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Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model With Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social anxiety endorsed stable, low levels of positive emotions. In addition, people with low social anxiety who frequently display their emotions openly, whether negative or positive, reported the greatest increases in positive emotions. Similar results were found when using a measure of emotion suppression (low social anxiety and less tendency to rely on these types of regulatory acts led to the greatest positive emotions). These social anxiety main and interactive effects could not be attributed to depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that relations between social anxiety and positive emotional experiences over time are best understood in the context of meaningful individual differences such as affect regulatory strategies.

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... When compared to individuals who do not meet criteria for SAD, results reveal difficulties across the board, including lower educational attainment, reduced work performance, greater unemployment, number of work hours missed due to social anxiety, lower rates of marriage, and higher rates of divorce (Wittchen et al. 2000). Affectively, SAD is associated with diminished positive experiences (Kashdan 2007;Kashdan and Breen 2008), and interpersonally, poorer relationships and fewer social connections (Alden and Taylor 2004). The prevalent ) and chronic (Cairney et al. 2007) nature of SAD makes it the fifth most common psychiatric disorder (Alonso et al. 2004), and a condition that has significant adverse effects in the lives of affected individuals (Eng et al. 2005;Frisch et al. 2005;Stein and Kean 2000). ...
... Cognitive models suggest that individuals with SAD fear social situations and therefore often choose to avoid social situations altogether and the pervasive fear of negative evaluation persists (Clark and Wells 1995). Given the high proclivity to experience negative emotions (e.g., Kashdan 2007;Kashdan and Breen 2008;Kashdan and Steger 2006), maladaptive use of emotion regulatory strategies may be especially problematic for individuals with SAD (e.g., Hofmann et al. 2012;Jazaieri et al. 2015). Thus, understanding the profile of emotion regulation use and promoting adaptive use of emotion regulatory strategies in individuals with SAD is essential for understanding whether and how clinical interventions improve life for persons with SAD. ...
... One form of response modulation is expressive suppression, whereby the individual inhibits outward expressions of emotion(s), such as facial behavior. Expressive suppression is common in social anxiety; for example, research with undergraduate students suggests that those who endorse greater social anxiety tend to inhibit or control emotional expression more so than those students who endorse lesser social anxiety (Kashdan and Breen 2008;Spokas et al. 2009). Furthermore, research suggests that patients with SAD engage in response modulation to not only negative (Erwin et al. 2003) but also positive (Turk et al. 2005) emotions. ...
Article
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We examined whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) would influence the relationship between two distinct forms of emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and satisfaction with life in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). When compared to healthy adults (n = 42) at baseline (Study 1), patients with SAD (n = 128) reported lesser use of cognitive reappraisal, greater use of expressive suppression, and lower levels of satisfaction with life. In a randomized controlled trial of CBT (n = 40) versus a waitlist control group (n = 32) (Study 2), resulted indicated in the CBT group significant group by time interactions for the use of cognitive reappraisal and satisfaction with life, but not for the use of expressive suppression. Regression analyses in Study 2 provide insight into the predictive value of expressive suppression emotion regulation on post-CBT life satisfaction.
... Other people and interaction with them are the source of positive events and emotions and therefore social activities and a sense of connection with other people are very important for our well-being [34]. There are also clear social benefits from sharing pleasant social events with other people, as they can be attributed to the relationship itself and thus reinforce social ties [35]. ...
... Further studies of relationship between social anxiety and positive emotions are needed. It is well known that positive emotions induce more rapid recovery from adverse physiological effects of negative emotions, increase awareness during activity, efficacy and quality in decision making process and access to more creative and more flexible options in a particular situation [35]. Thus they have impact in life quality which has been found to be impaired in socially anxious people. ...
... initiating and maintaining conversations either in dyads or in groups) was found significant. As previous studies revealed its role in experiencing positive emotions, it was expected for this aspect of social anxiety to be significant [3,10,35,36,38,40]. The second type of social anxiety, the one related to fear of being observed and evaluated by others, has not been studied enough in previous research. ...
... Another key theoretical construct likely to be important across therapeutic approaches and client characteristics is avoidance. Including related theoretical constructs such as defensiveness and resistance are key pieces of clinical data relevant to therapeutic progress (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Sloan & Kring, 2007). Avoidance of affect, cognitions, and behaviors may be both a cause of clinical problems as well as a major reason that clients have difficulty providing valid reports of their psychological functioning. ...
