Article

The prohormone 19-norandrostenedione displays selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) like properties after subcutaneous administration

Authors:
  • Antidoping Schweiz
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

One of the most frequently misused steroid precursors (prohormones) is 19-norandrostenedione (4-estrene-3,17-dione, NOR), which is, after oral administration, readily metabolised to nortestosterone, also known as nandrolone (durabolin). In this study we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action determined its tissue specific androgenic and anabolic potency after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration and investigated potential adverse effects. Receptor binding tests demonstrate that NOR binds with high selectivity to the AR. The potency of NOR to transactivate androgen receptor (AR) dependent reporter gene expression was 10 times lower as compared to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In vivo experiments in orchiectomised rats demonstrated that s.c. treatment with NOR resulted only in a stimulation of the weight of the levator ani muscle; the prostate and seminal vesicle weights remained completely unaffected. Like testosterone, administration of NOR resulted in a stimulation of AR and myostatin mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius muscle. NOR does not affect prostate proliferation, the liver weight and the expression of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT) in the liver. Summarizing these data it is obvious that NOR, if administrated s.c. and in contrast to its metabolite nandrolone, highly selectively stimulates the growth of the skeletal muscle but has only weak androgenic properties. This observation may have relevance with respect to therapeutic aspects but also doping prevention.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Recently we have demonstrated that NOR at 0.1 mg/kg b.w./day, if administrated s.c., and in contrast to its metabolite NT, stimulates the growth of the skeletal muscle, but has only weak androgenic activity (Diel et al., 2008). However, data about androgenic and anabolic potency of NOR after oral administration are not available so far. ...
... Oral administration of NOR in the highest dose (10 mg/kg BW/day) resulted in plasma levels of NOR and NT that were two to three times higher than the levels reached after administration of doses of 1 mg/kg BW/day. In agreement to our recent data (Diel, 2008), s.c. administration of NOR (1 mg/kg BW/d) resulted in a selective anabolic effect. ...
... However, the androgenic and anabolic properties of these metabolites have not been characterised in vivo so far. Own in vitro experiments with NOR metabolites (unpublished data) indicate, that some of these metabolites have, in contrast to NOR and NT which have a comparable high binding affinity to the AR (Diel et al., 2008;Toth and Zakar, 1982), a much lower binding affinity to the AR. Therefore it is possible that such metabolites could act as functional antagonists which has to be proven in future in vivo studies. ...
Article
One of the most frequently misused steroid precursors (prohormones) is 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, NOR). Recently we have show that NOR stimulates skeletal muscle growth after s.c. administration in a highly selective manner but exhibits only weak androgenic activity in rats. Because most abusers take NOR orally, the aim of this study was to compare the anabolic and androgenic potency of NOR between s.c. and oral application. Orchiectomised rats were treated with NOR either s.c. (1 mg/kg BW/day) or orally (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg BW/day). The tissue weights of the levator ani, the seminal vesicle and the prostate were analysed to determine the anabolic and androgenic activity. Heart and liver wet weights were examined to identify side effects. Serum concentrations of NOR and its metabolite nandrolone (NT) were determined. GCMC analysis revealed that free and glucuronidated NOR and NT were detectable in the serum after oral and s.c. administration and that NOR was converted to NT in comparable amounts independent of the route of administration. In agreement to our previous study s.c. application of NOR stimulates skeletal muscle growth but has only weak androgenic effects. In contrast, after oral administration of NOR neither stimulation of the prostate nor the levator ani could be observed in the doses administered in this study. Interestingly, and in contrast to s.c. treatment, oral administration of NOR resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of body weight. In summary, oral administration of NOR, at least in the rat, seems to be a very ineffective strategy for stimulating skeletal muscle mass increases but may be associated with side effects.
... Therefore, nandrolone itself interacts with the receptors for steroids, and produces relatively greater anabolic responses 6 . Some studies point out that nandrolone decanoate can modulate the regulation of the cell cycle, and, therefore, alter muscle mass, but intramuscular processes are not very clear yet 7,8 . ...
... In vivo studies demonstrate that the effects of nandrolone decanoate depended on the assessed muscles, time of treatment, dose and association or not with exercises. All of these were able to cause increased muscle mass 8,[20][21][22] , alterations in the cell cycle 7 , bone mineral density 23 , bone growth 24 , and the ARs influence these effects 8,25 . The question is if there is interference of nandrolone decanoate on viability (proliferation) of muscle cells and muscle repair. ...
... In vivo studies demonstrate that the effects of nandrolone decanoate depended on the assessed muscles, time of treatment, dose and association or not with exercises. All of these were able to cause increased muscle mass 8,[20][21][22] , alterations in the cell cycle 7 , bone mineral density 23 , bone growth 24 , and the ARs influence these effects 8,25 . The question is if there is interference of nandrolone decanoate on viability (proliferation) of muscle cells and muscle repair. ...
Article
Full-text available
Se utilizan los anabolizantes, en particular por atletas con el objetivo de aumentar la masa muscular y mejoría del desempeño. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del anabolizante Deca- Durabolin(r) sobre la viabilidad (proliferación) de las células satélites musculares C2C12 inducidas a la diferenciación, imitando el proceso de reparación tras una lesión. Las células fueron cultivadas en medio Eagle modificado por Dulbecco (DMEM) suplementado con 10% de suero fetal bovino (SFB) y sometidas a diferenciación mediante la adición de 2% de suero de caballo y, simultáneamente, incubadas con el anabolizante en las concentraciones de 5 , 10 , 25 y 50 µM. En los grupos que no recibieron el anabolizante, ni el vehículo sirvió como controle . La viabilidad (proliferación) se evaluó después de uno, tres y cinco días, utilizando el método de MTT (3 - [4,5 - dimetiltriazol - 2 - il ] -2,5 difeniltetrazolio) . Se realizaron tres experimentos independientes, en cada condición citada, y los resultados sometidos al análisis estadístico con nivel de significación de p≤0,05% (ANOVA/Dunnett). Los resultados permitieron verificar que no hubo diferencia en la viabilidad entre células musculares tratadas con anabolizante e inducidas a diferenciación y culturas de controles que sólo fueron inducidas a diferenciación en todos los parámetros evaluados. En conclusión, el anabolizante decanoato de nandrolona, en las concentraciones evaluadas, no fue capaz de alterar la viabilidad de células musculares C2C12 durante el proceso de diferenciación.
... This result also, supported some previous studies [27,28]. Diel et al. [29] explained that testosterone and its synthetic derivatives act through the androgen receptors (ARs) to increase the size of muscle. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS through ARs. ...
