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Effects of Rosa rugosa Petals on Intestinal Bacteria

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Abstract

The effects of pulverized petal of Rosa rugosa on the growth of 10 species of intestinal and pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was not affected by the addition of the petal in plate cultivation. However, the growth of Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus was completely inhibited by the addition of 0.1, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05% (w/v) of the petal respectively. In liquid cultivation, the addition of the petal (0.5%) stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium breve and slightly inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius. But the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp. was inhibited by nearly 50%. Hydrolyzable tannins isolated from R. rugosa, rugosin D, and tellimagradin II showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp., but little or no effect against Bif. breve and L. salivarius. R. rugosa petal showed selective antibacterial activities against intestinal and pathogenic bacteria, and the selectivity resembled that of prebiotics such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber. Hydrolyzable tannins in R. rugosa, such as rugosin D and tellimagradin II, must be active constituents.

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... Rosa rugosa has been proven to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria but did not alter bifidobacteria or lactobacilli growth [207]. The antimicrobial effect of phenolic compounds mentioned above [208] seems to be selective, since Kamijo et al. [207] observed that tannins from Rosa rugosa only inhibited pathogenic bacteria growth, suggesting Rosa rugosa as a promising prebiotic. ...
... Rosa rugosa has been proven to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria but did not alter bifidobacteria or lactobacilli growth [207]. The antimicrobial effect of phenolic compounds mentioned above [208] seems to be selective, since Kamijo et al. [207] observed that tannins from Rosa rugosa only inhibited pathogenic bacteria growth, suggesting Rosa rugosa as a promising prebiotic. ...
... Olech et al. [195] Dysbiosis Specific inhibition of pathogenic bacteria growth Kamijo et al. [207] Prostate cancer Anti-histone acetyltransferase activity Lee et al. [91] Takayama et al. [92] Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pyelonephritis Urease inhibitor Hassan et al. [205] Bai et al. [204] Isoflavonoid phytoestrogen Cancer Stimulation of growing oestrogen dependent cells Uifălean et al. [87] Flavonoids Obesity Reduction of PPARγ expression, and prevention of lipid accumulation Ninomiya et al. [140] Nagatomo et al. [151] Epilepsy Reduction of lipid peroxidation and anticonvulsive effect Diniz et al. [170] Homayoun et al. [171] Uttara et al. [172] Triterpenoic acids, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid Arthritis Reumatoid Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 Jäger et al. [109] Wenzing et al. [110] Lycopene and other carotenes Bacterial infections Anti-H. pylori activity Horváth et al. [200] trans-Tiliroside Hyperlipidaemia Reduction of reduced plasma and liver triglyceride free fatty acid (FFA) levels. ...
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Rosa species, rose hips, are widespread wild plants that have been traditionally used as medicinal compounds for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The therapeutic potential of these plants is based on its antioxidant effects caused by or associated with its phytochemical composition, which includes ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and healthy fatty acids among others. Over the last few years, medicinal interest in rose hips has increased as a consequence of recent research that has studied its potential application as a treatment for several diseases including skin disorders, hepatotoxicity, renal disturbances, diarrhoea, inflammatory disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cancer. In this review, the role of different species ofRosain the prevention of treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress, is examined, focusing on new therapeutic approaches from a molecular point of view.
... Similarly, there are only a few data on antibacterial and antitumor properties of the plant. Petals have been shown to have selective antibacterial activity against intestinal and pathogenic bacteria [12]. In terms of antitumor activity, Lee et al. [13] demonstrated that methanolic extracts from rose stem acted as anti-prostate cancer agents. ...
... However, this astringent property is also responsible for their antidiarrheal action which may be valued in some circumstances. Moreover, significant antioxidant, antibacterial, antimutagenic effects of tannins are known [12]. The tannin content in teas was determinated using the modified pharmacopoeial method [16]. ...
... gallic acid, ellagic acid), o-dihydroxyphenols (e.g. caffeic acid) and hydrolysable tannins in various R. rugosa parts [1,8,12,32]. These compounds possess proven cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity [8,12,30]. ...
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The study was designed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, o-dihydroxyphenol, tannin, and carotenoid content as well as the antiradical, antitumor and antimicrobial properties of two types of galenic preparations from Rosa rugosa Thunb. Such extracts obtained from various plant parts have not been studied to date. Our findings have revealed high antiradical activity of the examined galenic preparations, with root, leaf and flower extracts (IC50 ranging from 0.27 to 0.19 mg of dry extract per mg DPPH·) showing the greatest potential. MIC and MBC values against 8 reference bacterial strains (i.e. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis) were determined. Generally, tinctures were found to be more active than teas with MIC ranging from 0.08 to 2.5 mg mL−1 and 0.31 to 1.25 mg mL−1, respectively. Anticancer activities against ovarian (TOV-112D), cervical (HeLa), breast (T47D) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines were evaluated using the BrdU test. The data obtained demonstrate considerable impact of polyphenols on the anticancer activity of extracts (ethanolic, in particular).
... Considerable amounts of tannins were also previously reported by other authors. 3,4,19 In our study, large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were also demonstrated (3.56 and 8.88 mg g −1 dry weight, respectively). ...
... The activity of W may be related to condensed tannins, polysaccharides, complexes of polysaccharides with proteins or phenolic compounds, whose presence was previously demonstrated in the material. 3,9,19,20 Antimicrobial activity In traditional Asian folk medicine, dried rugosa rose petals have been mainly used due to their antibacterial properties; 3,5,9 however, these properties have been poorly investigated so far. Kamijo et al. 19 examined the influence of pulverized Rosa rugosa petals and its hydrolysable tannins (rugosin D and tellimagrandin II) on the growth of intestinal and pathogenic bacteria, showing the inhibition of growth of E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus and Salmonella sp. ...
... 3,9,19,20 Antimicrobial activity In traditional Asian folk medicine, dried rugosa rose petals have been mainly used due to their antibacterial properties; 3,5,9 however, these properties have been poorly investigated so far. Kamijo et al. 19 examined the influence of pulverized Rosa rugosa petals and its hydrolysable tannins (rugosin D and tellimagrandin II) on the growth of intestinal and pathogenic bacteria, showing the inhibition of growth of E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus and Salmonella sp. In addition, our previous analysis showed antibacterial potential of tea and tincture prepared from R. rugosa petals. ...
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Rosa rugosa petals are used for production of teas, jams, wines and juices. Despite the wide availability of rose cultivars comprehensive information on petals chemical composition and healthful properties is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of rugosa rose petals. Petals of R. rugosa were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect against cervical (HeLa) and breast cancer (T47D) cell lines and for antiradical activity (with DPPH(•) ). As a result, significant cytotoxic (up to 100% of dead cells) and antiradical properties (IC50 1.33 - 0.08 mg mg(-1) DPPH(•) ) were demonstrated. Moreover, notable antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial (i.e. S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) and two yeast strains (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis) was showed. Total phenolic, flavonoid, phenolic acid, tannin, carotenoid and polysaccharide content in petals was determined using spectrophotometric methods. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to thoroughly analyze phenolic acids and flavonoid glycosides in the methanolic extract and fractions obtained after its separation. Five phenolic acids and six flavonoids previously not reported in the plant material were identified. This is the first such detailed report on chemical composition and biological activity of Rcxh rugosa petals.
... Tannin effect on commensal microbiota and coliform diarrhea development Several in vitro studies have shown that some tannins can have a negative effect on the growth of pathogenic bacteria and no or positive effects on the growth of commensal, non-pathogenic bacteria. For instance, ellagitannins isolated from Rosa rugosa petals (tellimagrandins II, rugosin D) showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella sp., but they had little or no effect against Bifidobacterium breve or Lactobacillus salivarius (Kamijo et al., 2008). Similarly, tannic acid, some berries rich in CTs (mainly procyanidins) and gallotannins from Mangifera indica L. (mango) did not inhibit the growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium spp. ...
... Factors related to bacteria: type, concentration and time of exposure An important factor is the target bacteria species. As previously mentioned, some CTs and HTs can inhibit the growth of some species but do not affect the growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (Kamijo et al., 2008). Unlike other bacteria, some probiotic bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus do not require heme-containing enzymes for metabolism and are not sensitive to the ion chelation induced by tannins. ...