... Cognitive behavioral theories indicate that anxiety increases when individuals employ avoidant response strategies (Zvolensky & Otto, 2007). Kashdan and Breen's (2007) observed that excessive social anxiety is related to individuals' "chronic, rigid tendencies to manage and conceal emotional experiences and the situations that elicit them" (p. 2). ...
... DANA raters assess avoidance of NA via a single item that asks raters to indicate, with a yes or no response, whether the client was "avoiding negative affect" in the rated session. Theoretically, a yes response indicates that the client's avoidance of NA may hinder therapeutic progress (Kashdan & Breen, 2007). Clients who are more accepting of NA in any particular session are also more likely to evidence eventual therapeutic gain. ...
Technical Report
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This is the initial version of the test manual for the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA) Scale, a measure intended for use in progress monitoring and outcome assessment in counseling and psychotherapy. The Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA) scale is a nomothetic, change-sensitive measure that is not intervention dependent (Deno, Mirkin, & Chaing, 1982). The DANA contains NA descriptors in 5 clusters representing increasing intensity of NA. The levels are 1, Transient NA; 2, Increasing NA; 3, Moderate NA; 4, Intense NA; and 5, Extreme NA. Levels 1 and 5 represent the extremes of affective experiencing. By checking any item, the rater indicates that the target individual has experienced NA at the indicated level. Psychophysical measurement studies indicate that individuals’ ability to detect internal stimuli (such as a pain threshold) varies over trials (Gracely & Naliboff, 1996), and this rating methodology allows the clinician to indicate an intensity level without the need for exact accuracy in terms of the specific NA term chosen (cf. Hesketh, Pryor, & Gleitzman, 1989). Paul (1986) and colleagues’ Direct Observational Coding (DOC) procedures informed several aspects of the DANA’s construction. The general principle behind DOC procedures is that recording the presence or absence of a behavior enhances test score validity, while greater inference and interpretation diminishes it. Rather than rate the frequency or intensity of NA terms with a Likert scale, DANA raters simply endorse an NA term if observed by the clinician or reported by the client. Raters also complete their NA assessments as soon as possible after a session to minimize memory errors. Paul (1986) noted that reliability of an observation decreases when the period between observation of a phenomena and the recording of the observation increases. Evaluated in two outpatient samples where clinicians produces a total of 363 session ratings with 81 clients, DANA scores evidenced adequate internal consistency, support for discriminant and convergent validity, expected gender differences, and most importantly, sensitivity to change over the course of psychosocial interventions.
... People with social anxiety also have exaggerated adverse emotional reactions and attenuated positive emotional responses (Goldin and Gross, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2011). Use of maladaptive ER strategies like experiential avoidance and suppression might be responsible for such deficits in rewarding social experiences and positive emotions (Kashdan and Breen, 2008;Kashdan and Steger, 2006;Kashdan et al., 2013;Weisman et al., 2015). It must be noted that socially anxious individuals tend to suppress both positive (Werner and Gross, 2010) and negative emotions (Spokas, Luterek and Heimberg, 2009). ...
... Higher social anxiety seems to have a link with infrequent, weaker and less durable positive experiences, lower dispositional positive affect and fearful responses to overtly positive social experiences (Kashdan et al., 2011;Turk et al., 2005). Emotion dysregulation and depression might also impact the ability and experience of positive emotions among socially anxious individuals by conferring or denying opportunities for the development of positive skills (Kashdan and Breen, 2008). Everaert et al. (2020) showed that inflexibility in revising negative interpretations was associated with social anxiety and severity of depression which also led to dampening of positive emotions. ...
Article
Purpose Due to ongoing significant life changes during the transition into higher education, social anxiety can be problematic, especially for college students. It has adverse effects on various aspects of one’s life, including one’s feelings and emotions. The study investigated the interplay between social anxiety and emotions and its impact on affect. The aim of this study is to examine the role of difficulties in emotion regulation in the relationship between social anxiety and change in affect. Design/methodology/approach This is a longitudinal study. Data was collected with self-report instruments at two time points with a gap of four months. Participants were Indian undergraduate students from a technical institute. Findings The result revealed that high social anxiety in tandem with difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior significantly impacts changes in positive affect. However, this effect was significant only in the presence of depression. Research limitations/implications This study highlights the harmful impact of comorbid issues such as depression in socially anxious individuals. The present study might have implications for educators and clinicians working with college students. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the only study to test the proposed research model in a sample of Indian college students. The use of a moderated moderation analysis with the three regulation strategies and depression also adds to the uniqueness of this study.