... Resultant changes of cellular pathology and organ physiology are familiar with those observed in cardiomyopathy and heart failure. High blood pressure, myocardial ischemia, ventricular remodeling and sudden cardiac death have also been temporally and causally related to anabolic steroid use in humans [29,44,50]. ...
... There are relatively few publications with correlated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SARMs across a range of doses (for review, see Gao et al., 2006). The pharmacological activity has been described for several chemical series, but pharmacokinetic data have not been published (Hanada et al., 2003;Martinborough et al., 2007;Miner et al., 2007;Ostrowski et al., 2007;Diel et al., 2008;Piu et al., 2008). More extensive pharmacokinetic data have been published for the aryl propionamide analogs over a limited number of oral and intravenous doses (Kearbey et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2005;Kim et al., 2005). ...
... The plateau in prostate activity is unique among androgens and demonstrates a true partial agonist activity. Other SARMs have varying degrees of tissue-selective activity, but some increase prostate weight above eugonadal levels at high doses Ostrowski et al., 2007), whereas others have been evaluated over a very narrow dose range, making it difficult to assess the partial agonist activity (Diel et al., 2008;Page et al., 2008;Piu et al., 2008). Pharmacokinetic data from these studies have not been published, making it difficult to confirm that partial agonist activity is not an artifact of saturated compound exposure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a new class of molecules in development to treat a variety of diseases. SARMs maintain the beneficial effects of androgens, including increased muscle mass and bone density, while having reduced activity on unwanted side effects. The mechanisms responsible for the tissue-selective activity of SARMs are not fully understood, and the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships are poorly described. Tissue-specific compound distribution potentially could be a mechanism responsible for apparent tissue selectivity. We examined the PK/PD relationship of a novel SARM, LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one], in a castrated rat model of androgen deficiency. LGD-3303 has potent activity on levator ani muscle but is a partial agonist on the preputial gland and ventral prostate. LGD-3303 never stimulated ventral prostate above intact levels despite increasing plasma concentrations of compound. Tissue-selective activity was maintained when LGD-3303 was dosed orally or by continuous infusion, two routes of administration with markedly different time versus exposure profiles. Despite the greater muscle activity relative to prostate activity, local tissue concentrations of LGD-3303 were higher in the prostate than in the levator ani muscle. LGD-3303 has SARM properties that are independent of its pharmacokinetic profile, suggesting that the principle mechanism for tissue-selective activity is the result of altered molecular interactions at the level of the androgen receptor.
... 16,23 Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) family, attenuates muscle growth by inhibiting AKT signaling. 24 However, regulation of MSTN during disuse [25][26][27][28] or androgen treatment 29,30 has been controversial. Regulated-in-development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) is another negative regulator of muscle mass that represses mTOR activity. ...
Article
Introduction: The contribution of reduced testosterone levels to tail suspension (TS)-induced muscle atrophy remains equivocal. The molecular mechanism by which testosterone regulates muscle mass during TS has not been investigated. Methods: Effects of TS on serum testosterone levels, muscle mass, and expression of muscle atrophy- and hypertrophy-inducing targets were measured in soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles after testosterone administration during 1, 5, and 14 days of TS in male mice. Results: TS produced an increase followed by a transient drop in testosterone levels. Muscle atrophy was associated with downregulation of Igf1 and upregulation of Mstn, Redd1, Atrogin-1, and MuRF1 mRNA with clear differences in Igf1, Mstn, and MAFbx/Atrogin-1 gene expression between SOL and EDL. Testosterone supplementation did not affect muscle mass or protein expression levels during TS. Conclusions The known anabolic effects of testosterone are not sufficient to ameliorate loss of muscle mass during TS. Muscle Nerve 52: 278-288, 2015.
... The steroid precursor (prohormone) 19-norandrostenedione (4-estrene-3,17-dione, NOR) is converted to nortestosterone after oral uptake. Although NOR activates the androgen receptor (AR) with 10 times lower potency compared to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), it has high anabolic and low androgenic potency in vivo if administered subcutaneously, evidenced by the signiWcantly increased wet weight of the M.levator ani (LA) and low wet weight of the prostate and seminal vesicle (Parr et al. 2009;Diel et al. 2008b). ...
Article
Both 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, NOR) and desoxymethyltestosterone (17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol, DMT or "madol") are 'designer steroids' misused for doping purposes in the bodybuilding scene. We have previously characterized the pharmacological profile of madol and identified potential adverse side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anabolic potency of NOR, madol and the reference substance testosterone propionate (TP). Besides wet weight of the M.levator ani (LA), we examined the effects on muscle fiber type composition and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in the M.gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle as additional markers for anabolic potency. A Hershberger assay was performed, where orchiectomized (orchi) male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with NOR, madol, TP or vehicle control (all 1 mg/kg BW/day) for 12 days. Wet weights of the Gas, LA, prostate and seminal vesicle were examined to determine anabolic and androgenic effects. Fiber type composition of the Gas muscle was analyzed using ATPase staining, and MHC protein profiles were determined by silver stain and Western blot analysis. NOR and madol exhibited strong anabolic and weak androgenic potency by stimulating growth of the LA but not the prostate and seminal vesicle. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition characterized by ATPase staining was not significantly altered between the treatment groups, although there was a tendency toward lower levels of type IIB and increased type IIA fibers in all treatment groups relative to orchi. MHC protein expression determined by Western blot and silver stain analysis revealed that MHC IId/x was significantly up-regulated, while MHC IIb was significantly down-regulated in NOR, madol and TP groups relative to orchi. There were no significant differences for MHC IIa and MHC I expression between groups. Results suggest that the observed MHC expression shift could serve as a molecular marker to determine anabolic activity of anabolic steroids at least in skeletal muscle of orchi rats. The molecular mechanisms as well as the androgen-dependent regulation of MHC expression in intact skeletal muscle remain to be further investigated.
... It has been suggested that the anabolic activity of bolandiol is attributable to its conversion by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) to 19-NT [2,456, a potent anabolic steroid [7– 9], because increased urinary metabolites of 19-NT can be measured after oral dosing of men with bolandiol101112. Interestingly, the prohormone of 19-NT, 19-norandrostenedione, has recently been shown to have tissue selectivity in castrate male rats [13] supporting the notion that precursors and metabolites of these steroids may have unique profiles of tissue activity. Furthermore, by analogy to the major pathways by which T is metabolized, bolandiol could also be converted to tetrahydronandrolone (5α-estran-3β,17β-diol) by 5α-reductase or to E 2 by aromatase which might contribute to bolandiol's ability to maintain BMD in castrate adult rats [3]. ...