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In addition to a multifactorial etiology of nutritional, social and environmental stressors, post-weaning diarrhea ( PWD ) in pigs is often related to infection with specific pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ( ETEC ). In swine farming operations, the incidence of PWD is a global concern and is associated with an unbalanced gut status, resulting in poor performance and high antimicrobial consumption via prophylaxis and metaphylaxis. Increases in antimicrobial resistance are reinforcing an already-urgent need for sustainable, alternative solutions for maintaining optimal gut health in livestock. Tannin-rich plants and extracts contain bioactive compounds that could be of great interest in this respect. This review describes how the use of tannins around weaning could be beneficial for pigs, with special emphasis on the reduction of ETEC-related PWD. An overview of the broad chemical diversity of tannins is presented together with their physicochemical and biological properties, as well as how they may be metabolized in the digestive tract. The pharmacological effects exerted by tannins are summarized; more precisely, the possible mechanisms by which tannins can disrupt the different steps of the pathogenesis of ETEC-related PWD are highlighted. The factors affecting the bioactivity of tannins are also discussed, shedding light on the importance of chemical structure among different tannins.
... (Jung et al., 2005;Yoshizawa et al., 2000;Ng et al., 2004;Park et al., 2005;Altiner et al., 2008;Kamijo et al., 2008). 해당화는 분획별로 다양하게 이용되기도 하는데, 일 본에서는 해당화 꽃의 색소를 천연 착색료로 이용하기도 하 고, 우리나라에서는 해당화 지하부를 당뇨병 치료제로 사용 하고 있다는 보고가 있다 (Cho et al., 2004). ...
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Rosa rugosa has been used as a folk medicine with various pharmacological properties for a long time in Asia. We investigated effects of fructus extracts of Rosa rugosa (RRF) and semen extracts of this herb (RRS) on bone forming cells (osteoblastic and pre-osteoclastic cells) to evaluate the pharmacological possibilities in a variety of bone-related disease. RRF showed significant effect on proliferation of osteoblastic cells in dose-dependent manners at 72 hrs and of RRS was effective at 48 and 72 hrs. RRF and RRS did not decreased production of TNF- but NO by pre-osteoclastic cells under inflammation circumstance indeced by LPS. We also investigated the effects of RRF and RRS on the mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in the old and young mice in ex vivo systems. RRF and RRS significantly enhanced proliferative effects of untreated and ConA-treated splenocytes from the old and young mice. But, RRS at increased LPS-induced TNF- production in pre-osteoclastic cells and reduced LPS-stimulated lymphoblastogenesis in the old and young at . These results indicate that RRF has beneficial effects on osteoarthritis and give further possibilities for the immunomodulating effects not only in old that has more frequent bone related diseases but also in young.
... Tannins, a large group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants, are often encountered in our daily life, being present in foods, beverages and medicinal plants (Okuda et al. 1989). Previous studies have reported apoptotic effect on HL-60 cells, antiinflammatory activity of casuarinin (9) (Yang et al. 2000;Pan et al. 2000), anti-dementia activity of tellimagradin II (6) and pentagallolylglucose (3) extracted from Sanguisorbae Radix (Lee et al. 2005), anti-diabetic activity of pentagallolylglucose (3) extracted from Paeonia lactiflora roots (Baumgartner et al. 2010), anti-oxidation activity of casuarinin (9) extracted from Terminalia arjuna (Chen et al. 2004) and T. chebula (Cheng et al. 2003), anti-oxidation and antitumor activities of pentagallolylglucose (3) (Okuda et al. 2009), antibacterial activity of tellimagradin II (6) extracted from Rosa rugosa (Kamijo et al. 2008), antioxidant activity and DPPH radical-scavenging activity of pedunculagin (5), casuarictin (4) and casuarinin (9) isolated from walnuts (Juglans regia L.), and preventive effect on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride of tellimagrandin II (6) and casuarictin (4) isolated from walnuts (J. regia L.) (Fukuda et al. 2003;Shimoda et al. 2008). ...
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In this study, the anti-allergy potency of thirteen tannins isolated from the galls on buds of Carpinus tschonoskii (including two tannin derivatives) was investigated. RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells were incubated with these compounds, and the release of β-hexosaminidase and cytotoxicity were measured. Of the thirteen tannins, tetragalloylglucose (2), pentagalloylglucose (3), casuarictin (4), and casuarinin (9) were the most potent inhibitors, and all the tannins showed no cytotoxic effect after 24 h of incubation. The results obtained suggest that tannins from C. tschonoskii are capable of inhibiting allergic reactions and may be useful for the treatment or prevention of type I allergic diseases.
... The histochemical tests used in our study also enabled the detection of tannins in the sepals (trichomes, parenchyma) and in the petals of R. rugosa. K a m i j o et al. [24] showed tannins in R. rugosa to have antibacterial activity against 10 pathogenic bacteria. D o b s o n et al. [12] found sesquiterpenes to be dominant in the essential oils secreted by the sepals of R. rugosa. ...
Article
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Due to the presence of secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity, the flowers of Rosa rugosa Thunb. have found application in traditional and folk medicine. The essential oil obtained from them is also considered to be a phytoncide. The morphological and anatomical characters of glandular trichomes located on the sepals of R. rugosa were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Using histochemical tests, the type of secretion produced in the trichomes was determined and its contents were compared with the secretion produced by the papillae on the petals. It was found that multicellular glandular trichomes, having the features of colleters, and non-glandular trichomes were located on the abaxial epidermis, while only non-glandular trichomes were situated on the adaxial epidermis. The stalk cells of the glandular trichomes are arranged in multiple rows, whereas the epidermal cells of the head are arranged radially. The capitate trichomes were classified into two types: short and long trichomes. The largest density of glandular trichomes was recorded in the basal abaxial epidermis and in the middle part of the sepals. During the initial stages of bud development, the glandular hairs were green colored, whereas in the next development stages they changed the color to red. The histochemical tests used allowed us to find that the trichomes on the sepals and the papille on the petals produced lipid substances, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Sesquiterpenes were found only in the secretion of the glandular hairs on the sepals.
... The group of species popularly thought of as antimicrobial (x = 3.74 ± 4.78) and antidiarrheal (x = 2 ± 2.37) had higher average tannin contents than the group of plants that were chosen at random (x = 1.09 ± 1.79). Studies have shown that tannins possess antidiarrhoeal[23,32,33,[44][45][46][47][48][49]and antimicrobial activities[50,51], and, although the difference in tannin levels of these two groups was not significant in our study, compared to the random group of plants (Table 1), these compounds are more concentrated in plants with these activities[8,[17][18][19]. The group of antimicrobial plants exhibited proportionally greater occurrences of high levels of tannin compound when compared to the control group (P < 0.0001, G = 29.77), to the group of antidiarrheal plants (P < 0.0004, G = 12.75), or the group of antidiabetic plants (P < 0.0001; G = 68.33). Additionally, the antimicrobial group had the highest average tannin levels of the four analyzed, despite the fact that five of the nine species of this group did not register high levels. ...
Article
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There are several species of plants used by traditional communities in the Brazilian semiarid. An approach used in the search for natural substances that possess therapeutic value is ethnobotany or ethnopharmacology. Active substances that have phenolic groups in their structure have great pharmacological potential. To establish a quantitative relationship between the species popularly considered to be antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antidiarrheal, the contents of tannins and flavonoids were determined. The plant selection was based on an ethnobotanical survey conducted in a community located in the municipality of Altinho, northeastern Brazil. For determination of tannin content was utilized the technique of radial diffusion, and for flavonoids, an assay based on the complexation of aluminum chloride. The group of plants with antimicrobial indications showed a higher content of tannins compared to the control groups. The results evidence suggests a possible relationship between these compounds and the observed activity.
... Certain bacteria can produce extracellular enzymes like β-lactamases and transacetylase that can chemically alter or even degrade antibiotic molecules. These enzymes can effectively retard the action of the antibiotic and render the antibiotic agent ineffective against the bacterium [33,[198][199][200]. However, studies have shown naturally occurring plant-based compounds that can synergistically interact with antibiotics to overcome these bacterial defenses. ...
