Article

Veterinary e-CPD: A New Model for Providing Online Continuing Professional Development for the Veterinary Profession

Authors:
  • Dick White Referrals
  • Education Alchemists. Ltd
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Abstract

Continuing professional development (CPD) is widely recognized as an important element in effective lifelong learning for veterinary surgeons. Traditional methods of CPD do not suit all learners, as issues such as location, time, cost, and structure sometimes prevent individuals from completing the required number of CPD study hours per year. The rapid development of the Internet, and with it the increasing scope and sophistication of e-learning, provides new opportunities to address some of these constraints on the provision of CPD. This article describes one way in which e-learning has been deployed effectively to support veterinary surgeons in practice. Since 2003, a series of six-week e-CPD courses has been offered by the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) in an online format, with no face-to-face teaching component. Participants enrolled in courses from May 2006 to January 2007 were found to come from 23 different countries. Analysis of feedback forms indicates a general satisfaction with this new way of studying, with a significant majority of participants stating that they would wish to use this approach again in future. The feedback indicates that e-learning can offer an effective alternative to traditional face-to-face courses and that its popularity is likely to grow in future as veterinarians become increasing familiar with and confident about working online.

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... Im Jahr 2010 handelte es sich bei der in Deutschland durchgeführten Fokusgruppenbefragung um zwei Gruppen mit insgesamt 23 ( [19], [20]. Auch die tiermedizinische Lehre hat in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten von der Informations-und Kommunikationstechnologie mit den einhergehenden neuen Lehrmethoden und -möglichkeiten profitiert und wird auch in Zukunft eng mit den Veränderungen des Internets verknüpft sein [33], [34], [35]. Nicht nur die webbasierte interaktive Zusammenarbeit zwischen Studierenden und Dozierenden der Veterinärmedizin sowie praktizierenden Tierärzten wird an Bedeutung gewinnen, sondern auch das gemeinsame internationale Vorgehen in Bezug auf die Kontrolle der Tierproduktion und Lebensmittelsicherheit oder den Umgang mit Tierseuchen und Zoonosen [35]. ...
... Web 2.0 content is already playing a significant role in information searches both when taking clinical decisions and in medical training [16] and web 2.0 will become more and more significant in medical education and training in future [19], [20]. The teaching of veterinary science has also benefited in the past two decades from information and communication technology and its associated new teaching methods and possibilities and will be closely linked to changes in internet use in future [33], [34], [35]. It is not only between veterinary students and teaching staff and veterinarians that web-based interactive cooperation will gain in significance but in the whole international approach to controls on animal production and food safety or the way that animal disease and zoonoses are handled [36]. ...
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Objective: NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu/), is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools [21], [30] and what advantages a specialist network could offer. Methodology: The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users. Results: 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%). During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine. Conclusions: The network and its membership figures developed very positively during the assessed time period. Until now, the focus of the content of contributions in NOVICE (Network of Veterinary ICT in Education) has been on veterinary medicine teaching supported by e-Learning. An increase in the number of members would, however, be beneficial in order to further develop the network so that valuable exchange of information and informal learning can also take place in other specialist areas of veterinary medicine.
... There are several tools that are applied in DL such as e-conferencing (Webinars: video-, audio, collaborative conferences), course management systems (CMS), discussion forums and their combination [27]. Programmed instructions, teacher-led instruction, self-instructional textbooks, CD-ROMs, portfolios, computer-based training, interactive multimedia, electronic textbooks, Web materials, e-mails, instant messaging, Skype, Facebook were also used for DL [28][29][30][31][32]. Although there is progress in DL delivery, still many educational challenges need to be addressed in order to deliver interactive veterinary medical content through online distance education [33]. ...
... However, as the authors mentioned, that the material on the CDs was being transferred to interactive websites to enhance distance learning [37]. One example is the CAL package made by the Computer-aided Learning in Veterinary Education Consortium (CLIVE, UK) that has been used in veterinary schools and practices for more than decade [32]. Another group of scientists used the so-called virtual ventilator computer simulation to test CAL in teaching veterinary anesthesia. ...