Article
Bolandiol is a synthetic anabolic steroid that increases lean body mass and bone mineral density without significant stimulation of sex accessory glands in castrate adult male rats. Since bolandiol suppresses gonadotropins and endogenous testosterone (T) production, we investigated its mechanism of action. We compared the potency of bolandiol in vitro and in vivo with T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) and estradiol (E(2)). Bolandiol bound with lower affinity to the recombinant rat androgen receptor (AR) than the other androgens and had low, but measurable, affinity for recombinant human progestin receptors (PR-A, PR-B), and estrogen receptors (ERalpha and beta-1). Functional agonist activity was assessed in transcription assays mediated by AR, PR, or ER. Bolandiol was stimulatory in all these assays, but only 4-9% as potent as T, DHT, and 19-NT via AR, 1% as potent as progesterone via PR, and 3% and 1% as potent as E(2) acting through ERalpha or ERbeta, respectively. In immature castrate rats, bolandiol was equipotent to T in stimulating growth of the levator ani muscle but less potent than T in stimulating growth of the sex accessory glands. Bolandiol also stimulated uterine weight increases in immature female rats, which were partly blocked by ICI 182,780, but it was not aromatized in vitro by recombinant human aromatase. In contrast to T, stimulation of sex accessory gland weights by bolandiol was not inhibited by concomitant treatment with the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. As bolandiol exhibits tissue selectivity in vivo, it may act via AR, PR, and/or ER, utilize alternative signaling pathway(s) or transcriptional coregulators, and/or be metabolized to a more potent selective steroid.
Article
Gloriosa superba is a tropical, medicinally important plant used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, and other ailments. It produces pharmaceutically important alkaloids like colchicine, gloriosine, thiocolchicoside and others. In the present study, gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method has been deployed for the identification of low abundance phytochemicals in mercuric chloride (elicitor)-treated leaves. The analysis revealed nearly 500 molecules including 15 key secondary metabolites like estragole, N-methylloline (alkaloid), aphidocolin, 3-hydroxykynurenine, octyl salicylate, butibufen, anonaine (aporhine alkaloid), bolasterone, austricin, bolandione, octahydrocoumarin, jacaranone, bonducellin, quinacridone, and β-carotene that may have medicinal importance. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of leaf proteome in the control and phenylalanine (a precursor of colchicine)-treated tissues revealed a total of 982 and 937 proteins respectively. In precursor-treated tissues, 364 differentially expressed proteins were noticed besides others. Key proteins involved in shikimate/chorismate pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone-flavone isomerase (associated with flavonoid biosynthesis), chalcone synthase (involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds in plants), chorismate synthetase, chorismate mutase, tryptophan synthase, and medium chain triglyceride protein were detected. Importantly, detection of nearly 154 proteins with unknown functions may hold key and play a role in colchicine biosynthetic pathway. These studies suggest that while metabolomic studies help to detect new secondary plant products, proteomic studies assist us in identifying key enzymes implicated in the biosynthetic pathway of alkaloids in G. superba.
Article
The present study describes different effects of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) nandrolone phenylpropionate (Nandrosol) and the β-agonist ractopamine administration in veal calves, and it investigates different strategies applied to trace these molecules. Morphological changes of gonads and accessory glands attributed to androgen effects, such as testicular atrophy, seminiferous tubule diameter reduction and hyperplasia of prostate epithelium, were detected, although SARMs are not described to cause these lesions. The gene expression analysis showed an anabolic activity of Nandrosol in Longissimus dorsi muscle, where myosin heavy chain (MYH) was significantly up-regulated. An IGF1 increase was weakly significant only in Vastus lateralis muscle. In conclusion, the anatomo-histopathological observations and the MYH mRNA up-regulation in Longissimus dorsi muscle confirm the androgenic treatment in experimental animals. The biosensor assay was not enough sensitive to detect residues in urines and only the direct chemical analysis of urine samples confirmed both β-agonist and SARM treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Various products containing rarely characterized anabolic steroids are nowadays marketed as dietary supplements. Herein, the designer steroid methyl-1-testosterone (M1T) (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one) was identified, and its biological activity, potential adverse effects, and metabolism were investigated. The affinity of M1T toward the androgen receptor (AR) was tested in vitro using a yeast AR transactivation assay. Its tissue-specific androgenic and anabolic potency and potential adverse effects were studied in a Hershberger assay (sc or oral), and tissue weights and selected molecular markers were investigated. Determination of M1T and its metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the yeast AR transactivation assay, M1T was characterized as potent androgen. In rats, M1T dose-dependently stimulated prostate and levator ani muscle weight after sc administration. Oral administration had no effect but stimulated proliferation in the prostate and modulated IGF-I and AR expression in the gastrocnemius muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of tyrosine aminotransferase expression provided evidence for a strong activity of M1T in the liver (much higher after oral administration). In rat urine, 17α-methyl-5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, M1T, and a hydroxylated metabolite were identified. In humans, M1T was confirmed in urine in addition to its main metabolites 17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-ene-3α,17β-diol and 17α-methyl-5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol. Additionally, the corresponding 17-epimers as well as 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-nor-5α-androsta-1,13-dien-3-one and its 17-epimer were detected, and their elimination kinetics was monitored. It was demonstrated that M1T is a potent androgenic and anabolic steroid after oral and sc administration. Obviously, this substance shows no selective AR modulator characteristics and might exhibit liver toxicity, especially after oral administration.
Article
Myostatin propeptide (MYOPRO) and follistatin (FOLLI) are potent myostatin inhibitors. In this study we analysed effects of training and androgens on MYOPRO and FOLLI concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle using Immuno PCR. Young healthy males performed either a 3-month endurance training or a strength training. Blood and biopsy samples were analysed. Training did not significantly affect MYOPRO and FOLLI concentrations in serum and muscle. To investigate whether total skeletal muscle mass may affect circulating MYOPRO and FOLLI levels, blood samples of tetraplegic patients, untrained volunteers and bodybuilders were analysed. MYOPRO was significantly increased exclusively in the bodybuilder group. In orchiectomised rats MYOPRO increased in blood and muscle after treatment with testosterone. In summary our data demonstrate that moderate training does not affect the concentrations of MYOPRO to FOLLI. In contrast androgen treatment results in a significant increase of MYOPRO in skeletal muscle and serum.