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Background and objectives The chemotherapeutic management of infections has become challenging due to the global emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. The recent expansion of studies on plant-derived natural products has lead to the discovery of a plethora of phytochemicals with the potential to combat bacterial drug resistance via various mechanisms of action. This review paper summarizes the primary antibiotic resistance mechanisms of bacteria and also discusses the antibiotic-potentiating ability of phytoextracts and various classes of isolated phytochemicals in reversing antibiotic resistance in anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis and emerging superbug bacteria. Methods Growth inhibitory indices and fractional inhibitory concentration index were applied to evaluate the in vitro synergistic activity of phytoextract-antibiotic combinations in general. Findings A number of studies have indicated that plant-derived natural compounds are capable of significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration of standard antibiotics by altering drug-resistance mechanisms of B. anthracis and other superbug infection causing bacteria. Phytochemical compounds allicin, oleanolic acid, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin and Jatropha curcas extracts were exceptional synergistic potentiators of various standard antibiotics. Conclusion Considering these facts, phytochemicals represents a valuable and novel source of bioactive compounds with potent antibiotic synergism to modulate bacterial drug-resistance.
... In vitro assays have shown that the prebiotic properties of ETs increase the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (Kamijo et al., 2008;Li et al., 2015). However, in an 8-week randomized controlled intervention study, no effect of ET was observed in the diversity of predominant bacterial populations in 32 individuals showing symptoms of metabolic syndrome. ...
Article
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Nut consumption is clearly related to human health outcomes. Its beneficial effects have been mainly attributed to nut fatty acid profiles and content of vegetable protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and phenolics. However, in this review we focus on the prebiotics properties in humans of the non-bioaccessible material of nuts (polymerized polyphenols and polysaccharides), which provides substrates for the human gut microbiota and on the formation of new bioactive metabolites and the absorption of that may partly explain the health benefits of nut consumption.
... Diabetic rats had higher serum levels of superoxide and nitrite/nitrate. However, the ingestion of R. rugosa reduced the over-production of radicals associated with diabetes, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in serum, hepatic and renal mitochondria, suggesting R. rugosa is an effective radical scavenger and would alleviate the oxidative stress associated with diabetes by inhibiting lipid peroxidation [54]. In another related research, the significant of the function with the treatment of R, rugosa polyphenols enriched extract (RPE) was revealed. ...
Article
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Rosa rugosa is a widespread ornamental plant and generally utilized for food and medicinal purposes. The previous studies focused on the potent ingredients extracted from R. rugosa, such as essential oils, flavonoids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins and so on. Moreover, sufficient evidences and research data revealed that pharmacological effects of R. rugosa on various diseases were associated with these functional components. 19α-Hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids, such as euscaphic acid (EA) and tormentic acid (TA), are responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenols play a critical role against tumors and diabetes. Sesquiterpene and hydrolyzable tannins are essential for antimicrobial ability. Rosamultin reduces hepatotoxicity through enhancing the epoxide hydrolase activity. These studies suggest that R. rugosa has prospects of curing many diseases or assisting in traditional chemosynthetic drugs treatment.
... Plant extracts are recognized as a source of natural antimicrobials such as essential oils (18) and phenolic compounds with potential for application in food preservation and medicine (19)(20)(21). Hydrolyzable tannins are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity (12,13,(22)(23)(24). Mango kernel extracts contain hydrolyzable tannins (8) and have been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species including foodborne pathogens (11,25). ...
... La première est que la nature des tanins hydrolysables diffère entre feuilles et gousses, comme suggéré par ; dans les feuilles, on peut penser que les ellagitanins agissent plus sélectivement contre les archées méthanogènes que sur les autres populations bactériennes du rumen et peuvent également avoir des propriétés anti-protozoaires, ce qui se traduit par une inhibition de la production de CH 4 par réduction de la production de H 2 sans pour autant que la fermentation ruminale ne soit entravée, contrairement aux gousses dont la concentration des ellagitanins est élevée. De plus, Pellikaan et al. (2011) ont rapporté que les ellagitanins de type tellimagrandine I et II étaient des agents inhibiteurs très sélectifs vis-à-vis des archées méthanogènes par opposition aux Discussion générale tanins condensés, aux gallotanins et aux autres ellagitanins, qui ont une action plus largement antibactérienne (Hou et al., 2000;Kamijo et al., 2008). Il est possible que la nature des ellagitanins varie entre gousses et feuilles, bien qu'il n'y ait aucune connaissance à ce sujet. ...
Thesis
En zone tropicale, la production de lait et de viande par les ruminants est limitée par une faible disponibilité et une qualité médiocre des fourrages. A ces contraintes alimentaires s’ajoute l’impact environnemental lié en particulier aux émissions de méthane entérique par les ruminants. L’objectif de cette thèse était de comparer la production de méthane en milieu tempéré et en milieu tropical, puis de valoriser des fourrages tropicaux connus pour leur richesse en tanins dont les propriétés anti-méthanogènes sont reconnues, et qui peuvent réduire l’impact environnemental sans compromettre la productivité animale. Cette thèse comporte trois expérimentations distinctes. La première consistait en une étude in vivo visant à déterminer si les différences de digestibilité, de production de méthane, de fermentation et d’écosystème microbien du rumen observées entre les zones tempérées et tropicales proviennent de l’environnement (site d’expérimentation en milieu tempéré ou tropical), du fourrage (produit en zone tempérée ou tropicale), ou du génotype ovin (race de zone tempérée ou tropicale). Les résultats ont montré que les différences sont liées en priorité à la nature du fourrage, et sont influencées par les interactions entre génotype, caractéristiques du fourrage et environnement. La seconde expérience consistait à étudier l’effet de plantes riches en tanins condensés (feuilles de Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta) sur la production de méthane, l’ingestion et la digestibilité de la ration, les fermentations et l’écosystème microbien du rumen. Un essai in vivo a montré que l’incorporation de ces plantes à raison de 40% du régime d’ovins sous forme de granulés permettait de réduire le méthane entérique sans effets indésirables sur la digestibilité et la fermentation ruminale. Un essai in vitro a montré que le principal facteur de la réponse a été la dose de tanins condensés plutôt que la source. La troisième expérience consistait en l’étude in situ et in vitro du pouvoir anti-méthanogène et de la dégradation dans le rumen de plantes riches en tanins hydrolysables (feuilles et gousses d’Acacia nilotica) ou en tanins condensés (feuilles de Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Musa spp). Les résultats obtenus suggèrent que les tanins hydrolysables conviennent mieux à la réduction des émissions de méthane que les tanins condensés car ils inhibent fortement la production de méthane sans effets négatifs marqués sur la fermentation ruminale. Les effets des tanins sur la production de méthane et la fermentation dans le rumen ont été en partie expliqués par le devenir des différentes fractions des tanins (libres, associés aux protéines ou aux fibres) dans le rumen. L’association de plantes riches en tanins hydrolysables et en tanins condensés ne parvient pas à dégager de possibles synergies entre ces de types de molécules. Ce travail a permis de montrer qu’il était possible de réduire les émissions de méthane entérique par les ruminants en milieu tropical par la consommation de fourrages riches en tanins hydrolysables sans compromettre les processus digestifs dans le rumen ; la diminution de la méthanogenèse avec les tanins condensés présente plus de risque de réduire les fermentations.
... Farmatan tannin concentrations of 0.05%, 0.025% and 0.0125% can inhibit the growth of Clostridium perfringens by more than 54-fold [114]. Another in vitro study was conducted by [108] to evaluate the effects of tannins from chestnuts and quebracho, or a combination of both, on Clostridium perfringens. ...
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Over recent years, the monogastric animal industry has witnessed an increase in feed prices due to several factors, and this trend is likely to continue. The hike in feed prices is mostly due to extreme competition over commonly used conventional ingredients. For this trend to be subdued, alternative ingredients of both plant and animal origin need to be sourced. These types of ingredients are investigated with the aim of substituting all or some of the conventional compounds. However, alternative ingredients often have a double-edged sword effect, in that they can supply animals with the necessary nutrients although they contain antinutritional factors such as tannins. Tannins are complex secondary metabolites commonly present in the plant kingdom, known to bind with protein and make it unavailable; however, recently they have been proven to have the potential to replace conventional ingredients, in addition to their health benefits, particularly the control of zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella. Thus, the purpose of this review is to (1) classify the types of tannins present in alternative feed ingredients, and (2) outline the effects and benefits of tannins in monogastric animals. Several processing methods have been reported to reduce tannins in diets for monogastric animals; furthermore, these need to be cost-effective. It can thus be concluded that the level of inclusion of tannins in diets will depend on the type of ingredient and the animal species.
... There are studies that report selective antibacterial activity of extract of WS inhibiting the growth of bacteria, which is consistent with our results. [24] Table1. Comparison of the inhibitory effect of different concentration of the extract on the growth of tested bacteria tested bacteria Concentration (%) 25 12 A study screened the crude extracts of different parts of WS including unripen fruit; ripen fruit, and calyx, for their antimicrobial activity invitro against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobactor aerogens by disc diffusion assay. ...
