reasons people internalize gender stereotypes. We conducted surveys with 317 college students in China to examine the relationship between gender self-stereotyping and life satisfaction. We also analyzed the mediating roles of relational self-esteem (RSE) and personal self-esteem (PSE) and the moderation role of gender. The results of path analysis showed that gender self-stereotyping directly affected life satisfaction and indirectly affected life satisfaction through RSE and PSE in a serial pattern; however, the serial mediation model was only significant in the male sample. Higher gender self-stereotyping was associated with male participants’ higher level of RSE and PSE and further correlated with higher life satisfaction. This study addressed the questions: “What are the benefits of gender self-stereotyping?” and “What are the major barriers to counter-stereotyping?” The results enrich our understanding of these issues, especially relative to the collectivist culture in China, and may be used to create more effective interventions to help people break through the stereotypes.
... Relatedly, studies have found that women who express agentic emotions, such as anger, are viewed as more "out of control" compared to men (Brescoll, 2016: 418;Timmers, Fischer, & Manstead, 2003). Finally, this theorizing is consistent with experimental research that examines observer reactions to men and women, finding that women who acted agentically and expressed anger were evaluated as lower in self-control relative to men, regardless of whether they were in the trainee (i.e., low power) or CEO (i.e., high power) condition (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). Thus, we argue that power does not protect female moral objectors, relative to male moral objectors, from lower self-control perceptions and retaliation. ...
... Some literature highlights how women tend to self-select into different professions than men, often due to stereotypes rather than actual ability to perform in these professions [142,144]. These stereotypes also affect the perceptions of female performance or the amount of human capital required to equal male performance [110,193,208], particularly for mothers [81]. It is therefore often assumed that women are better suited to less visible and less leadership-oriented roles [209]. ...
... Some literature highlights how women tend to self-select into different professions than men, often due to stereotypes rather than actual ability to perform in these professions [142,144]. These stereotypes also affect the perceptions of female performance or the amount of human capital required to equal male performance [110,193,208], particularly for mothers [81]. It is therefore often assumed that women are better suited to less visible and less leadership-oriented roles [209]. ...
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Gender equality is a major problem that places women at a disadvantage thereby stymieing economic growth and societal advancement. In the last two decades, extensive research has been conducted on gender related issues, studying both their antecedents and consequences. However, existing literature reviews fail to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of what has been studied so far, which could guide scholars in their future research. Our paper offers a scoping review of a large portion of the research that has been published over the last 22 years, on gender equality and related issues, with a specific focus on business and economics studies. Combining innovative methods drawn from both network analysis and text mining, we provide a synthesis of 15,465 scientific articles. We identify 27 main research topics, we measure their relevance from a semantic point of view and the relationships among them, highlighting the importance of each topic in the overall gender discourse. We find that prominent research topics mostly relate to women in the workforce-e.g., concerning compensation, role, education, decision-making and career progression. However, some of them are losing momentum, and some other research trends-for example related to female entrepreneurship, leadership and participation in the board of directors-are on the rise. Besides introducing a novel methodology to review broad literature streams, our paper offers a map of the main gender-research trends and presents the most popular and the emerging themes, as well as their intersections, outlining important avenues for future research.
... Such a subtle form of intervention may indeed be effective, as others are able to extract information from expressed emotions and inferences may shape their cognitions, emotions, and behavior [47,48]. Still, there is also evidence suggesting that anger expression in response to norm transgressions can be perceived as aggressive [49] and there is a range of candidate factors, such as gender [50], which may modulate the perception of expressed anger, underscoring the notion that anger is a double-edged sword with regard to prosociality. ...
Article
Moral courage, that is, defending moral beliefs despite personal risks, is often seen as a hallmark of prosocial behavior. We argue that prosociality in moral courage is however complex: While its prosociality is often evident at a higher societal level, it can be contested in some aspects of the morally courageous acts. We review literature on two such aspects and highlight that differences and conflicts in moral beliefs as well as the confrontational nature of many morally courageous acts call into question prosociality. We recommend that future research takes the complexity of prosociality in moral courage into account to obtain a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the psychological underpinnings of moral courage and its contributions to the functioning of societies.