... Cognitive behavioral theories indicate that anxiety increases when individuals employ avoidant response strategies (Zvolensky & Otto, 2007;Williams & Moulds, 2009). Similarly, Kashdan and Breen (2007) observed that excessive social anxiety is related to individuals' "chronic, rigid tendencies to manage and conceal emotional experiences and the situations that elicit them" (p. 2). ...
... One item employed with Sample 2 clients asked psychotherapists to assess, with a yes or no response, whether the client was "avoiding negative affect" in the rated session. Theoretically, a yes response indicates that the client's avoidance of NA may hinder therapeutic progress (Kashdan & Breen, 2007); clients who are more accepting of NA in any particular session are also more likely to evidence eventual therapeutic gain. In addition, avoidance of NA represents a potential meas-urement error: Clients avoiding NA are likely to under-report (at least verbally) their actual NA domains and intensities, making it more difficult for raters to make reliable and valid observations of NA. ...
Article
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Negative affect (NA) plays a significant role in the initiation, persistence, and response to psychotherapy of many client problems (Moses & Barlow, 2006). This report describes the development of a brief NA measure, the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA) scale, and preliminary analyses of its psychometric properties. An initial pool of DANA items was selected on the basis of a review of relevant literature about emotion science and counseling outcomes, related tests, and feedback from psychotherapists as part of a pilot test. The DANA was evaluated in two representative clinical samples where psychotherapists produced a total of 363 session ratings with 81 clients. DANA scores evidenced adequate internal consistency, evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change over the course of psychotherapy. Effect sizes (ES) of DANA scores consistently equaled or exceeded the average ES of .68 found for scales assessing the outcomes of counseling and psychotherapy in meta-analytic studies (Smith & Glass, 1977). ESs greater than 1 were found on DANA variables for clients whose therapists rated them as experiencing, rather than avoiding, NA.
... Consistent with this they found experiential avoidance was associated with lower daily positive affect and reduced frequency of positive events. This effect has also been demonstrated longitudinally, with lower emotional suppression being associated with higher positive emotions over 12 weeks, and no evidence of reverse causality (Kashdan and Breen 2008). Additionally, experiential avoidance may be related to meaning outcomes. ...
... Further analyses will then be carried out to explore which direction of effects is strongest and if the relationships between affect and hope, and between affect and experiential avoidance may each be bidirectional. Longitudinal evidence (Kashdan and Breen 2008) and intervention studies Trompetter et al. 2015) both suggest effects of acceptance/avoidance on emotion, rather than the other way around, so effects are expected to be strongest for avoidance to affect (particularly negative affect), rather than affect to avoidance. ...
Article
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Positive psychology and third wave cognitive behavioral therapy approaches have seldom been applied to older adults. This study therefore examined whether two concepts drawn from these areas, hope for the future and avoidance in the present, were associated with well-being in a sample of 259 older adults (65–94 years). Hope was measured as a stable trait. Experiential avoidance was measured as avoidance of present internal and external events. Respondents also completed two well-being measures: hedonic (positive and negative affect) and eudeimonic (meaning in life). Path analyses showed that high hope was significantly associated with high positive affect, and high meaning in life; and high experiential avoidance was associated with high negative affect and low meaning in life. This was also true when both (hope and avoidance) were taken into account, along with sociodemographic variables and perceived health. Many of the pathways between hope and well-being, and between experiential avoidance and well-being appear to be bidirectional. However the path from hope to positive affect was stronger than that from positive affect to hope. Further research is needed to clarify each of these points. Both hope for the future and lack of avoidance in the present are important for well-being in older adulthood and interventions targeting these processes may enhance positive aging and contribute to a sense of having a meaningful life.
... Numerous researchers have posited that lack of expression of emotion may signal indifference to others, which may, in turn, hinder close relationships and dampen the PA that tend to accompany satisfying relationships (Berg & Derlega, 1987;Davis, 1982;Laurenceau, Barrett, & Pietromonaco, 1998;Reis & Shaver, 1988). Similarly, engagement in strategies like ES might preclude individuals from engaging in exploratory behaviors that would otherwise increase PA (Kashdan & Breen, 2008). ...
