Cyclin D1 expression analysis in familial breast cancers may discriminate BRCAX from BRCA2-linked cases

Unit of Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer, Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.19). 04/2008; 21(10):1262-70. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2008.43
Source: PubMed


Most familial breast cancers arise in patients who tested negative for germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (also referred to as BRCAX cases). Several studies aimed to define histopathological and molecular profiles characteristic of BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX tumors have been performed. Major pathological and immunohistochemical differences have been reported in BRCA1 cancers compared to the other two groups, whereas less difference has been observed between BRCA2 and BRCAX cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of selected tumor markers to discriminate BRCAX breast cancers from cancers arising in carriers of mutations in BRCA genes, and their usefulness in selecting familial cases in whom testing for such mutations is more likely to result uninformative. We carried out a morphological and immunohistochemical analysis on 22 BRCA1, 16 BRCA2 and 33 BRCAX familial breast cancers. Age at first diagnosis, histological type and grade, and immunostaining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, HER2/Neu, E-cadherin and cyclin D1 were investigated. The occurrence of somatic mutations of the TP53 gene was also verified. BRCA1 tumors resulted clearly distinguishable from BRCAX cases, occurring at a younger age, being more frequently of higher grade, negative for ER, PR and cyclin D1 expression and positive for p53 alterations. The predictive value of age at diagnosis, histological grade and PR expression was confirmed in a multivariable analysis. When comparing BRCA2 with BRCAX tumors, the only parameter that differed was cyclin D1, which was significantly overexpressed in BRCA2 cases both in the univariable and the multivariable analyses. If confirmed by further studies, our observations indicate that the investigation of cyclin D1 expression in familial breast cancer cases could be used, in conjunction with the analysis of other tumor markers preferentially associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 tumors, to prioritize hereditary cases for mutation testing in BRCA genes.

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Available from: Marco Pierotti, Nov 22, 2014
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    • "Our findings are consistent with previous studies reporting LOH at BRCA1 locus and TP53 abnormalities as frequent events in breast cancers occurring in BRCA1 mutation carriers [31,32]. Therefore, we may argue a causal role of the genetic background of the patient, which made her prone to breast cancer, not only in the development of the IDC, but also in the rare phenotypic expression of the ACC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of malignant tubular acinar exocrine gland structures. Diagnosis is generally made in salivary glands and in the pancreas. ACC of the breast has been reported in few cases only. Carriers of inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene are prone to the development of breast cancer, mainly invasive ductal or medullary type carcinomas. We describe for the first time a BRCA1 mutation carrier with a diagnosis of ACC of the breast. Case presentation The patient developed an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) at the age of 40 years and an ACC in the contralateral breast at 44 years. Immunohistochemical examination of the ACC revealed a triple negative status (i.e., negativity for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 protein) and positivity for p53. Using a combination of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and sequencing analyses, the loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele was detected in both the ACC and the IDC. In addition, two different somatic TP53 mutations, one in the ACC only and another one in the IDC only, were observed. Conclusion Both the immunohistochemical and molecular features observed in the ACC are typical of BRCA1-associated breast cancers and suggest an involvement of the patient’s germline mutation in the disease. The occurrence of rare histological types of breast cancers, including malignant phyllodes tumor, atypical medullary carcinoma and metaplastic carcinoma, in BRCA1 mutation carriers has been already reported. Our findings further broaden the spectrum of BRCA1-associated breast malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Cancer
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    • "There has been an increasing number of research reports on developing breast cancer biomarkers, especially in blood [1] . Many molecular biomarkers with expression level changes have been identified in breast cancer tissue samples or blood, for example, HER2[2] , PNCA[3] , Lipofilin B[4] , Cyclin D1[5] , CEACAM6[6] , Osteopontin-c[7] , RCP[8] , and FOXA1[9] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Plasma proteome profiling may have a higher chance to identify protein changes between plasma samples such as normal and breast cancer tissues. Breast cancer cell lines have long been used by researches as model system for identifying protein biomarkers. A comparison of the set of proteins which change in plasma with previously published findings from proteomic analysis of human breast cancer cell lines may identify with a higher confidence a subset of candidate protein biomarker. In this study, we analyzed a liquid chromatography (LC) coupled tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proteomics dataset from plasma samples of 40 healthy women and 40 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Using a two-sample t-statistics and permutation procedure, we identified 254 statistically significant, differentially expressed proteins, among which 208 are over-expressed and 46 are under-expressed in breast cancer plasma. We validated this result against previously published proteomic results of human breast cancer cell lines and signaling pathways to derive 25 candidate protein biomarkers in a panel. Using the pathway analysis, we observed that the 25 "activated" plasma proteins were present in several cancer pathways, including 'Complement and coagulation cascades', 'Regulation of actin cytoskeleton', and 'Focal adhesion', and match well with previously reported studies. Additional gene ontology analysis of the 25 proteins also showed that cellular metabolic process and response to external stimulus (especially proteolysis and acute inflammatory response) were enriched functional annotations of the proteins identified in the breast cancer plasma samples. By cross-validation using two additional proteomics studies, we obtained 86% and 83% similarities in pathway-protein matrix between the first study and the two testing studies, which is much better than the similarity we measured with proteins. We presented a 'systems biology' method to identify, characterize, analyze and validate panel biomarkers in breast cancer proteomics data, which includes 1) t statistics and permutation process, 2) network, pathway and function annotation analysis, and 3) cross-validation of multiple studies. Our results showed that the systems biology approach is essential to the understanding molecular mechanisms of panel protein biomarkers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · BMC Genomics
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    • "ER negativity is typical of tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers. Although the rate of cyclin D1 positive cases is lower in BRCA1 tumors than in sporadic tumors, they still represent some 5 to 33% of all positive cases [7] [20] [24] [25] [36]. The aforementioned alternative pathways of cyclin D1 overexpression induction may be involved in these positive cases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations differs from non-BRCA tumors in several respects. We determined whether there was any difference in CCND1 (11q13) and ZNF217 (20q13) gene amplification with respect to BRCA status. Of 40 breast cancer samples examined, 15 and 9 were from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively, and 16 from patients without mutation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that eight tumors exhibited CCND1 amplification (20%; 3 BRCA1, 3 BRCA2, 2 non-BRCA). ZNF217 amplification was observed in three of 38 cases (8%; 2 BRCA1, 1 non-BRCA). There was no significant difference in CCND1 and ZNF217 amplification between BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-BRCA tumors. CCND1 amplification was associated with decreased disease-free (P = 0.045) and overall survival (P = 0.015). BRCA1 tumors with CCND1 amplification were estrogen receptor negative, in contrast to CCND1 amplified BRCA2 and non-BRCA tumors, suggesting that concurrent CCND1 amplification and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity may predict germline BRCA1 gene mutation. All ZNF217 amplified tumors were of the medullary histological type (P = 0.002). There was no statistical correlation between CCND1 and ZNF217 amplification and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and ERBB2 expression and TNM classification. CCND1 amplification did not correlate with EGFR expression.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Neoplasma
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