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The visual portrayal of social groups in media reinforces stereotypes and narratives, potentially leading to discriminatory actions and policies. That is particularly true for underrepresented or stigmatized groups such as migrants and is a phenomenon that varies per country. Therefore, studying the representation of migrants requires analyzing considerable amounts of visual data from different locations. This work addresses that challenge with an interdisciplinary approach characterizing the visual portrayal of migrants using Deep Learning techniques and analyzing results through the lenses of migration and gender studies. Images associated with migrants found on the internet through a search engine and from ten countries are processed to quantify and analyze the demographic and emotional information of the people portrayed. An intersectional approach is employed regarding gender, age, physical features, and emotions. The general group “migrants” is compared with the specific groups “refugees” and “expats”. Results suggest that portrayals predominantly focus on asylum seekers and associate them with poverty and risks for host societies. Moreover, the demographics in the portrayals do not match the official statistics. For expats, an over-representation of “white” and an under-representation of “asian” faces were found, while for migrants and refugees, depictions align with the demographics of low-skilled migrants. Furthermore, results evidence the power struggle underlying the “expat vs. migrant” dichotomy and its inherent colonial nature. The emotions displayed are predominantly negative and align with emotional and gender stereotypes literature. Positive emotions are more associated with women than men, and with expats than refugees and migrants. Previous results regarding the under-representation of migrant women in media are confirmed. Also, women are portrayed as younger than men, and expat women are the youngest. Children appear more in pictures associated with refugees and migrants than with expats. Likewise, migrants are often depicted as crowds, but when that is not the case, migrant and refugee women appear in larger groups than men. A higher proportion of images associated with expats do not contain people. All these effects, however, differ per location. Finally, we suggest future directions and analyze possible limitations of automatic visual content analysis using existing Deep Learning models.
Article
Can masstige consumers have their cake and eat it too? We explore how signaling through masstige (mass prestige) goods, compared with their luxury counterpart, impacts two important sociometric variables of peer popularity: status and warmth. Given recent research that has demonstrated how luxury status signaling confers to the signaler diminished perceptions of warmth, the current research investigates whether signaling through masstige products can allow consumers to enjoy the benefits of status without incurring the social cost of reduced perceived warmth. Five experimental studies lead to the conclusion that this is not the case: Masstige consumers neither gain increased perceptions of warmth nor status. The studies identify impression management as the causal mechanism (Studies 1a and 1b), introduce a way to attenuate this effect (Study 2), and consider how luxury and masstige consumers differentially identify status signals (Studies 3a and 3b).
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This review seeks to enrich our understanding of how a leader's status influences leadership outcomes such as motivation to lead, leader emergence and perceived leader effectiveness. The focus is on the leader's diffuse status, i.e., status derived from demographic (e.g., gender and race) and physical (e.g., height and body shape) characteristics. Drawing insights from empirical findings and their theoretical underpinnings, we (1) highlight the need to explicitly model the leader's diffuse status as a mediator in the relationship between leader demographic and physical characteristics and leadership outcomes, (2) differentiate the effects of the leader's diffuse status as perceived by others (interpersonal level) and the leader's diffuse status as perceived by the leader (intrapersonal level) and (3) synthesise a wide range of contextual factors that influence the degree to which the leader's demographic and physical characteristics affect leadership outcomes through the leader's diffuse status. Moreover, we explain how other status types, such as status derived from the leader's position in the organisational hierarchy and status related to task-relevant leader characteristics, can moderate the effects of the leader's diffuse status. Finally, we discuss the utility of our proposed integrative framework for researchers and practitioners and outline promising future research opportunities.
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Despite the centrality of differences as a driver of conflict, most of the empirical research on group conflict has focused on the group as a whole, paying little attention to the differing experiences of individuals during conflict—that is, the ways individuals perceive, make sense of, and emotionally experience a conflict episode. Although people process information about a conflict using the same general cognitive and emotional mechanisms, their personal characteristics (e.g., personality, cultural background), beliefs and motives (e.g., orientation toward conflict), and past experiences will influence how they make sense of what is occurring and their subsequent conflict behavior. Building on recent work that has taken a multi-level approach to understanding team conflict and drawing from related literature in social, cognitive, and personality psychology, we explicate an individual’s psychological experience of a conflict episode as a process by which individuals make sense of and emotionally experience what is happening, develop attitudes towards others in the group, and exchange and integrate knowledge about the conflict and others involved. We argue that a more nuanced understanding of the intraindividual experience of conflict generates important insight into understanding individual conflict behavior, helping us predict how people will behave in conflict situations and how conflict episodes will unfold. We conclude with implications for how to intervene to promote cooperative behavior and positive team outcomes, along with an agenda for future research.
