Competency in Nursing: A Concept Analysis

Article (PDF Available)inThe Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 39(2):58-64; quiz 65-6, 94 · March 2008with7,332 Reads
DOI: 10.3928/00220124-20080201-12 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Competency is a topic of great interest to educators and administrators in practice disciplines, particularly health care disciplines such as nursing. This article focuses on the role of competency in nursing. Through a concept analysis process, various elements of competency were assessed. The defining attributes of competency are the application of skills in all domains for the practice role, instruction that focuses on specific outcomes or competencies, allowance for increasing levels of competency, accountability of the learner, practice-based learning, self-assessment, and individualized learning experiences. The learning environment for competency assurance involves the learner in assessment and accountability, provides practice-based learning opportunities, and individualizes learning experiences.
58 The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
A
lthough the concept of competency is relevant to
all health care disciplines, a common understanding
of what competency is does not exist. A comprehensive
review of the literature regarding clinical competency by
Watson, Stimpson, Topping, and Porock (2002) yielded
little consensus about a clear definition or measurement
of the concept of competency. Indeed, educators and em-
ployers of health care professionals often have disparate
views of competency (Whittaker, Smolenski, & Carson,
2000).
No mechanism exists for most health care facilities to
ensure that practitioners remain up-to-date with current
best practices. Schools of nursing throughout the United
States struggle to determine the best ways to educate stu-
dents who demonstrate entry-level competencies. Em-
ployers struggle to determine the best ways to validate
entry-level competencies and determine specialty com-
petencies.
METHODS
A review of nursing, medical, public health, and edu-
cational literature from the 5 years prior to January 2006
was conducted. The keyword “competency” was used
to search publications in English. The search engine CI-
NAHL yielded 187 articles and the search engine Ovid
yielded 60 articles. Articles lacking application were not
used. The reference lists of selected articles provided
additional sources. In addition, landmark publications
such as the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM; 2003) Health
Professions Education report were used.
The method used for the concept analysis was taken
from Walker and Avant (2004). Their seven-step process
provides a structured way to analyze the concept of com-
petency (Sidebar 1). The purpose of this analysis was to
provide a framework for tracking knowledge, skills, and
attitudes throughout a career.
FINDINGS
Role of Competency
The role of competency in education has grown dra-
matically as health care employers and educators have
identified the gap between education and practice. The
IOM (2001) identified several challenges to health care
in the United States. To improve initial and ongoing
professional education, the IOM called for educational
strategies to include a focus on competence. Addition-
ally, graduates are not typically prepared to care for
high-acuity patients with comorbidities and complex
treatment regimens (IOM, 2003).
Gaps between educational preparation and actual
practice were attributed to factors such as a lack of
funding to update curricula and a limited focus on
teaching in academic health centers. The IOM outlined
the following core competencies for health profession-
als: work in interdisciplinary teams, provide patient-
centered care, employ evidence-based practice, use
informatics, and apply quality improvement (IOM,
2003).
Although the majority of literature about competence
in nursing education focuses on undergraduate educa-
tion, assuring increasing levels of competency across the
educational continuum is important. Education at the
Competency is a topic of great interest to educators and
administrators in practice disciplines, particularly health care
disciplines such as nursing. This article focuses on the role of
competency in nursing. Through a concept analysis process,
various elements of competency were assessed. The defin-
ing attributes of competency are the application of skills in
all domains for the practice role, instruction that focuses on
specific outcomes or competencies, allowance for increasing
levels of competency, accountability of the learner, practice-
based learning, self-assessment, and individualized learn-
ing experiences. The learning environment for competency
assurance involves the learner in assessment and account-
ability, provides practice-based learning opportunities, and
individualizes learning experiences.
J Contin Educ Nurs 2008;39(2):58-64.
abstract
Competency in Nursing: A Concept Analysis
Donna D. Scott Tilley, PhD, RN
Dr. Scott Tilley is Nursing Director, Texas Christian University, Fort
Worth, Texas.
The author discloses that she has no significant financial interests in
any product or class of products discussed directly or indirectly in this
activity, including research support.
Address correspondence to Donna D. Scott Tilley, PhD, RN, Texas
Christian University, TCU Box 298620, Fort Worth, TX 76129.
59
The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
graduate level and beyond must be offered with increas-
ing competency as a goal.