... These studies yielded inconsistent empirical support for their proposed moderation model, in which socially anxious individuals who engage in ES may allocate cognitive and emotional resources to suppressing their emotions that they might otherwise use to engage in appetitive behaviors that could, in turn, increase their PA levels. Although Kashdan and Steger (2006) found that higher ES was associated with lower PA among individuals who reported high SA, the same pattern did not emerge in a subsequent study (Kashdan & Breen, 2008). ...
Article
People differ in their self-reported propensities to experience positive affect (PA). Even those prone to internalizing symptoms show varied proclivities to PA; social anxiety (SA), for instance, unlike other types of anxiety, shows a strong negative association with PA that cannot be explained by diminished reward sensitivity. Heightened reliance on suppression of emotional displays (expressive suppression; ES) may be an alternate contributor to attenuated PA among people with elevated SA, relative to people with other types of anxiety. A first step toward testing this hypothesis is clarifying the ES-PA association and examining whether it varies as a function of anxiety type (social anxiety vs. other types of anxiety). This meta-analysis (k = 41; n = 11,010) revealed a significant, negative association between ES and PA (r = −0.158); however, this relationship was not significant for individuals with social or other anxiety disorders. Moreover, two moderators (sample culture—Western: r = −0.16; Eastern: r = 0.003; type of emotion suppressed—Negative: r = 0.18; Positive: r = −0.12) accounted for significant heterogeneity in effect sizes. This review synthesizes the literature on ES and PA in healthy and anxious samples; findings suggest moderating variables merit closer attention in future studies.
... One factor considered important to the development and maintenance of psychological problems of various types is emotion regulation, defined as the alteration of the internal experience or expression of emotion . For example, major depression and social anxiety disorder are both characterized by use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies such as rumination and affective suppression Beblo et al. 2012;Brozovich et al. 2015;Joormann and Stanton 2016;Kashdan and Breen 2008). Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) also show evidence of emotion regulation difficulties, in terms of heightened affective intensity and difficulty understanding and modulating the experience of emotions (Mennin et al. 2005). ...
... Interestingly, expressive suppression was not significantly associated with any clinical symptom variable, though it was correlated with threat sensitivity. While various writings have highlighted increased use of emotional suppression as characteristic of internalizing disorders Beblo et al. 2012;D'Avanzato et al. 2013;Kashdan and Breen 2008), studies using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire's (ERQ's) Expressive Suppression scale have yielded mixed results (see, e.g., Dennis 2007;Egloff et al. 2006;Fresco et al. 2007;Gross and John 2003;McLean et al. 2007;Shapero et al. 2016). These inconsistent findings point to the need for multiple measures of a target construct and careful, theory-driven consideration of potential moderating or confounding variables. ...
Article
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Biologically relevant personality traits of weak inhibitory control (disinhibition) and threat sensitivity confer vulnerability to various clinical problems. Difficulties with emotion regulation have also been studied extensively in relation to risk for and maintenance of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear how emotion regulation strategies interface with dispositional vulnerabilities in affecting clinical symptomatology. The current study provided an initial examination of the roles of disinhibition, threat sensitivity, and use of key emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression) in the occurrence of distress-related symptoms (i.e., depressivity, anxiousness, and borderline personality features). Analyses revealed that trait disinhibition and lowered use of cognitive reappraisal were related to each form of distress symptomatology, with the predictive relationship for disinhibition accounting entirely for that of reappraisal. This finding suggests that deficient top-down control capacity (i.e., disinhibition) is integral to failures in the use of an adaptive but cognitively demanding regulation strategy (i.e., reappraisal). By contrast, threat sensitivity was related both to anxiousness and use of expressive suppression, with the latter two variables unrelated to one another. Anxious individuals may avoid emotionally evocative situations, negating the downstream need to engage in the maladaptive strategy of expressive suppression. Despite certain study limitations (a cross-sectional, self-report design; modest sample size), the current study yielded evidence in line with study hypotheses, indicating a pivotal role for dispositional traits in associations between cognitive-behavioral processes and clinical problems.
... Cognitive emotion regulation strategies are cognitive responses to emotion-eliciting special set of circumstances that consciously or unconsciously endeavor to make the individuals' emotional experience or the event itself less severe or harsh or extreme (29)(30)(31)(32)(33). In the recent years, firm work has been done to describe the relationships between tendency to use certain strategies and a variety of disorders, including depression (29,30), mania (31), generalized anxiety disorder (32), post-traumatic stress disorder (33), social anxiety disorder (34), and eating disorders (30,35). ...