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Although substantive research examining work teams continues to grow, methodological research examining the collection of team survey data lags behind substantive progress. To address this research gap, we test how individual and team characteristics affect one’s likelihood of completing a team survey. Using multilevel ordinal logistic regression analysis of human resources information systems data and survey responses from 3,403 clinical staff within 900 multidisciplinary healthcare teams, we found that time dedicated to the team, leadership status, and team size relate to response behavior, with differential effects for men and women. We discuss implications for team research in real-world organizational contexts.
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The papers in this Special Issue Part I “Revisioning, Rethinking, Restructuring Gender at Work: Quo Vadis Gender Stereotypes?” focus on the current state of gender inequality, particularly stereotypes. We present studies showing that differences in gender stereotypes still exist, confirm disadvantages for women in male‐dominated roles and sectors and when the employment sector is not specified, but also disadvantages for men in female‐dominated roles and sectors. In contrast to this general trend, one paper in Part II of this Special Issue found a preference for women over men as job candidates in their study. Incongruence emerged as a striking common theme to explain these gender differences, whereby some studies focused on the perceived incongruence from the actor's perspective and how external factors contribute to these perceptions, whereas others looked at the perceived incongruence from the observer's perspective. We summarize the papers and briefly discuss the key points of Part I at the end of this editorial.
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Dominant actors are neither liked nor respected, yet they are reliably deferred to. Extant explanations of why dominant actors are deferred to focus on deferrers' first-order judgments (i.e., the deferrers' own private assessment of the dominant actor). The present research extends these accounts by considering the role of second-order judgments (i.e., an individual's perception of what others think about the dominant actor) in decisions to defer to dominant actors. While individuals themselves often have little respect for dominant actors, we hypothesized that (1) they think others respect dominant actors more than they do themselves, and (2) these second-order respect judgments are associated with their decision to defer dominant actors above and beyond their own first-order respect judgments. The results of four studies provide support for these hypotheses: across a variety of contexts, we found evidence that individuals think others respect dominant actors more than they themselves do (Studies 1–3), and perceptions of others' respect for dominant actors is associated with individuals' own decisions to defer to them, above and beyond first-order respect (Studies 3–4). Results highlight the importance of considering second-order judgments in order to fully understand why dominant actors achieve high social rank in groups and organizations.
Article
We predicted that brand gender moderates the effect of information valence on attitude change, such that negative information leads to a greater decline in attitude for female brands due to differences in trust change. We conducted three studies to test this prediction. Study 1 (N = 260) and Study 2 (N = 205) results reveal a conditional direct effect of negative information on attitude change, whereby negative information decreases attitude more for female (vs. male) brands; these studies also show a conditional indirect effect of negative information on attitude change via trust change, such that negative information decreases trust more for female (vs. male) brands, which leads to a decrease in attitude. By analyzing 2.68 million Yelp.com customer reviews, the results for Study 3 further demonstrate the gender disparity in review usefulness.
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This paper presents three studies that examine how women can respond to conflict in assertive ways that obtain their desired result without harm to their competence and likability, thus minimizing gender backlash. In Study 1, we interviewed 29 experienced women engineers and had them read scenarios of common team conflicts and describe the exact words they would use (and the words they would avoid using) to respond in these conflicts. We inductively coded these responses to develop a positive, future-focused (PFF) script for responding to conflict that minimized gender backlash. This PFF script balances communality and agency by pointing out positives, foregrounding group goals, focusing on solutions, and avoiding emotion. In two follow-up experimental studies, we compared the PFF script to popular psychology advice that encourages individuals to foreground their personal feelings with I-focused statements. Engineering students (N = 289, Study 2; N = 279, Study 3) viewed three conflict scenarios with different response strategies and rated their impressions of the protagonist and the likelihood of a satisfactory outcome. Results demonstrated that conflict responses based on the PFF script led to significantly better impressions and outcomes for both men and women protagonists compared to responses based on I-focused statements. Training students and professionals to use PFF conflict resolution strategies has the potential to increase women’s visibility in situations where they currently remain silent and to improve overall team dynamics in ways that challenge gender stereotypes.