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Background: Withania somnifera (WS) is proposed as one of the alternatives instead of the antibiotic. This study is aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potency of enzymatic extract of the fruits of the WS. Methods: As an invitro experimental study, the growth rate of Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli inoculated in different concentrations (25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%) of the extract were assessed. A microtitre plate method was conducted. ANOVA was applied to identify statistical differences with p-value <0.05). Compared to the microorganism control, effective concentration of the extract inhibiting the growth of E. coli was 12.5%, and 6.25%, while it was 12.5%, and 6.25% for Sh. dysenteriae (p<0.05). A dose-dependent response of E. coli was observed. The antibacterial activity of the extract tested was found mainly against E. coli and Sh. dysenteriae. The most resistant microorganism compared to E. coli and Sh. dysenteriae was S. typhimurium (p<0.05). 25% of the concentration of the extract showed the different inhibitory effect among three tested bacteria (p<0.05). Conclusions: The extract was labeled as an antibacterial agent against the representative of three foodborne bacteria, Invitro. The common effective concentrations of the extract (12.5, and 6.25%) is recommended for further research, as food additive, to remedy digestive ailments related to E. coli, S. typhimurium and Sh. dysenteriae
... The composition of the essential oil depends on the place of growing plants and the method of oil obtaining [2,3]. The composition of rose oils has been thoroughly studied [4,5]. But most of the researchers pay attention to the accumulation of dominant components in essential rose and rose hips oils [6,7]. ...
... The composition of the essential oil depends on the place of growing plants and the method of oil obtaining [2,3]. The composition of rose oils has been thoroughly studied [4,5]. But most of the researchers pay attention to the accumulation of dominant components in essential rose and rose hips oils [6,7]. ...
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The content, component composition, and main directions of the use of monoterpenes of wild rose petals compounds are considered in the research. The study on six wild rose species was carried out in the collection of M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Volatile organic compounds were isolated by steam distillation, and their determination was performed by means of gas chromatography. R. rugosa petals contained the highest number of monoterpenoids, while R. canina petals – the lowest. In our research twentyone different (acyclic, monocyclic, bicyclic) monoterpenoids were identified, including alcohols, aldehydes, ethers, and ketones. All groups of monoterpenoids are biologically active substances and have a significant effect on the aroma of the studied plants.
... The process was repeated continuously for complete and exhaustive extraction of crude components (Peters, 2010;Philipson, 2007); The ethanolic extract as depicted in Figure 1B obtained was concentrated to dry residue under reduced pressure at room temperature. Concentrated residue was stored at 4 o C and used for further study (Kamijo et al., 2008). ...
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Skin ageing is due to the combination of natural, largely genetically programmed and environmentally modulated changes which occur in the body system due to free radical damage. Silver Nanoparticle (AgNPs), were prepared by chemical reduction using green synthesis and they were evaluated for particle size in nanometer, zeta potential in millivolt, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and percent entrapment efficiency. The polyphenols were quantified by chromatographic techniques and the antioxidant activity measured spectrophotometrically by DPPH (2,2 Diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl) assay. According to this study AgNPs showed a least particle size of 145.4±2.4nm, maximum zeta potential of -39.1±2.4 mV with desired polydispersity index of 0.358±0.02, the amount of polyphenols loaded in AgNPs was found to be 87.23±2.54%. Maximum phenolic content was found in F1 as 65.21 ± 3.721 mg equivalent GAE/g of extract. On comparing the IC50 values, F1 and F5 exhibited the lowest and highest values respectively. Therefore, F1 possesses higher DPPH radical scavenging potential.
... Previously, pharmacological studies showed that extracts of R. rugosa had antioxidant [4,5], antidiabetic [6,7], anti-inflammatory [8,9], immunomodulatory [10], antibacterial [11], antivirus [12], anticancer [13] and antimicrobial activity [14]. However, the chemical constituents that impart the pharmacological effects remain uncertain and the spectrum-effect relationship of R. rugosa have not been studied yet. ...
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In this study, the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of the chemical constituents of Rosa rugosa Thunb. (R. rugosa) was evaluated through analysis of spectrum-effect relationship. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprints of 21 batches of R. rugosa were evaluated by similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The 28 common components were identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-HRMS/MS). Meanwhile, the antidiabetic activities and antioxidant activities of 21 batches of R. rugosa were estimated in vitro. Besides, four chemometrics named principal component analysis (PCA), grey correlation analysis (GRA), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and the bivariate correlations analysis (BCA) were applied to construct spectrum-effect relationship between the UPLC fingerprints and biological activities of R. rugosa. The spectrum-effect relationship study revealed that di-O-galloyl-HHDP-glucoside, galloyl-HHDP-glucoside and avicularin were more relevant to antidiabetic activity. Di-O-galloyl-HHDP-glucoside, galloyl-HHDP-glucoside and ellagic acid were the main antioxidant components of R. rugosa. The current bioassay and spectrum-effect relationships are proper for associating sample quality with the active ingredient, and our finding would provide foundation and further understanding of the quality evaluation and quality control of R. rugosa.
... The study by Ochir et al. [27] found that the biological activity of hydrolysable tannins is structure-dependent. Hydrolysable tannins isolated from Rosa rugosa-rugosin D and tellimagrandin II-show antagonistic activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella spp., while they are weakly antagonistic against Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus salivarius [28]. Additionally, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the content of polyphenols and the high antioxidant activity of rose extracts with high antimicrobial activity and α-amylase inhibitory activity [29]. ...
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Due to their richness of bioactive substances, rose hips are a valuable raw material for obtaining extracts with potential antimicrobial activity. The aim of the study was to determine the antagonistic potential of whole pseudo-fruit and flesh extracts of three Rosa sp. varieties against Staphylococcus spp. bacteria isolated as food contaminants. The biological material in this study consisted of seven strains of bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus. Two strains—Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis DSMZ 3270—were used as reference strains. The other five strains were food-derived isolates—S. epidermidis A5, S. xylosus M5, S. haemolyticus M6, S. capitis KR6, and S. warneri KR2A. The material was the pseudo-fruits of Rosa canina, Rosa pomifera Karpatia, and Rosa rugosa. The polyphenols were extracted from the fleshy part and the whole pseudo-fruit for all rose varieties. The tested preparations differed significantly in their polyphenol composition. The sum of polyphenols ranged from 28 862 to 35 358 mg/100 g of lyophilisate. The main groups of polyphenols found in the preparations were flavanols and ellagitannins. All of the tested extracts inhibited the growth of staphylococci at a concentration of 500 mg/mL. Rosa rugosa fruit extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties among the studied extracts. For all the strains, the growth inhibition had a diameter of 20.3–29.0 mm. Moreover, six out of the seven tested strains showed the highest inhibition with the use of this extract. The MIC of rose extracts was in the range of 3.125–500 mg/mL and was strictly dependent on the bacterial species, the species of the rose, and the part of the fruit from which the extract was obtained. Correlations were assessed between the main groups of polyphenols in the extracts and their inhibition of bacterial growth. In the case of pseudo-fruit extracts, the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth positively correlated with the content of ellagitannins, and this effect was observed for almost all the tested strains. The results presented herein follow the current trend of minimising the use of chemical preservatives in food; from this point of view, rose extracts are very promising.
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In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of two different solvent fractions(butanol and hexane) obtained from white Rosa rugosa flowers by employing various assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging and inhibition activity in S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in the RAW264.7 model. In addition, more advanced antioxidant assays were conducted, including lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cell growth. The results revealed that the hexane fraction, which contained a significant amount of polyphenols and volatile components, had excellent antioxidant potency and could scavenge free radicals of DPPH and ABTS. Interestingly, the hexane fraction inhibited lipid peroxidation to almost the same degree as a chemical antioxidant. In the NO assay, the hexane fraction effectively scavenged free radicals at all dose ranges and is expected to inhibit NO production in mammalian cells. The hexane fraction effectively prevented oxidative damage, which was induced by Cu2+/H2O2, to target proteins at lower concentrations (>1 microg x mL(-1)). The DNA fragmentation and the cell-level assays suggest that the hexane fraction may play a crucial role in inhibiting peroxynitrite and H2O2 attack. Based on the findings described in this study, the hexane fraction holds promise for use as a novel pharmaceutical antioxidant.