Although education based on competency may be
agreed upon, determining which competencies are most
critical, at what level they should be demonstrated, and
how to teach them remains unclear. Evaluating cogni-
tive, affective, and psychomotor achievement of skills
and knowledge that increase in complexity throughout
a career is challenging.
Origin of the Concept of Competency
Competency is derived from the Middle French and
Latin word competens. To be competent is to be proper
or rightly pertinent, to have requisite or adequate ability
or qualities, to be legally qualified or adequate, or to have
the capacity to function or develop in a particular way
(Merriam-Webster Online, n.d.). The National Coun-
cil for State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN; 2005) defined
competency as “the application of knowledge and the
interpersonal, decision-making, and psychomotor skills
expected for the practice role, within the context of pub-
lic health” (p. 81). McMullan et al. (2003) distinguished
between competence and competency, stating that com-
petence is focused on the description of the action or be-
havior, while competency is focused on the individual’s
behavior that underpins the competent performance.
These terms are frequently used interchangeably.
Beginning in the early 1980s, many boards of nursing
began to explore the issue of competencies for graduating
nurses in their states. Several states developed essential
competencies of nursing program graduates. Typically,
these competencies are specified by educational program
preparation (e.g., diploma, associate degree, and bach-
elor’s degree). Most identify the knowledge, judgment,
skills, and professional values expected of graduates of
nursing programs.
Continued competency became a topic of intense
and frequent discussion among nurses nationally in the
1990s as professional nursing organizations, consumer
advocacy groups, and a rapidly changing health care en-
vironment led nursing to continue its efforts to create
safe environments for patients. This movement was ac-
celerated by the Pew Health Professions Commission’s
reports (Pew Health Professions Commission, 1995) and
the Interprofessional Workgroup on Health Professions
Regulation (IWHPR; 1997) continuing competence
summit in the mid-1990s.
In 1999, Lenburg (1999b) described the Competency
Outcomes and Performance Assessment (COPA) model,
which was applied in an academic setting but viewed as
equally applicable in the practice setting (Redman, Len-
burg, & Hinton Walker, 1999). This model uses four
guiding questions to create an organizing framework
to assist in the transition to competency outcomes and
performance assessment. Eight core competencies were
identified (Sidebar 2). Evaluation is performed at didactic
and clinical levels to promote accountability in the eight
core areas.
Also in 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate
Medical Education (n.d.) endorsed general competen-
cies for residents. This was the first step in the council’s
process of incorporating these competencies into its
requirements. The general competencies identified for
medical residents were patient care, medical knowledge,
practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal
and communication skills, professionalism, and systems-
based practice.
Genomics, once considered a specialty area, is in-
creasingly being recognized as a central science for all
health care professionals. With this in mind, a panel of
nurse leaders convened in 2005 to establish competen-
cies required for delivery of genetic and genomic fo-
cused nursing care. The essential competencies of pro-
SIDEBAR 1
CONCEPT ANALYSIS STEPS
l Select a concept
l Determine the aims or purposes of the analysis
l Identify all the uses of the concept that can be discovered
l Determine the defining attributes
l Identify a model case, borderline case, and contrary case
l Identify antecedents and consequences
l Define empirical referents
Note. Data from Walker and Avant (2004).
SIDEBAR 2
COMPETENCY OUTCOMES AND
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT: CORE
COMPETENCIES
l Assessment and intervention
l Communication
l Critical thinking
l Teaching
l Human caring relationships
l Management
l Leadership
l Knowledge integration skills
Note. Data from Lenburg (1999b).
60 The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
fessional responsibilities, professional practice domain,
referral activities, and provision of education, care, and
support were identified. Each core competency has spe-
cific behaviors by which it can be assessed. The Genom-
ics Consensus Panel recommends strategies to facilitate
the development of the competencies to include long-
term planning to incorporate genomic information to
improve public health, faculty and practice nurses seek-
ing continuing education or academic courses to update
their genetic and genomic knowledge, and collaboration
with other disciplines (International Society of Nurse
Geneticists, 2007).
Uses of the Concept of Competency
The NCSBN (2005) acknowledged the relevance of
continued competency of nurses at all levels as an im-
portant issue for all state boards of nursing. To apply the
concept of competency to all practitioners at all levels of
practice, the NCSBN definition focused on the practice
role within the context of public health.