Article
The authors use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (C-NLSY79) to examine gender differences in the associations between child behavioral problems and early adult earnings. They find large and significant earnings penalties for women who exhibited more headstrong behavior and for men who exhibited more dependent behavior as children. By contrast, the authors observe no penalties for men who were headstrong or for women who were dependent. Although other child behavioral problems are also associated with labor market earnings, their associations did not differ significantly by gender. The gender differences in headstrong and dependent behavior are not explained by education, marriage, depression, self-esteem, health, or adult personality traits. One potential explanation is that these gender differences are a consequence of deviations from gender norms and stereotypes in the workplace.
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By organizing crowds of scientists to independently tackle the same research questions, we can collectively overcome the generalizability crisis. Strategies to draw inferences from a heterogeneous set of research approaches include aggregation , for instance, meta-analyzing the effect sizes obtained by different investigators, and parsing , attempting to identify theoretically meaningful moderators that explain the variability in results.
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This article investigates key triggers for mothers’ anger during the COVID-19 pandemic and some of the positive and negative consequences of its expression online. It uses the UK online parenting forum Mumsnet as a research context and source of data. Our findings support previous research into mothers’ anger during COVID-19 that suggests that the pandemic has both exacerbated longstanding sources of conflict and created new ones within their homes. This anger is frequently repressed because women need to continue to work and cohabit with the colleagues and family members who have caused this anger. However, we also identify a further trigger for mothers’ anger – their frustration at the government's perceived inaction and mis- or even dis-information about the pandemic. This anger can be exacerbated by mainstream media reports and also the sharing of suspicions and complaints on online forums such as Mumsnet. Mumsnet therefore offers a safe space for the venting of women's anger during lockdown, but also a place where feelings of anger can be perpetuated and perhaps even aroused.
Thesis
Die Studien der vorliegenden Arbeit untersuchen geschlechtsspezifisch-emotionale Reaktionsmuster auf stärkere und weniger stark emotionalisierte Texte verschiedener Textarten zu negativen Themen. Zusätzlich finden verschiedene Ausprägungen von Geschlechterstereotypen und dahingehend mögliche Zusammenhänge mit emotionalen Reaktionen Berücksichtigung. Versuchspersonen wurden mit Textmaterial konfrontiert und sollten daraufhin mit Hilfe des Emotionsfragebogens M-DAS ihre emotionalen Reaktionen bewerten. Frauen zeigten eine stärkere Ergriffenheit in Bezug auf das Textmaterial im Allgemeinen und besonders auf emotionalisiertes Textmaterial. Gemischte Ergebnisse zeigten sich in Bezug auf geschlechtertypische Textarten. Eine Sachtextpräferenz der Männer ließ sich ebensowenig signifikant belegen wie die erwartete stärkere Vorliebe der Frauen für literarische Texte. Geschlechtsspezifische Emotionen wurden weitestgehend erwartungskonform berichtet: Frauen reagierten mit stärkerer Angst und Trauer auf das Textmaterial, Männer mit stärkerer Verachtung. Die Ergebnisse in Bezug auf Wut sind gemischt, in einigen Fällen wurde Wut jedoch stärker von den Frauen berichtet. Die Untersuchung der Zusammenhänge zwischen internalisierten Stereotypen ergab Einflüsse hauptsächlich von weiblichen Stereotypen auf emotionale Reaktionen, männliche Stereotype konnten nur in einer Teilfragestellung als Einflussfaktor ausgemacht werden. Emotionsbezogene Stereotype wiesen keine Zusammenhänge mit emotionalen Reaktionen auf. Insgesamt belegen die Ergebnisse der Arbeit, dass sich geschlechterspezifische Unterschiede in emotionalen Reaktionen finden lassen.
Article
This study offers the first investigation on the normative processes through which Chinese form impressions of others in social interaction. Using affect control theory and its archived sentiment data from China, I estimate the Chinese impression formation models with a new Bayesian method. I then compare the Chinese models to the impression formation dynamics in U.S. English. Results show cross-cultural commonality in the affective processing of cultural concepts, with determinants of impression formation processes being largely universal. Findings also reveal two cultural variations that align with patterns uncovered by comparative cross-cultural research: (1) the Chinese models show less rigidity in the definition of situation and (2) across two cultural models, the balance term has opposite effects on actor and behavior evaluation. To explore the implications of the impression models, I present a series of simulations, illustrating the predictive power of affect control theory as well as the impact of different cultural rules on social interaction.