... No mundo todo, a educação médico-veterinária a distância ganha mais espaço à medida que aumentam os programas de garantia de qualidade, em que estes passam por análises de seus recursos e de sua estruturação. No Brasil, o tema é relativamente recente, mas, em outros países da Europa, como a Inglaterra, e também nos Estados Unidos, esses programas existem há pelo menos cinco anos (BRODBELT 2009;SHORT et al., 2007). Entre as escolas que oferecem esses programas, a Royal College da Inglaterra se destaca, pois utiliza o recurso da internet para disponibilizar cursos de educação continuada, principalmente para pós-graduandos (SHORT et al., 2007). ...
... No Brasil, o tema é relativamente recente, mas, em outros países da Europa, como a Inglaterra, e também nos Estados Unidos, esses programas existem há pelo menos cinco anos (BRODBELT 2009;SHORT et al., 2007). Entre as escolas que oferecem esses programas, a Royal College da Inglaterra se destaca, pois utiliza o recurso da internet para disponibilizar cursos de educação continuada, principalmente para pós-graduandos (SHORT et al., 2007). ...
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This study aims to report an experience of offering a course distance learning of small animal abdominal imaging diagnostic (radiology and ultrasonography). The purpose is to offer elements for a reflection on a conception distance education, as an efficient modality of education, aiming at enabling a teaching with quality to a determined clientele. Authors believe that distance learning is an adequate pedagogic tool to qualify veterinarians who have no access to traditional graduate studies, geographically disperse, who are unable to escape from the routine of their personal and professional lives; distance learning is an effective and possible pedagogical strategy, confirmed in the current case with final certification of 70% on average participators.
... No mundo todo, a educação médico-veterinária a distância ganha mais espaço à medida que aumentam os programas de garantia de qualidade, em que estes passam por análises de seus recursos e de sua estruturação. No Brasil, o tema é relativamente recente, mas, em outros países da Europa, como a Inglaterra, e também nos Estados Unidos, esses programas existem há pelo menos cinco anos (BRODBELT 2009;SHORT et al., 2007). Entre as escolas que oferecem esses programas, a Royal College da Inglaterra se destaca, pois utiliza o recurso da internet para disponibilizar cursos de educação continuada, principalmente para pós-graduandos (SHORT et al., 2007). ...
... No Brasil, o tema é relativamente recente, mas, em outros países da Europa, como a Inglaterra, e também nos Estados Unidos, esses programas existem há pelo menos cinco anos (BRODBELT 2009;SHORT et al., 2007). Entre as escolas que oferecem esses programas, a Royal College da Inglaterra se destaca, pois utiliza o recurso da internet para disponibilizar cursos de educação continuada, principalmente para pós-graduandos (SHORT et al., 2007). ...
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... daily challenges " . It is " an attempt to ensure that all veterinary professionals in South Africa are making a reasonable attempt to keep up with contemporary veterinary science, provide services in line with the latest technology and procedures and thus continuously improving the image of the profession " (South African Veterinary Council 2008). Short et al (2007:690) discuss the advantages of the internet and developments in information technology in lifelong learning, but warn that although the internet provides access to a range of online information sources, this may not necessarily translate into learning opportunities. " To learn online, e-learners need structure, pacing, group work, direct ...
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The importance of access to information and deepening understanding of information behaviour in order to improve library and information (LIS) services is widely recognised. An exploratory research project was therefore conducted at the Jotello F. Soga Library of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria to gain insight into the information behaviour of veterinary practitioners in South Africa, in order to recommend and develop appropriate information products and services. A survey of a small sample (70) with 24 respondents was undertaken to identify information needs and the methods used to satisfy such needs. The survey also covered the processes involved in information usage as well as the role of Google and other search engines, web services such as the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) and Web 2.0 applications such as blogs and wikis. Considering the importance of compulsory continued professional development (CPD) initiated by the South African Veterinary Council to assist veterinary practitioners in keeping up to date with contemporary veterinary developments, the role of the library in assisting veterinary practitioners earning CPD points was also investigated. In conclusion, a brief overview of existing products and services of the library is linked to recommendations for reducing information gaps and satisfying the requirements identified as a means of extending the services of veterinary libraries and furthering theoretical studies. 1 This article is based on a paper first presented at the 10 th ICML conference in Brisbane, 31 August–4 September 2009.
... In the last 5 yr the Internet and new information and communication technologies have become increasingly important environments for disseminating knowledge and enhancing capacity building at a distance (4). Their rapid development, and with it the increasing scope and sophistication of electronic learning (e-learning), provides new opportunities to address some of the constraints on the provision of continuing professional development (CPD) (5). In order to allow the spread of knowledge and management skills related to AI preparedness and intervention in the case of AI outbreaks, the Italian Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the National Reference Centers for Epidemiology and Avian Influenza, implemented an e-learning course using new web-based information and communication technologies to enrich learning and provide new models for lifelong learning and CPD. ...