Article
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Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, emotional problems and attachment style among students in a causal model. Materials and Methods: The sample group included 285 bachelor students of Tabriz University that were selected randomly by multi-stage cluster sampling. The study instruments were revised adult attachment scale (RAAS), cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS 21). Results: The findings indicated that attachment dimensions predict negative and positive emotion regulation strategies. The cognitive emotion regulation mediated between attachment dimensions and emotional problems. Furthermore, attachment dimensions had a direct and indirect effect on emotional problems. Conclusions: Findings of the current study are consistent with previous findings and theoretical stance indicating the predictability of mental health indices from quality of attachment in student.
... In this respect, Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, and Lillis (2006) claim that there are reasons to believe that the predisposition to social anxiety works synergically with the ways in which people help, regulate, express and accept emotional experiences. In concrete, excessive social anxiety can become especially problematic in the presence of chronic and rigid tendencies to manage and hide emotional experiences and the situations which generate them (Kashdan & Breen, 2008). As a matter of fact, people with social anxiety face conflicts of acceptance-rejection between the desire to generate a good impression and be accepted by the others, and they are overwhelmed by beliefs about highly probable and costly rejection, expectations that socializing will cause undesired thoughts, feelings and sensations and that they will be assessed as negative. ...
... Researchers have associated adaptive ERSs with good health outcomes, better relationships, and improved academic and work performance (Extremera and Rey 2014;Huang et al. 2015;. Conversely, emotion dysregulation has been associated with mental disorders (Berenbaum et al. 2003;Greenberg 2002;Sheppes et al. 2015) and has been incorporated into several models of specific psychopathologies, including borderline personality disorder (BPD; Linehan 1993;Lynch et al. 2007), major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 2008;Rottenberg et al. 2005), bipolar disorder (Johnson 2005), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Mennin and Farach 2007), social anxiety disorder (SAD; Kashdan and Breen 2008), eating disorders (Bydlowski et al. 2005;Harrist et al. 2013;Wollenberg et al. 2015), alcohol-related disorders (Aurora and Klanecky 2016;Sher and Grekin 2007) and substance-related disorders (Fox et al. 2007;Poon et al. 2016). Kytle and Bandura (1978) observed that children acquire certain behaviors and ERSs from society. ...
... Such experiences may result in diminished emotion regulation self-efficacy and an even greater likelihood that unrealistically high happiness emotion goals will lead to long-term psychological distress. Although viewing emotion regulation self-efficacy as a moderator of the association between risk factors for psychological distress and negative psychological outcomes is consistent with previous research Fergus et al., 2013;Kashdan & Breen, 2008), data from the present study do not preclude the possibility that happiness emotion goals may impact emotion regulation self-efficacy. This in turn, may lead to negative psychological outcomes through emotion regulation self-efficacy. ...
Article
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Over-valuation of happiness might be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, emotion regulation self-efficacy may influence the association between happiness emotion goals and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, we sought to replicate prior findings showing that happiness emotion goals and depressive symptoms are positively related, but only among those with lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. Second, we examined whether the noted interaction effect would relate to generalized anxiety symptoms in a sample of general population adults (N = 504). Results from regression analyses were consistent with our predictions suggesting that individuals with unrealistic happiness emotion goals and low emotion regulation self-efficacy may be particularly prone to experiencing negative emotional states and psychological distress. Further, study findings suggest the possibility that the noted interaction has transdiagnostic value and it may be important to target emotion regulation self-efficacy in the service of alleviating internalizing psychopathology.
... There are few studies that try to explain why people who are high in social anxiety experience less positive affect. Kashdan and Breen (2008) found that the relationship between social anxiety and positive affect was moderated by the tendency to suppress emotions. Alden et al. (2008) found that negative interpretations of positive social events partially mediated the negative correlation between positive affect and social anxiety. ...