Competency-based education is defined by the Ac-
creditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
(n.d.) as an approach to instruction and assessment that
places primary emphasis on identifying and measuring
specific learning outcomes or competencies. This ap-
proach to instruction contrasts with more traditional
didactic methods of teaching and evaluation. Didactic
course evaluation uses objective testing strategies to de-
termine cognitive achievements, whereas competency-
based education uses demonstration of skills and knowl-
edge to evaluate performance potential.
Competency Assessment. Currently, in most states, a
nurse is determined to be competent when initially li-
censed. Continued competency is assumed thereafter un-
less otherwise demonstrated. The dominant method to
assess a health care professional’s continued competency
is traditional didactic continuing education (e.g., formal
conferences, lectures, and dissemination of educational
materials; IOM, 2003). Little evidence exists that these
methods have any effect on clinicians’ behavior or pa-
tients’ or systems’ health outcomes (IOM). State boards
of nursing are considering other ways to determine con-
tinued competency of practicing nurses.
Evaluating continued competency is a difficult pro-
cess, primarily because the evaluation standards are not
yet clear for nursing. The NCSBN (2005) outlined several
options for a basis for evaluation: the current entry-level
National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX),
generalist core competency at each licensure level, fo-
cused areas of practice, essential emerging knowledge, or
some combination of these.
Whereas some states have differentiated competencies
for new graduates, other states have opted to improve
the preparation of nurses for entry into practice through
other means (New Mexico Consortium for Nursing
Workforce Development, 1999; North Carolina Board
of Nursing, 2005). The Kentucky Board of Nursing
(2006), after examining the congruence between educa-
tion and practice, proposed the implementation of an in-
tegrated practicum to be completed prior to graduation
and a clinical internship to be completed immediately
following graduation.
Certification by national agencies has historically
been a voluntary process, yet some states use certifica-
tion as an indicator of entry-level competency. However,
research is lacking to demonstrate that certification ex-
aminations are linked to competency or improved pa-
tient outcomes (Whittaker et al., 2000).
The performance-based development system is a
competency assessment system that uses video, audio,
and written simulations to measure competency for
practice (del Bueno, 1990). del Bueno developed this as-
sessment tool to standardize the orientation program for
new hires. The performance-based development system
measures critical thinking as well as interpersonal and
technical skills in many practice settings.
Competency Assessment in Initial Education. A com-
petency-based approach to initial nursing education is
not the norm for most prelicensure schools of nursing.
Watson et al. (2002) noted the absence of a reliable and
valid method of competency-based training. Many pro-
grams issue a grade for didactic content mastery and a
pass–fail grade for clinical performance (Fordham, 2005).
This practice further distances graduates from an expec-
tation of an assessment of ongoing competence.
Evidence of fitness for practice can be demonstrated
through the development of a practice portfolio (Ford-
ham, 2005; Girot, 2000; McMullan et al., 2003). A port-
folio is a purposeful collection of traditional and nontra-
ditional work that represents student or nurse learning
activities, progress, and achievement over one’s academic
career (Scholes et al., 2004).
The development of a practice portfolio places the
onus for learning and development with the individual.
Indeed, the use of practice portfolios is based on prin-
ciples of adult learning and active learning rather than
passive learning (McMullan et al., 2003). In addition to
promoting active learning and individual accountabil-
ity, portfolios are thought to promote development of
critical-thinking skills. Although portfolios are widely
used and accepted by schools of nursing and offer many
positives, their evaluation continues to be a subjective
process that is not easily amenable to standardization or
objective assessment (McMullan et al.). Ensuring equity
61
The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
and consistency in evaluation is a key concern with the
use of portfolios (Scholes et al., 2004).
Krenz (2003) suggested using nursing outcomes clas-
sification as the foundation for a competency-based un-
dergraduate curriculum. Krenz used discipline-specific
outcomes in curriculum revision to write competency
statements that reflected what nursing students were to
achieve in care implementation. Analysis of this curricu-
lum development determined that it provided clarity and
direction to the curriculum.
Similar to the COPA model, Reising and Devich (2004)
suggested assessing progressively difficult skill sets in suc-
cessive semesters of a baccalaureate nursing program as a
way to evaluate competency. Consistent evaluation criteria
across all courses should include critical thinking and pri-
ority setting, health assessment, psychomotor skills, and
communication, including patient teaching and documen-
tation. As with other methods of competency assessment,
lack of evaluation consistency was a drawback identified
by students and faculty. Student anxiety, not necessarily a
disadvantage of other methods of assessment, was a sig-
nificant drawback as well (Reising & Devich).