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The NOVICE project is an EU initiative under the Lifelong Learning Programme, which aims to develop an online, professional network to promote informal, lifelong learning within the veterinary profession, using Web 2.0 tools. To inform the development of the network, a need analysis study was undertaken with relevant stakeholders. Focus group discussions were undertaken with veterinary students and veterinarians and a survey was administered to first-year students and recent graduates. The results indicate that use of computers and the internet is ubiquitous among junior members of the profession and that use of Web 2.0 tools is increasing. Concerns raised in relation to participation in online communities include verifying the quality of information and issues around professionalism. Compared with face-to-face communities, online communities were perceived to offer a number of advantages. These include convenient access to expert advice on an international scale, as well as helping to alleviate certain barriers to participation in formal, continuing education such as time, distance and cost.
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A systematic literature review was performed to summarize the nature, implementation, outcomes, and long-term impacts of previously instituted interventions and programs aimed at educating veterinary public health providers. A logic model was developed to direct the literature search strategy, provide a framework for evaluating the relationship between veterinary public health professional education and their associated population health outcomes, and guide future training development and recommendations for the education of veterinary health professionals. Our literature review indicates that there is a relative lack of published literature that connects veterinary public health educational interventions to population health outcomes. Reasons for the lack of evidence to connect educational programs and population health outcomes include the evaluation of outcomes on a short-term rather than intermediate- or long-term basis, a lack of experimental studies, and infrequent grounding in population health or educational theory. Future intervention recommendations as suggested in the reviewed articles are also summarized.
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An online professional network for veterinarians, veterinary students, veterinary educationalists, and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) educationalists is being developed under the EU (European Union) Lifelong Learning Programme. The network uses Web 2.0, a term used to describe the new, more interactive version of the Internet, and includes tools such as wikis, blogs, and discussion boards. Focus groups conducted with qualified and student veterinarians within the project's five founding countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Hungary, Romania) demonstrated that online professional communities can be valuable for accessing information and establishing contacts. Online networks have the potential to overcome common challenges to face-to-face communities-such as distance, cost, and timing-but they have their own drawbacks, such as security and professionalism issues. The Network Of Veterinary ICt in Education (NOVICE) was developed using Elgg, an open-source, free social networking platform, after several software options had been considered. NOVICE aims to promote the understanding of Web 2.0, confidence to use social software tools, and participation in an online community. Therefore, the Web site contains help sections, Frequently Asked Questions, and access to support from ICT experts. Five months after the network's launch (and just over one year into the project) 515 members from 28 countries had registered. Further research will include analysis of a core group's activities, which will inform ongoing support for and development of informal, lifelong learning in a veterinary context.
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Continuing professional development (CPD) is an important mechanism for veterinarians to acquire, maintain, and enhance their capability to perform competently in their chosen practice area over their career. Although most licensing bodies require veterinarians to complete a minimum number of CPD hours each registration cycle, there are known issues with verifying that these activities are having the desired effects of ensuring professional competence and improving outcomes for patients, owners, and veterinarians. In this review, we summarize the literature across different health care professions to highlight three key challenges for veterinary CPD programs. These are (a) defining what it means to be professionally competent across different career stages from graduation to retirement, (b) delivering CPD activities that are effective in promoting evidence-based medicine and behavioral change in practice, and (c) developing reliable and sustainable systems to formally assess the continued professional competence of veterinarians. A common theme across all challenges was the importance of interacting with colleagues as an opportunity to receive external feedback on their professional strengths and weaknesses and to develop stronger support networks for managing common stressors in clinical practice. There was also a recognized need to develop more transparent outlines of the available and acceptable options for managing different animal health concerns as a first step toward identifying new opportunities for the veterinary profession to elevate the level of care provided. Based on these findings, we propose a new framework for defining, delivering, and evaluating CPD that promotes stronger collaboration between veterinarians to improve professional and personal well-being.
