An unusual presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma

Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, USA.
Dermatology online journal 02/2008; 14(1):6.
Source: PubMed


Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasm. The tumor occurs most commonly in sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients. A small subset of patients (approximately one in five cases) is middle-aged and presents with AFX of the trunk or extremities in areas without evidence of actinic damage. We report an unusual case of AFX of the lower leg in an 81-year-old woman with extensive actinic damage.

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    ABSTRACT: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) represents an uncommon skin tumor typically occurring on sun-damaged skin of the elderly. Histopathologic variants include spindled, clear cell, osteoid, osteoclastic, chondroid, pigmented, granular cell and myxoid lesions. To date, an atypical lymphoid infiltrate, including CD30-positive large cells mimicking lymphomatoid papulosis, has not been described in association with AFX. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of two AFX cases inciting an atypical lymphoid infiltrate, along with immunohistochemical profiles and T-cell receptor gamma (TCRγ) gene rearrangement results, were reviewed. Lesions in both cases occurred as solitary nodules in elderly patients. Microscopically, both lesions showed a cellular proliferation composed of pleomorphic spindle cells, associated with a prominent intralesional atypical lymphoid infiltrate. The spindle cells expressed CD10 but lacked the expression of S-100, cytokeratins and muscle markers, thereby confirming the diagnosis of AFX. CD30 highlighted a significant subset of large mononuclear cells in the lymphoid infiltrate of one case. TCRγ gene rearrangement analyses were negative for both cases. An atypical lymphoid infiltrate, including the one resembling lymphomatoid papulosis, associated with AFX has not been previously described. It is important to recognize the reactive nature of the infiltrate to avoid a misdiagnosis of lymphoma.
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