In addition to competency assessment for students,
competency assessment in ongoing and advanced prac-
tice is becoming more common.
Competency Assessment in Ongoing Practice. The IOM
(2003) recommended that all licensed health professionals
be required to periodically demonstrate their ability to
deliver patient care as defined by the core competencies
for health professionals. These competencies were to be
measured directly through technical competence, patient
assessment, evaluation of patient outcomes, and other
evidence-based assessment methods. Further, the IOM
recommended that certification bodies require certificate
holders to maintain competence throughout their careers
by periodically demonstrating their ability to deliver care
reflecting the core competencies.
Currently, the most common method of demon-
strating continued competence for licensure renewal is
continuing education (NCSBN, 2005). Continuing edu-
cation is required for license renewal by 25 registered
nurse boards and 24 licensed vocational nurse boards.
Of these, 12 boards require specific subject matter as a
part of licensure maintenance (NCSBN). Other boards
require a specific number of continuing education or
practice hours. For renewal of an inactive license, many
boards require a refresher course and some require a
competency examination (NCSBN). Advanced practice
nurses may also be required to seek specific content (Yo-
der-Wise, 2006).
Advanced practice nurses have a similar model for
demonstrating ongoing competence. The American
Academy of Nurse Practitioners certification renewal
process requires documentation of clinical practice as
a nurse practitioner, and continuing education (Yoder-
Wise, 2006). The American Nurses Credentialing Center
accepts practice hours, continuing nursing education,
academic education, presentations, publications, and
preceptorship for certification renewal (Yoder-Wise).
Portfolios, widely used to evaluate competence in
initial education programs, are gaining popularity as a
tool for documenting ongoing competency in practice.
Web-based systems for tracking competencies for pro-
fessionals in practice are available and gaining popular-
ity. Software for this inexpensive and portable method
of maintaining records related to ongoing competency
activities continues to be developed (Hobbs, 2005).
Defining Attributes of Competency
In their review of the literature regarding competency
in nursing education, Watson et al. (2002) found that in 22
of 61 articles on the topic, authors did not define the term
competency. The NCSBN (2005) elucidated the reasons
why there is no clear solution to evaluating competency.
The reasons for the lack of clarity in defining competency
include that competency is multifaceted and difficult to
measure; the volume of nurses in practice makes it diffi-
cult to identify feasible and meaningful, yet cost-effective,
regulatory approaches; agreement is lacking about who
should be responsible for continued competency; nursing
careers are widely divergent with various levels of practice;
and there is an inherent evolution of practice from the new,
entry-level graduate to the experienced nurse (Bargagliotti,
Luttrell, & Lenburg, 1999).
The barriers to clarity outlined by the NCSBN are
compounded by the fact that there are currently two
common uses for the concept of competency: maintain-
ing ongoing competency in practice and preparing for
initial licensure (Sidebar 3).
CASES OF A COMPETENCY FOCUS IN
EDUCATION
A Model Case
A model case provides an example of the concept that
demonstrates all defining attributes of the concept, or a
pure exemplar (Walker & Avant, 2004). For an example
of a model case, consider the following actual nursing
school curriculum.
Alverno College is known for its innovative focus
on the learner. This college was among the first to use
a web-based diagnostic digital portfolio to allow nurs-
ing students to track their learning progress through
their years of study (Alverno College, n.d.). As students
receive feedback from faculty, external assessors, and
62 The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
peers, they are able to look for patterns in their own aca-
demic work to continue development in areas indicated
and be autonomous learners. Clearly defined competen-
cies provide a guideline, and students must demonstrate
mastery of lower-level competencies before moving into
higher-level content. Students are expected to demon-
strate integration and mastery of knowledge, interper-
sonal, decision-making, and psychomotor skills. The
diagnostic digital portfolio is built on Alverno’s student
assessment-as-learning process, making it more trans-
parent to the student and others who seek to understand
this important educational program. It also provides ac-
tual, accessible performance data with which graduates
can create an electronic résumé for potential employers
or for graduate schools (Alverno College). The teaching
and evaluation process used by Alverno College repre-
sents a model case that incorporates the defining attri-
butes of competency-based education.
A Borderline Case
A borderline case is an example of a case in which
some, but not all, defining attributes of the concept are
demonstrated (Walker & Avant, 2004). Borderline cases
are inconsistent in some way with one or more of the de-
fining attributes of the concept. For a borderline case of
competency assessment in nursing education, consider
the following actual example.
A registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing
program at a large Southwestern university is a web-
based program that individualizes degree plans and clini-
cal experiences. Students start portfolio construction at
the beginning of the curriculum and maintain a current
portfolio throughout. Courses are specifically designed
for registered nurses and advanced placement or gradu-
ate course substitution based on previous experience is
encouraged. Testing is not a component of any course,
but each course does require students to write at least one
paper with clearly defined criteria. Although the program
is considered strong and innovative, it represents a bor-
derline case of a competency focus in education because
it is missing defining attributes (i.e., a focus on fostering
learners’ ability to self-assess and provision of opportuni-
ties for independent study).
A Contrary Case
A contrary case is one in which none of the defin-
ing attributes are met, or a case that is “not the concept”
(Walker & Avant, 2004). For a contrary case of a com-
petency focus in education, consider the following con-
structed example.
School A is a traditional didactic-based program in
which testing classroom content is the primary method
of evaluation. Students attend classroom instruction ex-
clusively for the first 2 years of the 4-year program. The
second half of the program includes a clinical component
that requires students to perform nursing skills that must
be completed before the end of the program. Students can
either pass or fail the clinical component of each course,
and detailed feedback is not provided regarding their clin-
ical performance. All defining attributes of competency
are absent in this imaginary nursing program.
ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES
Antecedents are events that must occur prior to the
occurrence of the concept. Consequences are the events
that occur as a result of the occurrence of the concept, or
the outcomes of a concept (Walker & Avant, 2004).
SIDEBAR 3
DEFINING ATTRIBUTES OF COMPETENCY IN
NURSING AND NURSING EDUCATION
Characteristics of education focused on competency
Lenburg (1999a)
An intentional shift from traditional patterns of informa-
tion giving to actively engaging students in real time
Collaborative learning, based on developing and ex-
panding assessment, critical thinking, communication,
and leadership
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
(n.d.)
Explicit and clearly aligned with expected competencies
Criteria driven, focused on accountability in reaching
benchmarks and, ultimately, competence
Grounded in “real-life” experiences
Focused on fostering learners’ ability to self-assess
Individualized and providing more opportunities for
independent study
Defining attributes of competency in nursing and nursing
education
Application of knowledge, interpersonal, decision-making,
and psychomotor skills expected for the practice role
Instruction and assessment that places primary emphasis
on identifying and measuring specific learning outcomes
or competencies
Allowance for increasing levels of competency for increas-
ingly complex care
Criteria driven, focused on accountability in reaching
benchmarks and, ultimately, competence
Grounded in “real-life” experiences
Focused on fostering learners’ ability to self-assess
Individualized and providing more opportunities for
independent study
63
The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
Antecedents for competency are educational pro-
grams, students, faculty or teachers of nurses, and
practicing nurses. The literature review suggested that
willingness to use innovative approaches to nursing edu-
cation and assessment of ongoing readiness for practice
is also an antecedent.
Consequences of competency remain largely undeter-
mined and untested. The current literature implies that a
consequence of a focus on competency in education is
a narrowing of the gap between education and practice,
leading to improved patient outcomes, clinical judgment,
and accountability and self-assessment of learners.
EMPIRICAL REFERENTS
Empirical referents are processes by which the con-
cept of competency can be measured (Walker & Avant,
2004). Measuring the gap between education and prac-
tice continues to challenge researchers, educators, and
practice administrators. Watson et al. (2002) demon-
strated a lack of reliable and valid methods for evaluat-
ing competency, particularly in education. As measure-
ment tools are developed and selected, ensuring that
they are comprehensive, reliable, valid, and free of bias
is important.
The current trend of using portfolios to demonstrate
ongoing competency lacks a clear empirical referent for
competency. Development of processes by which port-
folios can be standardized and evaluated is required be-
fore portfolios will provide measurable outcomes.
Krenz (2003) suggested using the nursing outcomes
classification as the foundation of a competency-based
undergraduate curriculum. Competency statements that
reflect what nursing students are to achieve in care im-
plementation are a step closer to objective measurement
of outcomes.
Assessing progressively difficult skill sets in succes-
sive semesters of a baccalaureate nursing program pro-
vides a comprehensive solution to measurement (Reising
& Devich, 2004). However, inconsistency in evaluation
is a drawback to this subjective method, as is student
anxiety (Reising & Devich).