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The Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education (NOVICE) project has been awarded funding under the EU Lifelong Learning Programme and was launched in 2010 by 5 European veterinary training institutions. The project aims to offer a new veterinary online network, which is available strictly for professionals and veterinary students. It should serve as a community for exchanging ideas, practical experiences and social interactions at international level, which altogether means informal learning. As one of the primary objectives the project seeks to explore and extend the use of Web 2.0 tools in veterinary education and lifelong learning. The NOVICE project applies the benefits of Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate veterinary education, for postgraduate studies of veterinarians and for continuing veterinary education. The NOVICE site (www.noviceproject.eu) was constructed as a personal learning environment (PLE) and enables members to exchange knowledge and expertise throughout Europe and beyond. A PLE allows the user to configure the set-up and design of the website for their own purposes. NOVICE can deal with all veterinary interests and needs. This project provides opportunity to become more familiar with Web 2.0 tools, to use several techniques for collaborative writing and discussion, to link veterinarians in different countries, to engage with others on the veterinary field. Thus, an international veterinary social network will be built up. These tools are going to be used in education, especially within social and lifelong learning outside a school or college. This article is intensely concerned with the objectives specified in the NOVICE project, and also with the role, experience and achievements of SZIU Faculty of Veterinary Science in the project.
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Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed.
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Continuing professional education seems to be particularly suited to the online environment with opportunities to communicate anywhere anytime. This appears to be convenient and time efficient for the busy working professional. The views of practising professionals were sought and form the basis of this paper. Primary care physicians at two locations, who actively pursue continuing education, discuss the role of information technology in their daily professional practice and give their views about online education. This professional group is a good example of how a particular interaction style is significant to the collective cultural mores of a group. The paper concludes that these group preferences need to be taken into account when designing continuing education and some suggestions are made for design.
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The Edinburgh Electronic Veterinary Curriculum (EEVeC) is a purpose-built virtual learning support environment for the veterinary medicine program at the University of Edinburgh. It is Web based and adapted from a system developed for the human medical curriculum. It is built around a set of databases and learning objects and incorporates features such as course materials, personalized timetables, staff and student contact pages, a notice board, and discussion forums. The EEVeC also contains global or generic resources such as information on quality enhancement and research options. Many of these features contribute to the aim of building a learning community, but a challenge has been to introduce specific features that enhance student learning. One of these is a searchable lecture database in which learning activities such as quizzes and computer-aided learning exercises (CALs) can be embedded to supplement a synopsis of the lecture and address the key needs of integration and reinforcement of learning. Statistics of use indicate extensive student activity during evenings and weekends, with a pattern of increased usage over the years as more features become available and staff and students progressively engage with the system. An essential feature of EEVeC is its flexibility and the way in which it is evolving to meet the changing needs of the teaching program.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the features of lifelong learning and systems of education. Discussion of lifelong education requires consideration of the changes in education that would be necessary for promoting, supporting, even improving lifelong learning. This formulation may suggest control and organization of all educational influences in life. The single idea that is central in lifelong education is conscious and purposeful learning throughout each person's lifetime. The second major principle is that of lifewide learning. Many important learning influences are not found in schools (or other elements of the formal system) at all but are part of the experiences people have during the course of their lives. The third major principle of lifelong education is that lifelong and lifewide learning will be carried on by individual people and will, thus, depend upon their possession of the personal characteristics necessary for the process.
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Uses Wenger’s learning architecture as a conceptual framework for analysing the design and support of a Web-based continuing professional development (CPD) course. Describes the key elements of the learning architecture and discusses their relevance to Web-based CPD. In particular notes the importance of a design paradigm that focuses on social networks and the support necessary for their development. Using empirical data from a Web-based course for professionals in health and social care to illustrate aspects of Wenger’s learning architecture, evaluates successful CPD learning against this theoretical framework. The course drew heavily on the participants’ ongoing workplace practice and was significant in shaping that practice. Concludes, on the basis of experience gained through the course, that Wenger’s concepts provide a useful evaluation framework and design paradigm for Web-based CPD.
Article
The internet provides new opportunities to deliver distance and e-learning to the veterinary profession both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. There are now numerous examples of successful computer-based educational projects in UK higher education, which provide useful models for veterinary science. This will present challenges for academics who will need to adapt their teaching methodologies and students who will have to develop new ways of learning. The future of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the veterinary sector is difficult to predict but it is likely to have far reaching effects on the profession.