Article
Nandrolone or nortestosterone, an anabolic-androgenic steroid, has been prohibited by doping control regulations for more than 30 years. Although its main metabolism in the human body was already known at that time, and detection of its misuse by gas or liquid chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection is straightforward, many interesting aspects regarding this doping agent have appeared since. Over the years, nandrolone preparations have kept their position among the prohibited substances that are most frequently detected in WADA-accredited laboratories. Their forms of application range from injectable fatty acid esters to orally administered nandrolone prohormones. The long detection window for nandrolone ester preparations and the appearance of orally available nandrolone precursors have changed the pattern of misuse. At the same time, more refined analytical methods with lowered detection limits led to new insights into the pharmacology of nandrolone and revelation of its natural production in the body. Possible contamination of nutritional supplements with nandrolone precursors, interference of nandrolone metabolism by other drugs and rarely occurring critical changes during storage of urine samples have to be taken into consideration when interpreting an analytical finding. A set of strict identification criteria, including a threshold limit, is applied to judge correctly an analytical finding of nandrolone metabolites. The possible influence of interfering drugs, urine storage or natural production is taken into account by applying appropriate rules and regulations.
Article
We identified a novel synthetic steroid, S42, as a promising candidate of selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator. Results of the whole-cell binding assay using COS-7 cells exogenously expressing various steroid receptors indicated that S42 specifically binds to AR and progesterone receptor. When orchiectomized Sprague Dawley rats were administered with S42 for 3 wk, the muscle weight of the levator ani was increased as markedly as that induced by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but the weight of the prostate was not elevated at any doses in contrast to DHT. The plasma concentrations of gonadotropin and adiponectin, those down-regulated by DHT, were unaffected by S42. In addition, although the plasma triglyceride level was unaffected by DHT, it was significantly reduced by S42. This effect of S42 was associated with suppression of the SRBP-1c-mediated lipogenic and insulin-desensitizing pathway in the liver and visceral fat. Taken together, S42 works as an AR agonist in muscle and as an AR antagonist in the prostate, pituitary gland, and liver, accompanying beneficial potentials on lipid metabolism.
Article
The abuse of anabolic steroids for doping raises concerns. Many of these compounds have never been examined for their toxicological properties. Aside from hormonal (androgenic) activity, anabolic steroids may also exert genotoxic effects. In the present study, we determined the potencies of the "designer steroid" madol (MAD) and the anabolic prohormone 19-norandrostenedione (NA) to induce micronuclei in V79 cells in vitro. CREST analysis was used to differentiate between aneugenic and clastogenic mechanisms of micronucleus induction. Cytotoxicity of the steroids and their influence on the cell cycle were assessed in parallel. In addition, the ability of MAD and NA to increase production of reactive oxygen species and to induce apoptosis were studied. Both agents caused a concentration-dependent increase in the rates of micronuclei in V79 cells, exceeding a doubling of the background micronucleus rates of untreated controls, which was evident at 27microM and 29microM for MAD and NA, respectively. The steroid-induced micronuclei were predominantly kinetochor (CREST)-negative, pointing to a clastogenic mode of action. As cytotoxicity of both compounds is weak (IC(20) value of 300microM for NA and IC(10) of 100microM for MAD), cytotoxicity was unlikely to contribute to their genotoxicity. The observed genotoxicity of both compounds was due neither to apoptosis induction nor to production of reactive oxygen species. However, the ability of both steroids to induce micronuclei appears related to their lipophilicity. Therefore, a "non-specific" chromosomal genotoxicity of MAD and NA, based on hydrophobic interactions, appears likely. This could well result in biologically relevant increases in chromosomal damage as soon as critical concentrations of the agents are reached in vivo. Regarding the current misuse of the steroids for doping, the uncontrolled administration of very high doses must be considered. Therefore it cannot be ruled out that MAD and NA present genotoxic hazards under current misuse conditions by athletes in sports or in body building.
Article
Full-text available
There is presently considerable interest in endocrine disruption which is a new area of endocrinology concerned with chemicals that mimic hormones, in particular sex steroids. It has been hypothesised that exposure to such chemicals may be responsible for adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. Until now, chemicals that mimic oestrogens (so-called xenoestrogens) have been the main focus of endocrine disruption research. However, recent evidence suggests that many abnormalities in the male reproductive system may be mediated via the androgen receptor. By blocking androgen action, exposure to an anti-androgen may cause changes similar to those associated with oestrogen exposure. We have used in vitro yeast-based assays to detect oestrogenic, anti-oestrogenic, androgenic and anti-androgenic activities in a variety of chemicals of current interest. We show that many of the so-called 'environmental oestrogens' also possess anti-androgenic activity. The previously reported anti-androgenic activities of vinclozolin and p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were confirmed. We also found that o,p'-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), bisphenol A and butyl benzyl phthalate were anti-androgenic. However, not all xenoestrogens are also anti-androgenic, because nonylphenol was found to be a weak androgen agonist. Our results demonstrate that hormone-mimicking chemicals can have multiple hormonal activities, which may make it difficult to interpret their mechanisms of action in vivo. Although not a specific objective of this study, our results also demonstrate that yeast-based assays are powerful tools with which to investigate both agonist and antagonistic hormonal activities of chemicals.