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Contemporary politics is noteworthy for its emotional character. Emotions shape and, in turn, are elicited by partisan polarization, public opinion, and political attitudes. In this article, we outline recent work in the field of emotion and politics with an emphasis on the relationship between emotion and polarization, issue attitudes, information processing, and views on democratic governance. We also highlight a growing body of scholarship that examines the racial and gender differences in emotion's ability to affect political behavior. We conclude with a discussion of unaddressed questions and suggestions for future directions for scholars working in this area of growing importance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Political Science, Volume 25 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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In contemporary research, attitudes toward women appear to be more positive than those toward men in samples of US and Canadian university students, and the evaluative content of the female stereotype is more favorable than the evaluative content of the male stereotype. These research findings on attitudes and stereotypes are compared with the findings of Goldberg-paradigm experiments on judgments of women's and men's competence, which are commonly thought to reflect people's attitudes and stereotypes. Although research on competence judgments has not shown a pervasive tendency to devalue women's work, it has demonstrated prejudice against women in masculine domains (e.g. male-dominated jobs, male-stereotypic behavior). This targeted form of prejudice is consistent with the generally more favorable evaluation of women than men obtained in attitude and stereotype studies because this positive evaluation derives primarily from the ascription to women of nice, nurturant, communal characteristics, which people think qualify individuals for the domestic role as well as for low-status, low-paying female-dominated jobs. Women's experiences of gender discrimination and feminist protests concerning a contemporary backlash against women reflect women's inroads into traditionally masculine arenas, especially their efforts to gain access to high-status, high-paying male-dominated jobs, which are thought to require characteristics stereotypically ascribed to men.
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Emotions have a political dimension in that judgments regarding when and how emotion should be felt and shown are interpreted in the interests of regulating the organization and functioning of social groups. This article argues that claims to authenticity and legitimacy of one's self-identity or group identity are at stake in the everyday politics of emotion. A brief discussion of the study of sex differences in the 19th century illustrates how emotion politics can saturate even scientific inquiry. Three ways in which there is a political dimension to socially appropriate emotion in contemporary life are then discussed: (a) Is the emotion the "wrong" emotion for the situation? (b) How are competing standards for emotional experience and expression managed? and (c) What constitutes the boundary between "too much" and "too little" emotion? The author concludes by considering the relevance of emotion politics to research on emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Indicates that research in social psychology has largely been based on college students tested in academic laboratories on academiclike tasks. How this dependence on one narrow data base may have biased the main substantive conclusions of sociopsychological research in this era is discussed. Research on the full life span suggests that, compared with older adults, college students are likely to have less crystallized attitudes, less formulated senses of self, stronger cognitive skills, stronger tendencies to comply with authority, and more unstable peer-group relationships. These peculiarities of social psychology's predominant data base may have contributed to central elements of its portrait of human nature. According to this view, people are quite compliant and their behavior is easily socially influenced, readily change their attitudes and behave inconsistently with them, and do not rest their self-perceptions on introspection. The data base may also contribute to this portrait of human nature's strong emphasis on cognitive processes and to its lack of emphasis on personality dispositions, material self-interest, emotionally based irrationalities, group norms, and stage-specific phenomena. The analysis implies the need both for more careful examination of sociopsychological propositions for systematic biases introduced by dependence on this data base and for increased reliance on adults tested in their natural habitats with materials drawn from ordinary life. (127 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies documented the gender stereotypes of emotions and the relationship between gender stereotypes and the interpretation of emotionally expressive behavior. Participants believed women experienced and expressed the majority of the 19 emotions studied (e.g., sadness, fear, sympathy) more often than men. Exceptions included anger and pride, which were thought to be experienced and expressed more often by men. In Study 2, participants interpreted photographs of adults’ambiguous anger/sadness facial expressions in a stereotype-consistent manner, such that women were rated as sadder and less angry than men. Even unambiguous anger poses by women were rated as a mixture of anger and sadness. Study 3 revealed that when expectant parents interpreted an infant's ambiguous anger/sadness expression presented on videotape only high-stereotyped men interpreted the expression in a stereotype-consistent manner. Discussion focuses on the role of gender stereotypes in adults’interpretations of emotional expressions and the implications for social relations and the socialization of emotion.
