Chest-Wall Contouring Surgery in Female-to-Male Transsexuals: A New Algorithm

Article (PDF Available)inPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery 121(3):849-59 · April 2008with523 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/01.prs.0000299921.15447.b2 · Source: PubMed
In female-to-male transsexuals, the first surgical procedure in their reassignment surgery consists of the subcutaneous mastectomy. The goals of subcutaneous mastectomy are removal of breast tissue, removal of excess skin, reduction and proper positioning of the nipple and areola, and ideally, minimization of chest-wall scars. The authors present the largest series to date of female-to-male transsexuals who have undergone subcutaneous mastectomy. A total of 184 subcutaneous mastectomies were performed in 92 female-to-male transsexuals, using the following five techniques: semicircular, transareolar, concentric circular, extended concentric circular, and free nipple graft. The technique used depended on the breast size and envelope, the aspect and position of the nipple-areola complex, and the skin elasticity. To best meet the goals of creating a normal male thorax, the authors have developed an algorithm to aid in choosing the appropriate procedure. The overall postoperative complication rate was 12.5 percent (23 of 184 subcutaneous mastectomies), and in eight of these cases (4.3 percent), an additional operative intervention was required because of hematoma, infection, and/or wound dehiscence. Despite this low complication rate, additional procedures for improving aesthetic results were performed on 59 breasts (32.1 percent). The semicircular and concentric circular techniques produced the highest rating of the overall result by patient and surgeon, whereas the extended concentric circular technique produced the lowest rating. Skin excess and skin elasticity are the key factors in choosing the appropriate technique for subcutaneous mastectomy, which is reflected in the algorithm. Although the complication rate is low and patient satisfaction is high, secondary aesthetic corrections are often indicated.


    • "Both these complication rates following the algorithm-based approach are also considerably lower than the two-step approach (57.14% of mastectomies presented at least one complication during treatment) as in use until July 2011 at the SUH. The rate of haematomas that required immediate re-intervention was 6.25% and 7.14%, respectively, in our one-step and first stage of the two-step study groups, compared to the 4% reported by Monstrey et al. [7] and 5% reported by Cregten-Escobar et al. [1]. Also, the complication rate to the second surgery alone in the two-step group was as high as 42.9%, even higher than the complication rate following the first surgery in this group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The subcutaneous mastectomy is an important step in the treatment of female-to-male transsexual patients. At the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, a two-step procedure was used for mastectomies through 2002-2011. With this procedure, all patients were operated on with a concentric circular incision in the first session of surgery, followed by a second session 7-12 months later. From July 2011, a new approach was adopted, which consists of treating patients according to the algorithm and methods described by Monstrey et al. The aim of this study is to evaluate these two different approaches and determine if similar results, possibly with fewer surgeries and overall lower complication rate, can be achieved by using multiple techniques and a decision-making algorithm as compared to the two-step approach where only a concentric circular technique was used. All female-to-male transsexuals who had mastectomy at Sahlgrenska between 2002-2012 were included in the study. These were divided in two groups: those who were treated according to the single-step, algorithm based, approach (16 patients, 32 mastectomies), and those who were treated with the two-step, concentric circular approach (14 patients, 28 mastectomies). Within the single-step, algorithm based, group the following techniques were used: 6% transareolar technique, 6% semicircular, 13% free nipple graft, 31% extended concentric circular, and 44% concentric circular. Data including type of surgical technique used, complications, and number of surgeries were collected and compared. Complications (e.g., haematoma, nipple necrosis, seroma, wound dehiscence, and infection) occurred in 50% of the patients following the first surgery in the two-step, concentric-circular approach group, for a total of 71.43% of patients with complications following either the first- or the second-step surgery; complications occurred only in 25% of the patients in the one-step, algorithm-based group. The mean number of surgeries per breast was 2.5 for the two-step concentric circular approach, and 1.25 for the single step, algorithm-based approach; particularly, when the concentric circular technique was chosen for the single step, algorithm-based approach, only two of the patients required revision surgery to improve the cosmetic outcome. This study shows that the number of complications and the total number of surgeries performed to satisfy patients were lower after Monstrey's algorithm for mastectomies was implemented as routine practice at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
    • "When the amount of breast tissue removed requires skin removal, a scar will result and the patient should be so informed. Complications of subcutaneous mastectomy can include nipple necrosis, contour irregularities, and unsightly scarring (Monstrey et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Standards of Care (SOC) for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People is a publication of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH). The overall goal of the SOC is to provide clinical guidance for health professionals to assist transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people with safe and effective pathways to achieving lasting personal comfort with their gendered selves, in order to maximize their overall health, psychological well-being, and self-fulfillment. This assistance may include primary care, gynecologic and urologic care, reproductive options, voice and communication therapy, mental health services (e.g., assessment, counseling, psychotherapy), and hormonal and surgical treatments. The SOC are based on the best available science and expert professional consensus. Because most of the research and experience in this field comes from a North American and Western European perspective, adaptations of the SOC to other parts of the world are necessary. The SOC articulate standards of care while acknowledging the role of making informed choices and the value of harm reduction approaches. In addition, this version of the SOC recognizes that treatment for gender dysphoria i.e., discomfort or distress that is caused by a discrepancy between persons gender identity and that persons sex assigned at birth (and the associated gender role and/or primary and secondary sex characteristics) has become more individualized. Some individuals who present for care will have made significant self-directed progress towards gender role changes or other resolutions regarding their gender identity or gender dysphoria. Other individuals will require more intensive services. Health professionals can use the SOC to help patients consider the full range of health services open to them, in accordance with their clinical needs and goals for gender expression.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first operative procedure in sex reassignment surgery (SRS) for female-to-male transsexuals (FTMTS) is mastectomy. This procedure includes the removal of mammary tissue, removal of excess skin, and reduction and proper repositioning of the nipple and areola complex. We have performed mastectomies in over 120 patients since January 2001 and want to describe the operative procedures we have developed. We classified our patients into 3 groups according to the patient's breast volume and the degree of ptosis, and we selected the operative procedure that was suitable for each group. At present all costs for SRS are assumed by the patient in Japan. If the FTMTS patient undergoes the entire series of SRS operations, he has to pay more than 3,000,000 yen. Thus the surgeon should select the proper operative procedure so that the patient can avoid unnecessary additional operations. We describe herein the techniques and the strategy for performing mastectomy in FTMTS.
    Article · Oct 2009
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