The effects of pulverized petal of Rosa rugosa on the growth of 10 species of intestinal and pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was not affected by the addition of the petal in plate cultivation. However, the growth of Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus was completely inhibited by the addition of 0.1, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05% (w/v) of the petal respectively. In liquid cultivation, the addition of the petal (0.5%) stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium breve and slightly inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius. But the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp. was inhibited by nearly 50%. Hydrolyzable tannins isolated from R. rugosa, rugosin D, and tellimagradin II showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp., but little or no effect against Bif. breve and L. salivarius. R. rugosa petal showed selective antibacterial activities against intestinal and pathogenic bacteria, and the selectivity resembled that of prebiotics such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber. Hydrolyzable tannins in R. rugosa, such as rugosin D and tellimagradin II, must be active constituents.