CONCLUSION
Competency is an exciting and challenging concept in
education that may address gaps between education and
practice. The best methods to teach and evaluate using a
competency model remain unclear and in need of more
research.
There is a lack of consensus about several important
issues surrounding competency. A clear and consistent
definition of competency is an important step. Deter-
mination of at what point to measure competency is
needed. Initial competency measurement is critical, but
it needs to be determined at what point in an individual’s
career measurement of competency moves from general
competence to specialized competency. Determining
who is responsible for developing guidelines and assur-
ing initial and ongoing competency is another important
issue. This responsibility could lie with the individual, a
professional association, an employer, a board of nurs-
ing, or credentialing entities. The American Nurses As-
sociation has stated that assurance of continuing compe-
tency is the shared responsibility of these various entities
(Whittaker et al., 2000).
As methods for assessing and teaching from a com-
petency-based framework continue to be developed, it
is important for these issues to be considered. A flex-
ible, efficient, and effective framework will be required
to assess the broad range of nursing functions (Lenburg,
1999a). A model must be developed that provides for
safety of care to patients, incorporates choice for nurses
to document or demonstrate their competency, and is
cost-effective and practical.
Certification, portfolios, electronic tracking of com-
petencies, and progressive skills testing are useful. Fur-
ther research in this arena is required. Bridging the gap
between practice and education requires innovation by
nurse educators in collaboration with practice partners.
REFERENCES
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. (n.d.). Out-
come project: Minimum program requirements language. Retrieved
January 4, 2008, from www.acgme.org/outcome/comp/compMin.
asp
key points
Competency in Nursing
Scott Tilley, D. D. (2008). Competency in Nursing: A Concept
Analysis. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39(2),
58-64.
1
Competence is focused on the description of the action or
behavior, whereas competency is focused on the individual’s
behavior underpinning the competent performance.
2
Little evidence exists that commonly used continuing educa-
tion methods have any effect on clinicians’ behavior or patient/
systems health outcomes.
3
The current literature about competency implies that a conse-
quence of a focus on competency in education is a narrowing
of the gap between education and practice, leading to im-
proved patient outcomes, clinical judgment, and accountability
of learners.
64 The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · February 2008 · Vol 39, No 2
Earn 2.3 Contact Hours
ce
ARTICLE
Alverno College. (n.d.). Alverno’s diagnostic digital profile. Retrieved
January 4, 2008, from www.alverno.edu/academics/ddp.html
Bargagliotti, T., Luttrell, M., & Lenburg, C. B. (1999). Reducing threats
to the implementation of a competency-based performance assess-
ment system. Retrieved January 9, 2008, from www.nursingworld.
org/ojin/topic10/tpc10_5.htm
del Bueno, D. J. (1990). Experience, education, and nurses’ ability to
make clinical judgments. Nursing & Health Care, 11(6), 290-294.
Fordham, A. J. (2005). Using a competency based approach in nurse
education. Nursing Standard, 19(31), 41-48.
Girot, E. A. (2000). Assessment of graduates and diplomates in practice
in the UK: Are we measuring the same level of competence? Jour-
nal of Clinical Nursing, 9(3), 330-336.
Hobbs, D. (2005). Tracking clinical competencies on the web. Radio-
logic Technology, 76(5), 345-349.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health
system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Author.
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Health professions education: A bridge to
quality. Washington, DC: Author.
International Society of Nurse Geneticists. (2007). Genetics/genomics
nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Philadelphia: Author.
Interprofessional Workgroup on Health Professions Regulation.
(1997). Continued competency summit: Assessing the issues, meth-
ods, and realities for health care professions. Course materials: A
compendium of conference handouts.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2006). Entry into practice: A regulatory
initiative. Retrieved January 22, 2006, from http://kbn.ky.gov/
education/pon/entry
Krenz, M. (2003). The use of NOC to direct a competency based cur-
riculum. International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Clas-
sifications, 14(Suppl. 4), S59.
Lenburg, C. (1999a). Redesigning expectations for initial and continu-
ing competence for contemporary nursing practice. Retrieved Janu-
ary 4, 2008, from www.nursingworld.org/ojin
Lenburg, C. (1999b). The framework, concepts and methods of the
competency outcomes and performance assessment (COPA) model.
Retrieved January 4, 2008, from www.nursingworld.org/ojin
McMullan, M., Endacott, R., Gray, M., Jasper, M., Miller, C., Scholes,
J., et al. (2003). Portfolios and assessment of competence: A review
of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(3), 283-294.