Article
Full-text available
Naturally occurring naringenin derivatives, known for their estrogenic activity, were tested in two independent (anti-)androgen screening assays. Using a yeast-based androgen receptor assay relatively strong antiandrogen activities were demonstrated for 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin, while the parent compound naringenin did not show recognizable antiandrogen activity. In an androgen receptor activity assay based on the analysis of prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in the supernatants of treated PC3(AR)2 cells the antiandrogenic activity of 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin was detected at concentrations of 10⁻⁵ M. 8-Prenylnaringenin or naringenin have no detectable antiandrogenic effect. In summary, for the first time we provide evidence of the antiandrogenic activity of 6-DMA-N in two independent model systems. In conclusion, we demonstrated the ability of prenylated naringenins not only to act via the estrogen receptor but also through the androgen receptor. Abbreviations DHT:dihydrotestosterone PSA:prostate-specific antigen Bic:bicalutamide 6-DMA-N:6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin 8-P-N:8-prenylnaringenin E2:17-β estradiol
Article
Full-text available
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has initiated the development of new guidelines for the screening and testing of potential endocrine disruptors. The Hershberger assay is one of the assays selected for validation based on the need for in vivo screening to detect androgen agonists or antagonists by measuring the response of five sex accessory organs and tissues of castrated juvenile male rats: the ventral prostate, the seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, the levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscle complex, the Cowper's glands, and the glans penis. The phase 1 feasibility demonstration stage of the Hershberger validation program has been successfully completed with a single androgen agonist and a single antagonist as reference substances. The phase 2 validation program employs a range of additional androgen agonists and antagonists as well as 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. Seven Japanese laboratories have contributed phase 2 validation studies of the Hershberger assay using methyltestosterone, vinclozolin, and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE). The methyltestosterone doses were 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg/day, and the vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE doses were 0, 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day. All chemicals were orally administered by gavage for 10 consecutive days. In the antagonist version of the assay using vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE, 0.2 mg/kg/day of testosterone propionate was coadministered by subcutaneous injection. All five accessory sex preproductive organs and tissues consistently responded with statistically significant changes in weight within a narrow window. Therefore, the Japanese studies support the Hershberger assay as a reliable and reproducible screening assay for the detection of androgen agonistic and antagonistic effects.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of anabolic agents and training on skeletal muscle are believed to be mediated by a variety of growth and transcription factors. Among these regulatory proteins, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and androgen receptor (AR) play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wheel running on IGF-I and AR mRNA expression in three distinct rat skeletal muscles (i.e., gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and soleus), as well as on the serum levels of IGF-I and testosterone. Twenty male Wistar rats were housed in cages with free access to running wheels for 12 weeks, while nine rats served as controls. Analysis of the mRNA expression of IGF-I and AR using real time RT-PCR revealed no significant differences between the trained and untrained rats in any of the muscles studied. Enzyme immunoassay showed significantly lower serum levels of IGF-I and testosterone in the trained compared to the untrained animals. These results suggest that chronic exercise in wheels does not affect IGF-I and AR mRNA levels in rat skeletal muscle, while decreasing the circulating levels of two anabolic factors, i.e., IGF-I and testosterone. It is concluded that IGF-I, AR and testosterone seem to play a marginal role during the adaptation process of rat skeletal muscle to long-term wheel running.
Article
Both short and long term effects of androgen deficiency and steroid replacement therapy on skeletal homeostasis were investigated in aged (13-month-old) male rats. The animals were either sham operated (n = 28) or orchidectomized (orch; n = 89). The orch animals were divided into 5 groups; 26 rats received an empty sc Silastic implant (orch), all others received an implant containing testosterone (T), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or nandrolone (Nandro; 15-16 rats in each group). Half of the rats were killed 1 month (short term experiment) after implantation; the others were killed 4 months after implantation (long term experiment). Short term androgen deficiency caused a significant increase in both serum osteocalcin and histomorphometric parameters of bone turnover measured at the proximal tibial metaphysis, but not in a significant decrease in bone mass at this site. This increase in bone turnover was prevented not only by T and DHT, but also by E2 and Nandro. Long term and...
Article
Both short and long term effects of androgen deficiency and steroid replacement therapy on skeletal homeostasis were investigated in aged (13-month-old) male rats. The animals were either sham operated (n = 28) or orchidectomized (orch; n = 89). The orch animals were divided into 5 groups; 26 rats received an empty sc Silastic implant (orch), all others received an implant containing testosterone (T), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or nandrolone (Nandro; 15-16 rats in each group). Half of the rats were killed 1 month (short term experiment) after implantation; the others were killed 4 months after implantation (long term experiment). Short term androgen deficiency caused a significant increase in both serum osteocalcin and histomorphometric parameters of bone turnover measured at the proximal tibial metaphysis, but not in a significant decrease in bone mass at this site. This increase in bone turnover was prevented not only by T and DHT, but also by E2 and Nandro. Long term androgen deficiency resulted in a decrease in the calcium content of both tibia and lumbar vertebrae. Cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibial metaphysis was +/- 50% lower in the orch group (P less than 0.001) 4 months after orchidectomy. At the same time, cortical bone was lost in orch rats; femoral cortical thickness was reduced by 12% (P less than 0.01), and cortical density tended to be lower. T, DHT, E2, or Nandro treatment completely prevented this decrease in cortical thickness and density. T and Nandro were also able to prevent the cancellous bone loss. DHT could only partly prevent cancellous bone loss. E2 treatment resulted not only in a sustained decrease in both serum osteocalcin concentrations and histomorphometric indices of bone turnover, but also in a net gain of cancellous bone volume (P less than 0.05 vs. sham). No significant differences in serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites or nephrogenous cAMP were observed between groups in both short and long term experiments. We conclude that bone mass in aged male rats was significantly decreased 4 months after orchidectomy, preceded by an early increase in bone turnover. Both the early increase in bone turnover and the later decrease in bone mass were prevented by aromatizable and nonaromatizable androgens by estrogen and by nandralone.
Article
There are advantages and disadvantages with all of the presently available types of testosterone replacement for hypogonadal men. We performed this investigation to establish detailed data about the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, feasibility and side-effects of subcutaneously implanted testosterone (T) pellets. In a single-dose, open-label, non-randomized study, 6 T-pellets, each containing 200 mg of fused crystalline T, were implanted in the subdermal fat tissue of the lower abdominal wall of 14 hypogonadal men. Blood samples for determination of T, LH, FSH, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and oestradiol (E2) were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 hours and on day 21 after implantation and then every 3 weeks until day 189, and on days 246 and 300 during follow-up. In another 36 hypogonadal men the feasibility and side-effects of T-pellets were evaluated. Fourteen patients participated in the detailed pharmacokinetic study and another 36 patients in the assessment of feasibility and side-effects. All patients (age range 18-61 years) suffered from primary or secondary hypogonadism (T < 3.6 nmol/l). The pharmacokinetic study in 14 hypogonadal men revealed an initial short-lived burst release of T with a peak concentration of 49.0 +/- 3.7 nmol/l at 0.5 +/- 0.13 days which was followed by a stable plateau lasting until day 63 (day 2, 35.2 +/- 2.3; day 63, 34.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l). Thereafter serum T gradually declined and was close to baseline concentrations on day 300. Apparent terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) was 70.8 +/- 10.7 days and apparent mean residence time 87.0 +/- 4.5 days. On average, serum T was below 10 nmol/l after 180 days. Absorption of T followed a zero-order release kinetic with an absorption half-time of 74.7 days (95% confidence interval: 71.1-78.5) and was almost complete by day 189 (95.9 +/- 0.84%). Serum DHT and E2 were significantly elevated from day 21 to day 105 and correlated significantly with T (DHT, r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, E2, r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). SHBG was significantly decreased from day 21 to day 168. In 6 men with primary hypogonadism T suppressed LH and FSH to the eugonadal range from day 21 to 126 and 42 to 105, respectively, with nadirs occurring at day 84 (LH) and day 63 (FSH). LH and FSH were highly inversely correlated with T (r = -0.47 and -0.57). The only side-effect observed during 112 implantations in the total group of 50 men were 6 local infections (5.4%) leading to extrusion of 5 pellets in 3 men. When given the choice, all patients except one preferred T-pellets to their previous T medication for permanent substitution therapy. T-pellets are the androgen formulation with the longest biological action and strongest pharmacodynamic efficacy in terms of gonadotrophin suppression. The pharmacokinetic features are advantageous compared to other T preparations and the patient acceptance is high.