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The petals of Rosa rugosa and allied plants for medicinal use contain abundant hydrolysable tannins, and they show remarkable biological activities. The activities are dependent on the structures of the hydrolysable tannins, so their contents and compositions are essential for evaluation of medicinal potency. Therefore, we optimized the simultaneous quantitative determination of the hydrolysable tannins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. A column of ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) phenyl (C(6) alkyl phenyl group as solid-phase modification) was shown to be most effective for the separation of hydrolysable tannins isolated from R. rugosa and related compounds when the column temperature was kept under 25 degrees C. The efficacy of the BEH phenyl column might be due to the interaction between solid phase and phenolic ester groups of hydrolysable tannins such as galloyl, hexahydroxydiphenoyl and valoneoyl groups. The relation between the retention times on the BEH phenyl column and the column temperature was demonstrated to depend on the structural characteristics of hydrolysable tannins.
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Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and is considered as a potential target to control hypertriglyceridemia or other metabolic disorders. In this study, we found that the extract of rose petals suppressed TAG synthesis in cultured cells, and that the extract showed DGAT inhibitory action in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionation of the rose extract revealed that the DGAT inhibitory substances in the extract were ellagitannins; among them rugosin B, and D, and eusupinin A inhibited DGAT activity by 96, 82, and 84% respectively, at 10 μM. These substances did not inhibit the activities of other hepatic microsomal enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and HMG-CoA reductase, or pancreatic lipase, suggesting that ellagitannins inhibit DGAT preferentially. In an oral fat load test using mice, postprandial plasma TAG increase was suppressed by rose extract; TAG levels 2 h after the fat load were significantly lower in mice administered a fat emulsion containing rose extract than in control mice (446.3 ± 33.1 vs 345.3 ± 25.0 mg/dL, control vs rose extract group; P < 0.05). These results suggest that rose ellagitannins or rose extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism and used to improve metabolic disorders.
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An in vitro study was conducted to investigate effects of tannins on extent and rate of gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). In this study three condensed tannins (CT; quebracho, grape seed, green tea tannins) and four hydrolysable tannins (HT; tara, valonea, myrabolan, chestnut tannins) were evaluated with lucerne as a control substrate. CT and HT were characterised by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS). Tannins were added to the substrate at an effective concentration of 100g/kg, either with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), and incubated for 72h in pooled buffered rumen liquid from four lactating dairy cows. After inoculation, fermentation bottles were immediately connected to the APES to measure total cumulative gas production (GP). During the incubation, 11 gas samples were collected from each bottle at 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 15, 23, 30, 46, 52 and 72h of incubation and analysed for CH4. A modified Michaelis–Menten model was fitted to the CH4 concentration patterns, and model estimates were used to calculate total cumulative CH4 production (GPCH4). GP and GPCH4 curves were fitted using a modified monophasic Michaelis–Menten model. Addition of quebracho reduced (P=0.002) GP, whilst the other tannins did not affect GP. Addition of PEG increased GP for quebracho (P=0.003), valonea (P=0.058) and grape seed tannins (P=0.071), suggesting that these tannins either inhibited, or tended to inhibit, fermentation. Addition of quebracho and grape seed tannins reduced (P≤0.012) the maximum rate of gas production, indicating that microbial activity was affected. Quebracho, valonea, myrabolan and grape seed decreased (P≤0.003) GPCH4 and the maximum rate (0.001≤P≤0.102) of CH4 production. Addition of chestnut, green tea and tara tannins did not affect total gas nor CH4 production. Vvalonea and myrabolan tannins have the most promise at reducing CH4 production as they had only a minor impact on gas production.This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture – Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson.
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The present study was designed to develop conditions for the optimal extraction of antiradical ingredients of rugosa rose petals. The effect of temperature (22-140 degrees C), solvent and extraction type on the phenolics extraction and antiradical activity was studied. In order to obtain extracts from rugosa rose petals with the highest activity and phenolic content, the use of mixture of polar organic solvents (acetone, in particular) with water is recommended.
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Rosa rugosa Purple branch is a rare continuously flowering variety of R. rugosa and also is one of main cultivar varieties of R. rugosa in China. Although R. rugosa has been successfully used in the field of cosmetics, there are also many reports on its chemical components. The chemical composition and application value in cosmetics of R. rugosa Purple branch are still limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical components in the petals of R. rugosa Purple branch as well as evaluate their skincare and antibacterial potentials through DPPH radical scavenging, tyrosinase inhibition, elastase inhibition and antibacterial bioassays. Two new compounds, isorhamnetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-(6''-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and thirteen known compounds (3-15) were isolated and identified from the petals by bioassay-guided fractionation. All the compounds were isolated and reported from R. rugosa Purple branch for the first time, in which twelve of them are discovered from R. rugosa for the first time. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of 1, 2, rosarugoside B (3), kaempfero-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), astragalin-2'',6''-di-O-gallate (8), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), 2-phenylethyl-6-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), and 2-phenylethyl-D-rutinoside (15) were firstly reported here, in which 8 showed strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 187.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL. There were eight compounds (1, 6-12) showed strong antioxidant activity, with the scavenging rates of DPPH radical ranging from 88.59% to 94.30% and the IC50 ranging from 4.22 to 13.85 μg/mL, among them, 1 and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-Z-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) exhibited antioxidant activity for the first time. 3 exhibited moderate elastase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 148.67 ± 0.11 μg/mL. In addition, seven compounds (2, 5-8, 10-11) showed varying degrees of antibacterial activity. These results indicated that R. rugosa Purple branch had anti-aging, whitening and antibacterial activities, which can be further applied to the development of functional cosmetics.
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C-Glycosidic ellagitannins grandinin (1), vescalagin (2), castalagin (3), methylvescalagin (4), stachyurin (5), and casuarinin (6) were isolated from the 50% acetone extract of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds and peel. These tannins exhibited antioxidant activities measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In the DPPH and ABTS assays, stachyurin exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the tannins, and the activities were stronger for tannins containing two hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) groups and a galloyl group than for tannins containing a nonahydroxyterphenoyl group and a HHDP group. The activity of vescalagin was stronger than that of castalagin, and a similar relationship was observed for stachyurin and casuarinin. Thus, the antioxidant activities of these tannins may depend on the conformation of the hydroxyl group at C-1 of the open ring d-glucose. However, in the ORAC assay, casuarinin exhibited the strongest activity, and the respective activities could not be explained by the structural rigidity or conformation of the C-1 hydroxyl group. The seeds and peel of camu-camu, waste products of juice production, were found to contain C-glycosidic ellagitannins with potent antioxidant activities, and thus, they could be a useful resource for functional foods and food additives.
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This experiment was carried out to determine the growth stimulation/inhibition effect of popular herbal extracts on intestinal microbiota and pathogenic bacteria. A paper disc agar diffusion method was employed for preliminary data. All extracts failed to promote intestinal microbiota growth around the discs. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and Eleutherine americana did not produce inhibition zones against all intestinal microbiota, but inhibited Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. All pure compounds, except eleutherin demonstrated antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Growth response of the substances on intestinal microbiota were further investigated by viable counts. Eleutherin from E. americana did not produce antibacterial antagonism against important groups of intestinal microbiota. In contrast, E. americana extract and eleutherin at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 4 MIC showed significant inhibition on growth of Grampositive pathogenic bacteria. The results indicated that both E. americana extract and eleutherin exerted dual beneficial effects to the host by regulating beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria.
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Various contents of Rosa rugosa Thunb. fruit(0, 10, 20%), which is grown along the seashore of Gangwon province, were applied to apple jams having different sugar concentrations(20, 40, 60%). The resulting jams were analyzed using a sensory scoring test as well as a response surface methodology to identify the optimum conditions for the preparation of high-preference apple jams. The sensory properties based on sense of sight, smell and taste appeared to be linked to the sugar contents. It could be attributed to the presence of flavor compounds and pigments generated from the caramelization of sugar molecules during heat processing. On the other hand, rheological properties such as viscosity and spreadability were associated with Rosa rugosa fruit content, which was also verified by textural analysis of the jams. As the contents of Rosa rugosa increased, the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the jams decreased, which eventually might have contributed to the less thick and thus more spreadable sensory characteristics. Sensory evaluation revealed that apple jams were preferred when prepared with 10% of Rosa rugosa fruit and 55% of sugar contents. In particular, apple jams containing 10% Rosa rugosa and 60% sugar showed better mechanical qualities as well as higher sensory preference among 10 jams formulated using central composite design.