Merriam-Webster Online. (n.d.). Retrieved January 4, 2008, from www.
m-w.com/dictionary/competent
National Council for State Boards of Nursing. (2005). Business book:
NCSBN 2005 annual meeting. Chicago, IL: Author.
New Mexico Consortium for Nursing Workforce Development.
(1999). Standards for differentiated competencies of the nursing
workforce at the time of entry/advanced beginner. Albuquerque,
NM: Author.
North Carolina Board of Nursing. (2005). Continuing competence. Ra-
leigh, NC: Author.
Pew Health Professions Commission. (1995). Performing health care
workforce regulation: Policy considerations for the 21st century. San
Francisco: University of California San Francisco Center for the
Health Professions.
Redman, R. W., Lenburg, C. B., & Hinton Walker, P. (1999). Com-
petency assessment: Methods for development and implementa-
tion in nursing education. Retrieved January 4, 2008, from www.
nursingworld.org/ojin
Reising, D., & Devich, L. (2004). Comprehensive practicum evaluation
across a nursing program. Nursing Education Perspectives, 25(3),
114-119.
Scholes, J., Webb, C., Gray, M., Endacott, R., Miller, C., Jasper, M., et
al. (2004). Making portfolios work in practice. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 46(6), 595-603.
Walker, L., & Avant, K. (2004). Strategies for theory construction in
nursing (4th ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Watson, R., Stimpson, A., Topping, A., & Porock, D. (2002). Clinical
competence assessment in nursing: Review of the literature. Journal
of Advanced Nursing, 39(5), 421-431.
Whittaker, S., Smolenski, M., & Carson, W. (2000). Assuring continued
competence: Policy questions and approaches. How should a profes-
sion respond? Retrieved January 4, 2008, from www.nursingworld.
org/ojin
Yoder-Wise, P. (2006). State and certifying boards/associations: CE and
competency requirements. The Journal of Continuing Education in
Nursing, 37(1), 3.
    • "Increasing satisfaction in major and clinical practice was not enough to increase performance in simulation situation and there is needed to develop the intervention promoting real performances. This meaning is that it is not enough when you consider that competency is focused on the individual's behavior underpinning the competent [1]. This suggests that satisfaction in major and clinical practice would not "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nursing competency including problem solving, critical thinking and clinical competency is essential in the nurse. Although importance of nursing competency is more increasing, chance of direct-patient care in hospital is more decreased. This study was purposed to evaluate nursing competency and debriefing evaluation according to satisfaction in major and clinical practice. 186 nursing students had participated in this describing study. Critical thinking and clinical practice among nursing competency and debriefing evaluation are significantly differences according to satisfaction in major. According to satisfaction in clinical practice, problem solving, critical thinking and clinical competency of nursing competency and debriefing evaluation were differences. Regardless of these positive results, there were not differences in real performances evaluation from educator and students themselves. It means that satisfaction in major and clinical practice is the important elements increasing clinical competencies but it is not promoting real performances in simulation situation. In order to develop the program improving real situational performances as increasing problem solving, critical thinking, clinical competency and debriefing evaluationextended and repeated studies are needed.
    Article · Apr 2016
    • "Furthermore, tooverpower the problem, the researcher suggested seven steps for first-year nursing students to senior nursing students. In connection with the diverse values among stakeholders, there is often a lack of shared assumptions between educational institutions, employers, patients, and regulatory bodies about what to expect from new nursing graduates [47, 49, 51]. The researchers strongly believe that nursing stakeholders must be accompanied by the seven nursing students' competencies for different academic and clinical settings to overcome the problems. "
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "Competence cannot be directly observed from an individuals' behaviour but is inferred from their performance (Biggs, 1994; Gonczi, 1994; Hager and Gonczi, 1996; Messick, 1984; Neufeld and Norman, 1985). Competency is described as an underlying characteristic of performance ; it is multifaceted and difficult to measure (Carraccio et al., 2002; Cowan et al., 2005; Eraut, 1998; Laibhen-Parkes, 2014; Tilley, 2008). The fundamental meanings of competence and competency are similar in that 'multiple attributes' and 'performance' are frequently used inconsistently and interchangeably in nursing literature (Cowan et al., 2005; Laibhen-Parkes, 2014). "
    Article · Feb 2016 · International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology
Show more

    Recommended publications

    Discover more