Article
Since the appearance of 4-androsten-3,17-dione (I) as a nutritional supplement in early 1997, we have frequently observed a characteristic deterioration of endogenous steroid profiles in athletes' urine in routine anabolic steroid testing in which concentrations of major endogenous urinary steroids and testosterone exceed normal. Human excretion studies are performed with I and newer, over-the-counter "supplements" 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol (II) and 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione (III). Endogenous urinary steroids affected by I and II are androsterone, etiocholanolone, their hydroxylated derivatives 5alpha- and 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diols, testosterone, and epitestosterone. Their concentrations briefly increase by one to two orders of magnitude and return to normal 24 h after oral administration of I and II. The average male may test positive for testosterone because testosterone concentration rises faster than that of epitestosterone, causing the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio to rise above the positive cutoff of 6:1. A remarkable distinction in excretion patterns was observed in eastern Asian men, for whom I and II did not affect urinary concentrations of testosterone and did not increase the T/E ratio. First-pass metabolism deactivates most of the orally administered drugs I and II, rapidly converting them into inactive androsterone and etiocholanolone. Drug II is a more effective testosterone booster because of its different metabolic pathway. After the use of III, a precursor of the potent anabolic nandrolone, high concentrations of norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone appear in urine, similar to nandrolone. These are detectable in urine for 7-10 days after a single oral dose of III (50 mg).
Article
Stanozolol (ST) is a 17alpha-alkyl anabolic-androgenic steroid (17alpha-AAS) often misused by athletes and bodybuilders. The use of anabolic-steroids by sportsmen and teenagers has increased dramatically, thus raising the question about their hepatotoxicity, specially those such as ST which are orally administered. Previously, we have reported diverse in vivo effects exerted by this steroid and published the existence of a highly specific ST-binding site in male rat liver microsomes. The existence of this binding site, the reported hepatic effects exerted in humans, and the very limited information about its potential hepatotoxicity led us to treat adult male rats acutely and chronically with ST and study different parameters that could indicate liver damage: serum levels of transaminases, concentration of monooxygenase enzymes in liver, liver membrane lipid peroxidation products, liver histopathology, and cell cycle/ploidy status of liver cells. In our study, no changes in serum transaminases or lipid peroxidation levels were obtained. However, acute stanozolol treatment significantly decreased the levels of cytochrome P450 (Cyt. P450) and cytochrome b5 (Cyt. b5) during the first 48 h of treatment, while subsequently, at 72 and 96 h, these microsomal enzymes underwent a significant increase in their levels. In sharp contrast with this response to acute treatment, the content of these two enzymes during chronic treatment showed an important decrease. Interestingly, acutely and chronically ST-treated livers showed slight to moderate inflammatory or degenerative lesions in centrilobular hepatocytes. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that both acute and chronic ST treatment were capable of increasing the percentage of S-phase fraction (%SPF) of liver cells. These findings taken together clearly show that this steroid is capable of altering the liver capacity for metabolizing xenobiotics and indicate that high doses of ST could exert a proliferative effect on liver cells. Such data should be considered in risk evaluations for this compound.
Article
A method is described for the determination of anabolic steroids including testosterone, 19-nor-4-androstene-3,17-dione, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and nandrolone in food supplements. Initial clean-up is done by HPLC followed by determination with GC/MS. A 'contaminated' food supplement was analysed and appeared to contain 19-nor-4-androstene-3,17-dione and 4-androstene-3,17-dione. One capsule of this nutritional supplement was ingested by five male volunteers. Urine samples were collected and analysed by GC/MS and GC/MS-MS. Neither the ratio testosterone/epitestosterone, nor the ratio androstenedione/epitestosterone increased significantly. Concentrations above 2 ng/ml for norandrosterone, the major metabolite of nandrolone, were detected until 48-144 h after ingestion of the food supplement.
Article
Despite a relative dearth of information on their effects, supplementation with prohormones has become a popular practice. Unlike synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, many of these over-the-counter androgens are produced endogenously by adrenal, gonadal and peripheral steroidogenic pathways as part of the normal sexual and reproductive hormonal milieu. It has been contended that peripheral enzymatic conversion of these prohormones to testosterone or nortestosterone (via ingestion of androstenedione/androstenediol or 19-nor-androstenedione/androstenediol, respectively) might lead to anabolic and/or ergogenic effects. Existing data suggest that acute oral ingestion of >or=200 mg androstenedione or androstenediol modestly and transiently increases serum testosterone concentrations in men; however, this is accompanied by greater increases in circulating estrogen(s). At doses < 300 mg/d, oral supplementation for as long as 12-weeks with androstenedione or androstenediol has no effect on body composition or physical performance and decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Similarly, oral supplementation with norandrostenedione and norandrostenediol for up to eight weeks has no effect on body composition or physical performance. In light of these data, new products have been developed that use alternative modes of prohormone administration (sublingual/transbuccal and cyclodextrin-complexation). Future studies should critically examine the effects of these approaches. However, within the framework of the research reviewed, over-the-counter oral prohormone supplementation is ineffective at increasing muscle mass or athletic performance. As a result of the potential health concerns that have been raised, the risk to benefit ratio of using these substances orally seems unfavorable.
Article
A two-period, randomized, complete crossover study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Testim (AA2500), a new 1% testosterone topical gel formulation, compared to AndroGel, an already available 1% testosterone topical gel. Twenty-nine hypogonadal subjects received a single dose (50 mg testosterone) of each formulation seven days apart. C(max) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and free testosterone were greater (30, 19 and 38%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Similarly, AUC(0-24) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and free testosterone were greater (30, 11 and 47%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Confidence intervals for C(max) and AUC(0-24) were not wholly contained within the bioequivalence limits for testosterone, therefore Testim trade mark and AndroGel are not bioequivalent with Testim providing higher serum levels and greater bioavailability than AndroGel.