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Background Amines, some of which are known to cause asthma, are frequently present in the work environment, but are rarely identified as being responsible for occupational rhinitis (OR) or asthma (OA). However, amine-induced OR/OA may be underreported. To discuss this hypothesis, we report a series of patients with positive amine-specific nasal provocation test (NPT).Methods Review of the medical charts of 37 patients with OR (alone or associated with asthma), submitted to a NPT with an aliphatic or alicyclic amine (except for EDTA) present in a product used at work.ResultsMost patients worked in the healthcare sector or for a cleaning company. Amines were mostly present in cleaning products. Seven patients had a positive NPT. NPTs were positive for the following amines: bis(aminopropyl)laurylamine, C12-C18 alkyldimethylamine oxides, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)tallowamine oxides, 3-dimethylaminopropylamine, 2,2′-dimethyl-4,4′-methylene-bis(cyclohexylamine), lauryldimethylamine oxide. NPTs were negative for the following amines: monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, isopropanolamine, triethylamine, triethylenetetramine, aminopropyltriethoxysilane, alkylpropylenediamineguanidine acetate.Conclusions The frequency of amine-induced OR/OA may be underestimated, particularly when cleaning products are incriminated. Comprehensive investigation of all cases is mandatory to ensure an efficient prevention policy and consequently a good clinical and socio-occupational prognosis of occupational respiratory disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:1–8, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Antimicrobial activity of crude acetone extract from the aerial part of Withania somnifera was tested in vitro against six pathogenic bacteria viz., Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis, S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes and five bifidobacteria viz., Bifidobacterium animalis, B. breve, B. catenulatum, B. infantis and B. longum evaluating its potential harmful effect on beneficial gastrointestinal microbiota using disk diffusion method. The results showed that pathogenic bacteria were significantly more susceptible to the extract of W. somnifera than bifidobacteria (average of diameters of inhibition zones 20.45 mm and 13.10 mm, respectively) at the concentration of 2 mg/disc. Among all bacteria tested, S. pneumoniae was the most sensitive, while B. animalis was the most resistant species. These results suggest W. somnifera as an effective antibacterial agent against human pathogenic bacteria with lowered harmful effect on bifidobacteria.
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Lactobacillus, Streptococcus are gram positive bacteria. These two bacteria isolated from milk. Lactobacillus, Streptococcus could be identified from milk through various biochemical test. In the present study an attempt has been made to carry out screening for the preliminary antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian folk medicine. The aim of the study was to select an active plant extract may be useful in developing new lead compounds to control diseases. Three plants were selected for preliminary screening of their antibacterial potentiality , viz, Cleome viscosa, Hygrophila auriculata, Aristida stricta. The antibacterial activity was done by Disc diffusion method against Lactobacillus and streptococcus.
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Acacia catechu Willd. is a plant diffused in India and other Asian countries, where it is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments including diarrhea, one of the most common pathologies worldwide. In this study, we determined the chemical composition of Acacia catechu Willd. extract (AC) and evaluated its effect on spontaneous and induced contractility in isolated guinea pig ileum and proximal colon. Preliminary data about its antimicrobial effect against some pathogen agents versus some microbiota intestinal strain have been also reported. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of catechins, such as (-)-Epicatechin and (+)-Catechin. AC extract reduced frequency and amplitude of colon smooth muscle spontaneous contractility, in a concentration-dependent manner. A weaker effect of the extract was exerted toward ileum smooth muscle spontaneous contractility. The observed calcium antagonistic effect was more potent in proximal colon than in ileum. The extract showed a noncompetitive reversible antagonism to carbachol, both in proximal colon and ileum, with a higher potency in proximal colon. The antimicrobial effects of AC extract were observed toward Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp., while Bifido and Lactobacillus were not affected by treatment. These effects, however, occurred at concentrations fivefold higher than those inhibiting ileum and colon contractility. In conclusion, our results suggest that AC affects intestinal contractility without affecting intestinal bacterial flora and this may result in clinical benefits in patients suffering from nonbacterial diarrhea.
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Róże od starożytności były uznawane za „lekarstwo na wszystko”. Preparaty różane stosowano w medycynie greckiej, chińskiej, sumeryjskiej, egipskiej i indyjskiej. W starożytnym Rzymie uważano, że róże mają działanie wzmacniające i uspokajające oraz łagodzące skutki nadmiernego spożycia alkoholu. Współcześnie w ziołolecznictwie, medycynie i kosmetyce stosuje się różne formy różanych ekstraktów: olejek, absolut, hydrolat, olej z nasion oraz wyciąg z owoców. Róże mają również szerokie zastosowanie kulinarne, gdzie wykorzystuje się płatki, owoce oraz całą gamę wyciągów i przetworów różanych. Płatki róży zawierają związki fenolowe, szczególnie alkohol fenyloetylowy i antocyjany. Napar lub odwar z kwiatów róży jako dodatek do kąpieli i przemywań działa kojąco i stymuluje gojenie drobnych ran. Wyciąg z płatków róży działa przeciwbakteryjnie, przy czym nie niszczy naturalnej symbiotycznej flory, a jedynie bakterie chorobotwórcze. Glikozydy różane działają uspokajająco. Róże mają działanie rozkurczowe, łagodnie moczopędne i żółciopędne, mogą wspomagać leczenie zaburzeń trawienia i chorób wątroby. Chronią przed zatruciami i wspomagają detoksykację organizmu. Wszystkie formy ekstraktów różanych charakteryzują silne właściwości antyoksydacyjne. Róża zwiększa także aktywność enzymów przeciwutleniających. Najnowsze badania wskazują, że wyciągi z płatków róży mają działanie przeciwnowotworowe, chroniąc materiał genetyczny (DNA) przed nagromadzaniem się w nim uszkodzeń. Olejek różany (R. damascena) w kosmetyce stosuje się przeciwko starzeniu skóry, pękającym naczyniom krwionośnym, rozstępom, dermatozom, martwicy skóry, przesuszeniu, podrażnieniom, ranom, poparzeniom. Wykazano także silne działanie ochronne wyciągów z róży przeciwko uszkodzeniom DNA (wyniki własne). Wyciągi z owoców róż (R. rugosa, R. damascena) działają moczopędnie i wzmacniająco, hamują krwawienia z naczyń włosowatych. Ze względu na bardzo wysoką zawartość witaminy C, kilkukrotnie przewyższającą owoce jagodowe czy cytrusowe, szupinki róży mają doskonałe działanie wspomagające przy przeziębieniach, poważniejszych infekcjach układu oddechowego, chorobach przyzębia i krwawieniu z układu pokarmowego. W pracy przedstawiono przegląd aktualnych doniesień o działaniu farmakologicznym płatków róż oraz wyniki własne dotyczące ich genoprotekcyjnych właściwości.
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The flower buds of Rosa rugosa Thunb. have been commonly used as a source of rose oil and as an ingredient in tea in eastern Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Repeated chromatography of a hot water extract from the flower buds of R. rugosa led to the isolation and characterization of three new depside glucosides, rosarugosides A–C (1–3), along with three phenolic compounds, one ionone glucoside, four flavonoids, and two tannins having known chemical structures. Linarionoside A and 2-phenylethyl-(6-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from R. rugosa for the first time in this study. The structures of the new compounds 1–3 were elucidated by interpreting 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Among the isolates, a new depside glucoside (1) and two major phenolic glucosides (4 and 5) improved MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficits, which were measured via an acoustic startle response test in mice.
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Rosa rugosa is a species of rose native to eastern Asia. The root of R. rugosa has been used to treat diabetes mellitus, pain and chronic inflammatory disease, and a R. rugosa petal extract has a strong anti-oxidant effect. In the present study, we examined if solvent fractions from white rose petal extract (WRPE) had any anti-allergic or anti-atopic effects not previously reported. WRPE and butanol and hexane fractions effectively reduced systemic anaphylactic reactions and anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice, with the greatest inhibition observed for the hexane fraction. In addition, a significant reduction of scratching behavior by mice after histamine injection suggested this fraction's potential anti-allergic effect. At the cell level, the hexane fraction markedly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 mast cells and suppressed the expressions of mRNA interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 cytokines produced by T helper cells (type 1 and 2). These results strongly support that the hexane fraction may have an effect on atopic dermatitis, as these 2 cell types play central roles in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In conclusion, these results suggest that either the hexane fraction or one of its components may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.