Learning in Groups Oxford: Routledge AUTHOR INFORMATION Nick Short, BVSc, MSc, MRCVS, is Head of the e-Media Unit at the Royal Veterinary College
  • D 14 Jacques
  • G Salmon
14 Jacques D, Salmon G. Learning in Groups. Oxford: Routledge, 2007. AUTHOR INFORMATION Nick Short, BVSc, MSc, MRCVS, is Head of the e-Media Unit at the Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK. E-mail: nshort@rvc.ac.uk. He is responsible for e-learning development at the RVC.
ECVDI, MRCVS, is a European Specialist in Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging and Lecturer in Diagnostic Imaging, Royal Veterinary College
  • Panagiotis Mantis
  • Dvm Dipl
Panagiotis Mantis, DVM, Dipl. ECVDI, MRCVS, is a European Specialist in Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging and Lecturer in Diagnostic Imaging, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK.
MRCVS, is Director of Professional Development, Royal Veterinary College
  • Jill Maddison
  • Bvsc
  • Dipvetclinstud
  • Facvsc Phd
Jill Maddison, BVSc, DipVetClinStud, PhD, FACVSc, MRCVS, is Director of Professional Development, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK.
is Professor of E-learning and Learning Technologies
  • Gilly Salmon
  • Ba
  • Phd Mphil
Gilly Salmon, BA, MPhil, PhD, is Professor of E-learning and Learning Technologies, Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH UK.
The Edinburgh Electronic Veterinary Curriculum: an online program-wide learning and support environment for veterinary education 9 Short N. The use of information and communication technology in veterinary education Internet Access: 61% of Households Had Access <http
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8 Ellaway R, Pettigrew G, Rhind S, Dewhurst D. The Edinburgh Electronic Veterinary Curriculum: an online program-wide learning and support environment for veterinary education. J Vet Med Educ 32: 38–46, 2005. 9 Short N. The use of information and communication technology in veterinary education. Res Vet Sci 72: 1–6, 2002. 10 National Statistics Online (UK). Internet Access: 61% of Households Had Access <http://www.statistics.gov.uk/ cci/nugget.asp?id¼8>. Accessed 10/1/07. ONS, 2007. 11 Salmon G. edn. e-Moderating. 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis.
Web based continuing professional development: A learning architecture approach Innovation in Open, and Distance Learning: Successful Development of Online and Web-Based Learning RCVS. The UK Veterinary Profession
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Brosnan K, Burgess RC. Web based continuing professional development: A learning architecture approach. J Workplace Learning 15: 24–33, 2003. 6 Lockwood F, Gooley A, eds. Innovation in Open, and Distance Learning: Successful Development of Online and Web-Based Learning. London: Kogan Page, 2001. 7 RCVS. The UK Veterinary Profession in 2006 <http://www.rcvs.org.uk/Shared_ASP_Files/ UploadedFiles/97D3DAF0-9567-4B2F-9972- B0A86CFB13C7_surveyprofession2006.pdf>. Accessed 10/1/07. RCVS, London, 2006.
Scaffolding for success, From Now On <<a href="">http://fno.org/dec99/scaffold.html</a>≯. Accessed 10/18/07
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McKenzie J. Scaffolding for success, From Now On <http://fno.org/dec99/scaffold.html>. Accessed 10/18/07. Educ Technol J 9(4), 1999.
AUTHOR INFORMATION Nick Short, BVSc, MSc, MRCVS, is Head of the e-Media Unit at the Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK. E-mail: nshort@rvc.ac.uk
  • D Jacques
  • G Salmon
Jacques D, Salmon G. Learning in Groups. Oxford: Routledge, 2007. AUTHOR INFORMATION Nick Short, BVSc, MSc, MRCVS, is Head of the e-Media Unit at the Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK. E-mail: nshort@rvc.ac.uk. He is responsible for e-learning development at the RVC.
is Director of Professional Development
  • Jill Maddison
  • Bvsc
  • Dipvetclinstud
  • Phd
  • Facvsc
  • Mrcvs
Jill Maddison, BVSc, DipVetClinStud, PhD, FACVSc, MRCVS, is Director of Professional Development, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK.
is a European Specialist in Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging and Lecturer in Diagnostic Imaging, Royal Veterinary College
  • Panagiotis Mantis
  • Dipl Dvm
  • Ecvdi
  • Mrcvs
Panagiotis Mantis, DVM, Dipl. ECVDI, MRCVS, is a European Specialist in Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging and Lecturer in Diagnostic Imaging, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU UK.