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Three experiments tested and extended recent theory regarding motivational influences on impression formation (S. T. Fiske & S. L. Neuberg, 1990; J. L. Hilton & J. M. Darley, 1991) in the context of an impression management dilemma that women face: Self-promotion may be instrumental for managing a competent impression, yet women who self-promote may suffer social reprisals for violating gender prescriptions to be modest. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of perceivers' goals on processes that inhibit stereotypical thinking, and reactions to counterstereotypical behavior. Experiments 2-3 extended these findings by including male targets. For female targets, self-promotion led to higher competence ratings but incurred social attraction and hireability costs unless perceivers were outcome-dependent males. For male targets, self-effacement decreased competence and hireability ratings, though its effects on social attraction were inconsistent.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence-warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.
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Social and economic sanctions for counterstereotypical behavior have been termed the backlash effect. The authors present a model of the role of backlash in cultural stereotype maintenance from the standpoint of both perceivers and actors. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants lost a competition to either atypical or typical men or women and subsequently showed greater tendency to sabotage deviants. Moreover, undermining deviants was associated with increased self-esteem, suggesting that backlash rewards perceivers psychologically. Experiment 3 showed that gender deviants who feared backlash resorted to strategies designed to avoid it (e.g., hiding, deception, and gender conformity). Further, perceivers who sabotaged deviants (Experiment 2) or deviants who hid their atypicality (Experiment 3) estimated greater stereotyping on the part of future perceivers, in support of the model's presumed role for backlash in stereotype maintenance. The implications of the findings for cultural stereotypes are discussed.
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In 3 experimental studies, the authors tested the idea that penalties women incur for success in traditionally male areas arise from a perceived deficit in nurturing and socially sensitive communal attributes that is implied by their success. The authors therefore expected that providing information of communality would prevent these penalties. Results indicated that the negativity directed at successful female managers--in ratings of likability, interpersonal hostility, and boss desirability--was mitigated when there was indication that they were communal. This ameliorative effect occurred only when the information was clearly indicative of communal attributes (Study 1) and when it could be unambiguously attributed to the female manager (Study 2); furthermore, these penalties were averted when communality was conveyed by role information (motherhood status) or by behavior (Study 3). These findings support the idea that penalties for women's success in male domains result from the perceived violation of gender-stereotypic prescriptions.
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Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence-warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.
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This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
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How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
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Presents a summary and synthesis of the author's work on attribution theory concerning the mechanisms involved in the process of causal explanations. The attribution theory is related to studies of social perception, self-perception, and psychological epistemology. Two systematic statements of attribution theory are described, discussed, and illustrated with empirical data: the covariation and the configuration concepts. Some problems for attribution theory are considered, including the interplay between preconceptions and new information, simple vs. complex schemata, attribution of covariation among causes, and illusions in attributions. The role of attribution in decision making and behavior is discussed. (56 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information.
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Four studies examined status conferral (decisions about who should be granted status). The studies show that people confer more status to targets who express anger than to targets who express sadness. In the 1st study, participants supported President Clinton more when they viewed him expressing anger about the Monica Lewinsky scandal than when they saw him expressing sadness about the scandal. This effect was replicated with an unknown politician in Study 2. The 3rd study showed that status conferral in a company was correlated with peers' ratings of the workers' anger. In the final study, participants assigned a higher status position and a higher salary to a job candidate who described himself as angry as opposed to sad. Furthermore, Studies 2-4 showed that anger expressions created the impression that the expresser was competent and that these perceptions mediated the relationship between emotional expressions and status conferral.
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This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing.
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The authors propose that experiments that utilize mediational analyses as suggested by R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) are overused and sometimes improperly held up as necessary for a good social psychological paper. The authors argue that when it is easy to manipulate and measure a proposed psychological process that a series of experiments that demonstrates the proposed causal chain is superior. They further argue that when it is easy to manipulate a proposed psychological process but difficult to measure it that designs that examine underlying process by utilizing moderation can be effective. It is only when measurement of a proposed psychological process is easy and manipulation of it is difficult that designs that rely on mediational analyses should be preferred, and even in these situations careful consideration should be given to the limiting factors of such designs.
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