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Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary galactooligosaccharide (Gal OS) addition on swine nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial populations, and ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and to determine their impact on ileal fermentative characteristics in vitro. Twelve T-cannulated pigs (BW = 25 kg) were fed a diet free of Gal OS for 21 d. On d 22, ileal digesta samples were collected for an in vitro fermentation experiment (Exp. 1). Substrates included: raffinose/stachyose combination (R + S), soy solubles (SS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS). Also included were the non-OS components of SS and TOS. Nine pigs (three donors per treatment) served as ileal effluent donors. Each substrate was fermented in vitro for 6 h, and pH and SCFA and gas production were determined. Pigs then were allotted to three treatments: a Gal OS-free control diet and the control diet with either 3.5% added Gal OS from SS or TOS. Diets, feces, and digesta samples collected weekly for 6 wk on d 6 (feces) and 7 (digesta) were analyzed for DM, OM, CP, and chromic oxide concentrations. Feces and ileal digesta were analyzed for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations. Ileal digesta samples were analyzed for SCFA. On d 64, a second in vitro fermentation experiment (Exp. 2) was conducted using ileal effluent from three pigs per treatment and the same substrates used in Exp. 1. In vivo results showed that ileal and total tract DM and OM digestion were decreased (P < 0.05) by addition of both SS and TOS to the diet. Ileal and total-tract N digestibilities were decreased (P < 0.05) by dietary addition of SS. Fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were increased (P < 0.05) by addition of SS and TOS to the diet. Ileal propionate and butyrate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing both sources of Gal OS. In vitro results showed that fermentation data were not affected by donor animal adaptation to treatment. For both in vitro experiments, gas and SCFA production were higher (P < 0.05) for R + S than for SS or TOS. Fermentation of R + S resulted in a higher pH (P < 0.05) than did SS or TOS. Fermentation of non-OS components of SS and TOS resulted in more (P < 0.05) gas and SCFA production, and pH values that did not differ (P > 0.05) compared to SS and TOS. The Gal OS used in this study were prebiotics, increasing beneficial bacteria in vivo and SCFA concentrations both in vivo and in vitro.
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Three new hydrolyzable tannins, rugosins A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated from flower petals of Rosa rugosa THUNB. (Rosaceae), and their structures, including the orientation of the valoneoyl group, were established based on chemical evidence and spectroscopic analysis, utilizing two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data.
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Three dimeric hydrolyzable tannins having a valoneoyl group, rugosins D (1), E (2) and F (3), and a trimeric hydrolyzable tannin having two valoneoyl groups, rugosin G (4), were isolated from flower petals of Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae), and their structures including the orientation of the valoneoyl groups were established.
Article
The gallotannins (polygalloylglucoses) were isolated homogeneously from Paeoniae Radix and their structures were elucidated by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Article
The antibacterial activities of peppermint oil and its 53 constituents against Escherichia coli were examined in a preliminary screening test. Peppermint oil and 15 of its constituents had significant bactericidal activity against non-pathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7. Polyphenols from green tea and four catechins from green tea also had antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 in liquid culture medium. Peppermint oil and three of its constituents, namely, menthol, menthone and neomenthol, killed the bacteria within one hour at concentrations above 400 μg/ml in phosphate-buffered saline. Polyphenols from green tea showed bacteriostatic activity in the culture medium, and bactericidal activity in PBS. This latter effect only became evident after several hours. A synergistic effect was observed for peppermint oil and for menthol when combined with green-tea polyphenols. These results suggest that the antibacterial activities of peppermint oil and green-tea polyphenols might involve different mechanisms and combinations of peppermint oil or the active constituents of peppermint oil with green-tea polyphenols might be useful as natural antibacterial agents against E. coli O157:H7.
Article
Three ellagitannins present in Tellima grandiflora have been isolated and partly identified. Two are 2,3-digallyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl -β-d-glucopyranose and 1,2,3-trigallyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucopyranose. The third is complex, with five gallyl and two hexahydroxydiphenyl residues; hydrolysis yielded glucose, gallic acid and ellagic acid.
Article
Growth responses of a variety of human intestinal bacteria to methanol extracts of green tea (Thea sinensis L.) were investigated in vitro. The extracts moderately enhanced growth of some bifidobacteria strains in tests on carbon source-containing media but not carbon source-free media, suggesting that bifidus factor(s) might be involved. It did not stimulate growth of Clostridia, bacteroides, eubacteria or Escherichia coli. However, the extract was found to be selectively inhibitory against the growth of some Clostridia including C.difficile, C.paraputrificum and C.perfringens; this effect was not observed with bifidobacteria, eubacteria or E.coli.
Article
Three ellagitannins present in Tellima grandiflora have been isolated and partly identified. Two are 2,3-digallyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl -β-d-glucopyranose and 1,2,3-trigallyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucopyranose. The third is complex, with five gallyl and two hexahydroxydiphenyl residues; hydrolysis yielded glucose, gallic acid and ellagic acid.
Article
The in vitro fermentability of oligofructose and inulin was compared with a range of reference carbohydrates by measuring bacterial end-product formation in batch culture. Short chain fatty acid and gas formation indicated that these substrates, which occur naturally in the diet and reach the colon in a largely intact form, were utilized by mixed populations of gut bacteria. Bacterial growth data showed that oligofructose and inulin exerted a preferential stimulatory effect on numbers of the health-promoting genus Bifidobacterium, whilst maintaining populations of potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Clostridium) at relatively low levels. Pure culture studies confirmed the enhanced ability of bifidobacteria to utilize these substrates in comparison with glucose. Batch culture experiments demonstrated that the growth of Bifidobacterium infantis had an inhibitory effect towards E. coli and Clostridium perfringens. Potentially, an increase in the concentration of these substrates in the diet may therefore improve the composition of the large intestinal microflora and have positive effects on the quality of the Western diet.
Article
Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal frequency following ingestion of yogurt containing 15 g of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) per d were observed in 12 healthy volunteers. The effect of GOS on intestinal microflora was also studied in six volunteers. Defecation frequency increased during the administration period, but gastrointestinal symptoms, especially flatulence, also increased. The level of fecal bifidobacteria did not increase by the yogurt intake, but a significant increase was observed in the fecal bacteria growing on MRS media. The results indicate that dietary GOS increase gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal frequency in normal adults and have an effect on intestinal microecosystem.
Article
An investigation was carried out to determine whether variations of dietary carbohydrates could modify the colonic flora in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with two equicaloric diets based on the AIN-76 diet (American Institute of Nutrition 1977) but differing from that diet in content of carbohydrates, i.e. high sucrose (64%) of high corn starch (64%). Feeding was continued for 9 months ad libitum and no variation in weight gain was recorded among the different diets. A prevalence of aerobes, and a significant reduction in the ratio anaerobes/aerobes in the faeces of rats on the high starch diet compared with the high sucrose diet, was observed. The anaerobe genera identified included Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium. Bacteroides was the most prevalent genus in both dietary groups (51.2 and 29.5% in the faeces of rats fed the sucrose and starch diets, respectively). In contrast, clostridia were prevalent in the starch-fed group (23.8%) and less so in the sucrose diet (11.5%), as propionibacteria were prevalent in faeces of rats fed the starch diet (15.5%), and low in the sucrose diet (3.9%). The remaining genera were scarce in faeces from rats on either diet. Total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly higher in the faeces of animals fed the starch diet compared with those fed the sucrose diet. The relative concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were not significantly different between the two dietary groups. In conclusion, high starch diet can markedly modify the composition of faecal flora and alter considerably the faecal concentration of SCFAs, compound which might have a health-promoting effect.
Article
A controlled study with eight healthy free-living subjects was carried out, in which energy intake was adjusted to the individual energy requirements. On administration of inulin, blood lipids, the faecal microflora, short-chain fatty acids and accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms were characterized in order to investigate the long-term effect of inulin. During the run-in phase (8 d), subjects received a typical Western diet providing 45% energy as fat and 40% energy as carbohydrate. Subsequently, the subjects consumed a fat-reduced diet which provided 30% energy as fat and 55% energy as carbohydrate for a period of 64 d using inulin as a fat replacer. The amounts of inulin consumed by the subjects (up to 34 g/d) were based on individual energy requirements with the aim to keep the diet isoenergetic with that used in the run-in period. To assess the effects of inulin administration, a control study (run-in and intervention) was carried out in which subjects consumed the same diet but devoid of inulin during the whole course of the study. To investigate the effect of inulin on faecal flora composition total bacteria and bifidobacteria in the faeces were enumerated by in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Inulin significantly increased bifidobacteria from 9.8 to 11.0 log10/g dry faeces and caused a moderate increase in gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence and bloatedness, whereas blood lipids and short-chain fatty acids remained essentially unaffected.