Article
Many athletes use drugs, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), but there are few reports on the endocrinological and pathological changes in AAS abusers. In this study we reported the results of endocrinological examinations in rats administered AAS and also physical changes. We separated 37 male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) into 3 groups: Group A was medicated with nandrolone decanoate, metenolone acetate, and dromostanolone; Group B with nandrolone decanoate and saline; and Group C was given only saline. They were given subcutaneous injections of the medications or the control vehicle once a week for 6 weeks. Medications were stopped for 4 weeks, and then resumed for another 6 weeks. After that, rats were sacrificed. Serum testosterone level in Group A was significantly higher than that in Group C. Serum dihydrotestosterone in Group A was significantly higher than that in both Groups B and C. Serum estradiol-17beta levels in Groups A and B were significantly higher than that in Group C. In pathological evaluation, heart, testis, and adrenal gland were severely damaged. These findings indicate that there is a high degree of risk related to the use of AAS.
Article
Recent studies showed that non-hormonal supplements such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids can contain anabolic androgenic steroids not declared on the labels of the products. These undeclared substances (often prohormones of testosterone or 19-nortestosterone) can cause health risks to consumers and might lead to positive results in sports doping control, especially for the nandrolone metabolite norandrosterone. The analysis of nutritional supplements for anabolic steroids has proven to be rather difficult due to the different matrices in the various products. To conduct a broad-based analysis, a few robust methods capable of analysing various matrices are needed. To obtain a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, a method including extraction and purification of the analytes followed by GC-MS analysis of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of the steroids was developed. The limit of detection was improved by the addition of a mixture of 1-N,N-diisopropylamino-n-alkanes (DIPAs) to the final extract. In pure creatine monohydrate powder the limits of detection were demonstrated to be 0.1 ng microg (-1) for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estr-4-ene-3beta,17beta-diol, 0.7 ng g(-1) for 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, 1 ng g(-1) for estr-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol, estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, 19-nortestosterone, androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione and testosterone, and 2 ng g(-1) for androst-4-ene-3beta,17beta-diol and androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol. The recovery (determined at 200 ng g(-1)) ranged from 32% for 19-nortestosterone to 92% for androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol. During the investigation of different nutritional supplements, several analytical difficulties occurred. Aspects of homogenization, extraction, separation, derivatization and GC-MS measurement as well as strategies for the solution of problems arising were optimized. For quantitative measurements of the steroids in nutritional supplements, deuterated internal standards of the specific steroids or standard addition are necessary to compensate for matrix effects.
Article
Myostatin has been characterized as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. To examine a probable function of myostatin during the adaptation of skeletal muscle in response to training, we analysed the effect of short-term endurance training on myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA contents in rat skeletal muscles. To assess the impact of the training stimulus, mRNA levels of metabolic genes were analysed simultaneously. Male Wistar rats were trained for 5 days by swimming, while another group remained untrained. Myostatin, IGF-I, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), hexokinase II (HK II) and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) mRNA levels were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis and soleus muscles. A time course experiment was conducted, in order to examine transient changes of myostatin mRNA contents in gastrocnemius 7 and 24 h after one-swimming session as well as 24 h after a 3-day swimming training. No significant changes in IGF-I and GLUT4 mRNA levels were found in any of the muscles analysed. mRNA contents of myostatin were significantly reduced in gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis but not in soleus. In agreement to this pattern, we found significantly higher mRNA levels of HK II and HAD in the trained group. The time course experiment revealed significantly reduced myostatin mRNA contents in gastrocnemius 7 but not 24 h post-exercise. The 3-day swimming training resulted also in significantly lower myostatin mRNA levels in the trained group. This study demonstrated that short-term endurance training may modulate myostatin mRNA levels, implying a probable role of myostatin in remodelling of skeletal muscle in response to training.
Article
Methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs) and some fungicides were studied for their functional effects on the glucocorticoid signal transduction in the Reuber rat hepatoma H-II-E-C3 cell line. 4-Substituted MeSO2-PCBs, tolylfluanid and ketoconazole displayed antagonistic effects on dexamethasone-induced tyrosine aminotransferase specific activity (IC50 ranging from 0.7-5.1 microM), but no agonist activity. These substances also had affinity to the mouse glucocorticoid receptor in competition binding studies, indicating that the inhibition of the middle cerebral artery occlusion-activity is indeed mediated by receptor binding. Thus, substances with a structural resemblance with a methyl sulfonyl group, such as the fungicide tolylfluanid, may inhibit glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene transcription. In co-exposure experiments with three substances, multivariate modelling showed that the inhibitory effect of 4-MeSO2-2,5,6,2',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-MeSO2-CB91), 4-MeSO2-2,3,6,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4-MeSO2-CB149) and tolylfluanid on tyrosine aminotransferase activity was close to additive. Thus, co-exposure to such different chemicals as persistent organic pollutants and pesticides may affect cells additively. Chemical interference with the glucocorticoid hormone system therefore deserves further attention in vivo.
Article
The aim of our study was to demonstrate the positive impact that in vitro systems could have on the synthesis and characterization of unknown metabolites of banned doping agents. Using norandrostenedione (estr-4-en-3,17-dione), we were able to identify and characterize by GC/MS and LC/UV/MS several new hydroxylated metabolites formed in human hepatocyte incubations. The site of hydroxylation of M1, M2, M3, and M5 was demonstrated to be at C-6beta position by incubating estr-4-en-6beta-ol-3,17-dione (M4), which is the direct 6beta-hydroxylated metabolite of norandrostenedione. The structure of M5 was confirmed to be estr-4-en-6beta,17beta-diol-3-one (6beta-hydroxynortestosterone) using a commercially available authentic standard. For the other metabolites, M1, M2, and M3, no standards were available. Due to limited access to fresh human liver tissues, in vitro incubation conditions in rat liver subcellular fractions and hepatocytes were optimized as an alternative to produce sufficient quantities of the unknown metabolites for MS and/or NMR characterization. The structure of M1 was assigned to 5alpha-estran-3alpha,6beta-diol-17-one (6beta-hydroxynorandrosterone) and M3 to 5alpha-estran-3beta,6beta-diol-17-one (6beta-hydroxynorepiandrosterone) based on NMR data. M2 is proposed to be 5beta-estran-3alpha,6beta-diol-17-one (6beta-hydroxynoretiocholanolone) based on GC/MS fragmentation of the TMS-enol bis-TMS-ether derivative. The in vitro approach reported here, in addition to urinary excretion studies in humans, could contribute significantly to the discovery, the synthesis, and structure elucidation of new markers of doping agents.