Article
Structure and function of polypehnols with high molecular weights (tannins) were briefly reviewed to better understand the significance of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages. In a survey of bioactive ellagiannins with a macrocyclic structure and/or a gluconic acid core, some new oligomeric ellagitannins (eucarpanins and elaeagnatins) have been found in species of Myrtaceae and Elaeagnaceae, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines and antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori have been evaluated for the ellagitannins obtained from both plants, and related compounds. The macrocyclic dimers, oentothein B, camelliin B and woodfordin C showed a remarkable cytotoxicity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma, but not against normal cells. These active tannins induced apoptosis of tumor cells. A potent antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori was exhibited by monomeric ellagitannins such as tellimagrandin I and stricitinin.
Article
We examined the antibacterial action of several tannins on plasma coagulation by Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of conventional chemotherapy combined with tannic acid below the MIC. Coagulation was inhibited in plasma containing tannic acid (100 mg/L), gallic acid (5000 mg/L), ellagic acid (5000 mg/L), (-)-epicatechin (1500 mg/L), (-)-epicatechin gallate (500 mg/L) or (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (200 mg/L) after incubation for 24 h. All tannins inhibited coagulation at a concentration below the MIC. The MICs of oxacillin and cefdinir for S. aureus were reduced to < or = 0.06 mg/L in Mueller-Hinton agar plates with tannic acid (100 mg/L) at a concentration below the MIC. The antistaphylococcal activity of tannic acid was reduced in plates with 10% rabbit blood, but not in those with 10% rabbit plasma. Membranous structures formed in a culture medium containing equal proportions of plasma and tryptic soy broth after incubation for 24 h. The colony counts of S. aureus in membranous structures in the medium containing oxacillin (40 mg/L) and tannic acid (100 mg/L) were c. 10-fold lower than those in medium containing oxacillin (40 mg/L) alone (P < 0.01). Tannic acid merits further investigation as a possible adjuvant agent against S. aureus skin infections treated with beta-lactam antibiotics.
Article
When (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of tea polyphenols, was kept in a neutral buffer, it decomposed rapidly to give theasinensin A as the major product. Theasinensin A suppressed the oxacillin resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the presence of theasinensin A (3.5 × 10 - 5 M), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxacillin decreased from 256 or 64 μg/mL to 4 μg/mL for the MRSA strains used. The presence of this compound (3.5 × 10 - 5 M) also decreased the MIC of other β-lactam (penicillin G, from 32 μg/mL to 0.125 - 0.5 μg/mL; ampicillin, from 16 - 32 μg/mL to 0.5 - 1 μg/mL) and aminoglycoside (streptomycin, from 4 - 16 μg/mL to 0.125 - 4 μg/mL) antibiotics for the MRSA strains. Abbreviations CFU:colony forming unit CSMHB:cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth DETAPAC:diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid EGCG:(-)-epigallocatechin gallate HPLC:high-performance liquid chromatography MIC:minimum inhibitory concentration MRSA:methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MSSA:methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus NMR:nuclear magnetic resonance PBP2′:penicillin-binding protein 2′
Article
The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.
Article
Helicobacter pylori is a major etiological agent in gastroduodenal disorders. In this study, we isolated 36 polyphenols and 4 terpenoids from medicinal plants, and investigated their antibacterial activity against H. pylori in vitro. All hydrolyzable tannins tested demonstrated promising antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Monomeric hydrolyzable tannins revealed especially strong activity. Other compounds demonstrated minimal antibacterial activity with a few exceptions. A monomeric hydrolyzable tannin, Tellimagrandin I demonstrated time- and dose-dependent bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro. On the other hand, hydrolyzable tannins did not affect the viability of MKN-28 cells derived from human gastric epithelium. Hydrolyzable tannins, therefore, have potential as new and safe therapeutic regimens against H. pylori infection. Furthermore, we investigated effects of hydrolyzable tannins on lipid bilayer membranes. All the hydrolyzable tannins tested demonstrated dose-dependent membrane-damaging activity. However, it remains to be elucidated whether their membrane-damaging activity directly contributes to their antibacterial action.
Article
To investigate the effects of berries and berry phenolics on pathogenic intestinal bacteria and to identify single phenolic compounds being responsible for antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity of eight Nordic berries and their phenolic extracts and purified phenolic fractions were measured against eight selected human pathogens. Pathogenic bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by bioactive berry compounds. Cloudberry and raspberry were the best inhibitors, and Staphylococcus and Salmonella the most sensitive bacteria. Phenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins, were strong inhibitory compounds against Staphylococcus bacteria. Salmonella bacteria were only partly inhibited by the berry phenolics, and most of the inhibition seemed to originate from other compounds, such as organic acids. Listeria strains were not affected by berry compounds, with the exception of cranberry. Phenolic compounds affect the bacteria in different mechanisms. Berries and their phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial properties of berries could be utilized in functional foods. Furthermore these compounds would be of high interest for further evaluation of their properties as natural antimicrobial agents for food and pharmaceutical industry.
Article
The intestinal microbiota are important during enteral tube feeding because they exert colonization resistance and produce SCFAs. However, the effect of the enteral formula composition on major bacterial groups of the microbiota has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enteral formulas with and without prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fiber on the fecal microbiota and SCFAs. Healthy subjects (n = 10; 4 men, 6 women) consumed both a standard enteral formula and one containing FOS (5.1 g/L) and fiber (8.9 g/L) as a sole source of nutrition for 14 d in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with a 6-wk washout phase. Fecal samples were collected at the start and end of each formula phase, and were analyzed for major bacterial groups and SCFA concentrations using fluorescent in situ hybridization and GLC, respectively. Although there were reductions in total fecal bacteria due to both formula treatments, concentrations were higher after the FOS/fiber formula period compared with the standard formula period (11.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 11.0 +/- 0.2 log(10) cells/g, P = 0.005). The FOS/fiber formula increased bifidobacteria (P = 0.004) and reduced clostridia (P = 0.006). Compared with the standard formula, the FOS/fiber formula resulted in higher concentrations of total SCFA (332.4 +/- 133.8 vs. 220.1 +/- 124.5 micromol/g, P = 0.022), acetate (219.6 +/- 96.3 vs. 136.8 +/- 74.5 micromol/g, P = 0.034) and propionate (58.4 +/- 37.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 25.5 micromol/g, P = 0.02). This study demonstrates that standard enteral formula leads to adverse alterations to the fecal microbiota and SCFA concentrations in healthy subjects, and these alterations are partially prevented by fortification of the formula with FOS and fiber.
Article
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often acquires multi-drug resistance and is involved in many cases of disease in hospitals. We investigated natural substances directly effective against MRSA or that influence antibiotic resistance. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, and several licorice flavonoids showed potent antibacterial effects against MRSA. Like some hydrolysable tannins (corilagin and tellimagrandin I) and a tea polyphenol [(-)-epicatechin gallate], the licorice flavonoid licoricidin also restored the effects of oxacillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic against MRSA. Further study revealed that theasinensin A, a polyphenol formed from (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins obtained from fruits of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis, and polymeric proanthocyanidins from fruit peels of Zanthoxylum piperitum also suppressed the antibiotic resistance of MRSA.
Article
To determine the efficacy and selectivity of an acidified, antibiotic-selective, oligosaccharide-containing media for enumerating Bifidobacterium spp. from chicken caeca samples. Transoligosaccharide propionate agar medium (TOS) modified by addition of mupirocin (50 microg ml-1) and glacial acetic acid (1%, v/v), did not inhibit the growth of bifidobacteria compared with the control media yet inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus gordonii. Addition of mupirocin (50 microg ml-1) and glacial acetic acid (1%, v/v) to TOS (TOS-AM50), is an effective selective medium for isolation and enumeration of Bifidobacterium spp. from chicken caeca samples. The development of an intestinal bifidobacteria-selective media contributes to the study of probiotics and prebiotics in poultry and potentially other species.
Bifidobacterium-selective isolation and enumeration Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concen-trations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs
  • S N Thitaram
  • G R Siragusa
  • A Hinton
  • E A Jr
  • L L Bauer
  • G C Fahey
  • Jr
Thitaram, S. N., Siragusa, G. R., and Hinton, A., Jr., Bifidobacterium-selective isolation and enumeration E. A., Bauer, L. L., and Fahey, G. C. Jr., Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concen-trations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 81, 2535–2545 (2003).