Article
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) is a steroid recently identified to be misused as doping agent. However, the knowledge on functions of this substance in humans or animal models is rather limited. Therefore, it was our aim to further characterize the pharmacological profile of THG and identify potential adverse side effects. THG was synthesized, the purity was confirmed and its biological activity was tested. The potency of THG to transactivate AR dependent reporter gene expression was two orders of magnitude lower compared to dihydrotestosterone. THG binds with high affinity but unselective to the androgen (AR), progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor. Treatment of orchiectomised rats with THG resulted in a stimulation of prostate, seminal vesicle and levator ani muscle, indicating androgenic and anabolic properties. In the liver THG, in contrast to testosteronepropionate (TP), down regulates the expression of the GR dependent tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT). In summary, our results demonstrate that THG is not a specific AR agonist. THG exhibits a high binding affinity to all tested steroid hormone receptors and binds with highest affinity to the GR. Our in vivo data are indicative of an anabolic and androgenic potency of THG, but the repression of TAT demonstrates that THG also interferes with the glucocorticoid hormone system. Therefore, it is conceivable that an intake will result in adverse side effects.
Article
Since the begining of the year 2005, the use of steroid precursors (prohormones) is illegal in the United States; nevertheless, there is still an enormous abuse of such substances. One of the most frequently misused steroids, often declared to be a prohormone, is 1-testosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one, 1-Testo). In this study, we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action, determined its tissue specific androgenic and anabolic potency and investigated potential adverse effects. 1-Testo binds highly selective to the androgen receptor (AR) and has a high potency to stimulate AR dependent transactivation. In vivo an equimolar dose of 1-Testo has the same potency to stimulate the growth of the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the androgen sensitive levator ani muscle as the reference compound testosterone propionate (TP). Administration of 1-Testo, in contrast to TP, results in a significant increase of liver weight. Our results demonstrate that 1-Testo, even without being metabolised, is a very potent androgen. It binds selectively to the AR and transactivates AR dependent reporter genes. In vivo it has a high androgenic and anabolic potency and increases liver weight. In summary 1-Testo can be characterised as a typical anabolic steroid. It has to be assumed that consumption of this substance is associated with adverse side effects typical for this class of compounds. Therefore, a strict control of its ban is essential.
Article
Prohormones such as 19-norandrostenediol (estr-4-ene-3beta,17beta-diol) have been added to the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency because they are metabolized to the common nandrolone metabolites norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone. So far, no studies on the metabolism and in vivo conversion of 19-norandrostenediol after oral or sublingual administration have been reported nor have had quantified data on resulting plasma nandrolone levels. In the present study, an open-label crossover trial with eight healthy male volunteers was conducted. After application of capsules or sublingual tablets of 19-norandrostenediol plasma concentrations of 19-norandrostenediol, nandrolone as well as major metabolites (19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone) were determined using a validated assay based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The administration of 100-mg capsules of 19-norandrostenediol yielded maximum plasma total concentrations (i.e., conjugated plus unconjugated compounds) of 1.1 ng/ml (+/-0.7) for 19-norandrostenediol, 4.0 ng/ml (+/-2.6) for nandrolone, 154.8 ng/ml (+/-130.8) for 19-norandrosterone, and 37.7 ng/ml (+/-6.9) for 19-noretiocholanolone. The use of 25-mg sublingual tablets resulted in 3.3 ng/ml (+/-1.0) for 19-norandrostenediol, 11.0 ng/ml (+/-6.4) for nandrolone, 106.3 ng/ml (+/-40.1) for 19-norandrosterone, and 28.5 ng/ml (+/-20.8) for 19-noretiocholanolone. Most interestingly, the pharmacologically active unconjugated nandrolone was determined after administration of sublingual tablets (up to 5.7 ng/ml) in contrast to capsule applications. These results demonstrate the importance of prohibiting prohormones such as 19-norandrostenediol, in particular, since plasma concentrations of nandrolone between 0.3 to 1.2 ng/ml have been reported to influence endocrinological parameters.
Article
Desoxymethyltestosterone (DMT), also known as Madol, is a steroid recently identified to be misused as a doping agent. Since, the knowledge of functions of this substance is rather limited, it was our aim to characterise the pharmacological profile of DMT and to identify potential adverse side effects. DMT was synthesised, its purity was confirmed and its biological activity was tested. The potency of Madol (DMT) to transactivate androgen receptor (AR) dependent reporter gene expression was two times lower as compared to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Receptor binding tests demonstrate that DMT binds with high selectivity to the AR, binding to the progesterone receptor (PR) was low. In vivo experiments in orchiectomised rats demonstrated that treatment with DMT resulted only in a stimulation of the weight of the levator ani muscle; the prostate and seminal vesicle weights remained unaffected. Like testosterone, administration of DMT resulted in a stimulation of IGF-1 and myostatin mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the prostate proliferation was stimulated by TP (testosteronepropionate), but remained unaffected by DMT. Remarkably, treatment with DMT, in contrast to TP, resulted in a significant increase of the heart weight. In the liver, DMT slightly stimulates the expression of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT). Our results demonstrate that DMT is a potent AR agonist with an anabolic activity. Besides the levator ani weight, DMT also modulates the gene expression in the musculus gastrocnemius. The observed stimulation of TAT expression in the liver and the significant increase of the heart weight after DMT treatment can be taken as an indication for side effects. Summarizing these data it is obvious that DMT is a powerful anabolic steroid with selective androgen receptor modulators (SARM) like properties and some indications for toxic side effects. Therefore, there is a need for a strict control of a possible misuse.
Anabole Steroide Several environmental oestrogens are also anti-androgens
  • D Sinnere
  • M Bachmann
  • Das
  • Buch
  • Bms
  • Verlag
  • Gronau
  • P Sohoni
  • J P Sumpter
Sinnere, D., Bachmann, M., 2004. Anabole Steroide. Das schwarze Buch. BMS Verlag, Gronau. Sohoni, P., Sumpter, J.P., 1998. Several environmental oestrogens are also anti-androgens. J. Endocrinol. 158 (3), 327–339.
Anabole Steroide. Das schwarze Buch
  • D Sinnere
  • M Bachmann
Sinnere, D., Bachmann, M., 2004. Anabole Steroide. Das schwarze Buch. BMS Verlag, Gronau.
Several environmental oestrogens are also anti-androgens
  • Sohoni