Article
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Social anxiety is correlated with diminished global positive affect (PA). However, it is not clear from the data whether this relationship is due to global PA, or to specific emotions such as joy or pride. We hypothesized that pride will account for most of the relationship between social anxiety and PA after controlling for depression. Results of Study 1 (N=352) supported the hypothesis that when pride and PA were in the same model, only pride was significantly related to social anxiety. The same pattern was found when pride and joy were in the same model. When multiple facets of positive emotions (pride, love, joy, contentment, amusement, awe and compassion) were in the same model, only pride and love were significantly related to social anxiety. Results of Study 2 (N=288) replicated the findings that only pride was significantly related to social anxiety, but counter to our hypothesis, revealed that pride experience was significantly related to social anxiety more than reported expressions of pride. Study 3 extended these findings to a clinical, treatment seeking sample of 23 patients diagnosed with generalized social anxiety disorder and 35 low-anxious controls. When predicting group (patients vs. non-patient) by pride and PA, only pride was a significant predictor. Pride continued to be a predictor when controlling for either fear of positive or negative evaluation. Thus, all three studies demonstrated the importance of the specific experience of pride in its relationship to social anxiety.
... No statistical difference was present in the base line measures of the groups; however, PANAS and TMS scores showed marked improvements for the intervention group, which were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. Interestingly, positive affect scores for PANAS were correlated with a decrease in anxiety and depressive symptoms (Kashdan and Breen, 2008). ...
Article
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Background Both men and women can experience depressive or anxious episodes when transitioning to parenthood. Mindfulness interventions are one way to teach men coping strategies to manage these feelings. Aim This integrative review examined original research, evaluating mindfulness as an intervention for men during the perinatal period. Methods A comprehensive search resulted in 157 articles. After applying defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 2 original research papers remained. Thematic analysis identified five themes, the first three of which were discussed in Part I of this article. Findings Mindfulness based stress reduction strategies for men have been shown to be effective across a range of health issues, although there is little research during the perinatal period. Research suggests that men engaged in mindfulness based stress reduction in the perinatal period experienced better regulation of emotions and stress, and felt more present for their pregnant partners. Conclusions To improve men's wellbeing, innovative ways of providing perinatal mindfulness based stress reduction are needed. New or adapted mindfulness based stress reduction programmes are needed to improve men's awareness, empathy, self-esteem and psychological wellbeing to better support their pregnant partners.
... This may lead to poorer understanding of others' emotions and thus decrease emotional mimicry and contagion. Second, anxious individuals commonly report experiencing less positive as well as more negative emotions compared to healthy individuals (Brown et al. 1998;Kashdan and Breen 2008;Kashdan and Steger 2006;Kashdan 2007;Watson et al. 1988;Werner et al. 2011), and studies have shown that individuals who experience negative emotions are more likely to have deficiencies in their mimicry (Likowski et al. 2011;Moody et al. 2007). Third, socially anxious individuals may behave in ways that reduce the amount of social contact with others (Leary and Kowalski 1997). ...
Article
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Socially anxiety may be related to a different pattern of facial mimicry and contagion of others’ emotions. We report two studies in which participants with different levels of social anxiety reacted to others’ emotional displays, either shown on a computer screen (Study 1) or in an actual social interaction (Study 2). Study 1 examined facial mimicry and emotional contagion in response to displays of happiness, anger, fear, and contempt. Participants mimicked negative and positive emotions to some extent, but we found no relation between mimicry and the social anxiety level of the participants. Furthermore, socially anxious individuals were more prone to experience negative emotions and felt more irritated in response to negative emotion displays. In Study 2, we found that social anxiety was related to enhanced mimicry of smiling, but this was only the case for polite smiles and not for enjoyment smiles. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals tend to catch negative emotions from others, but suppress their expression by mimicking positive displays. This may be explained by the tendency of socially anxious individuals to avoid conflict or rejection.
... Researchers have associated adaptive ERSs with good health outcomes, better relationships, and improved academic and work performance (Extremera and Rey 2014;Huang et al. 2015;. Conversely, emotion dysregulation has been associated with mental disorders (Berenbaum et al. 2003;Greenberg 2002;Sheppes et al. 2015) and has been incorporated into several models of specific psychopathologies, including borderline personality disorder (BPD; Linehan 1993;Lynch et al. 2007), major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 2008;Rottenberg et al. 2005), bipolar disorder (Johnson 2005), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Mennin and Farach 2007), social anxiety disorder (SAD; Kashdan and Breen 2008), eating disorders (Bydlowski et al. 2005;Harrist et al. 2013;Wollenberg et al. 2015), alcohol-related disorders (Aurora and Klanecky 2016;Sher and Grekin 2007) and substance-related disorders (Fox et al. 2007;Poon et al. 2016). Kytle and Bandura (1978) observed that children acquire certain behaviors and ERSs from society. ...
Article
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Emotional regulation within the context of social situations refers to an individual’s ability to respond to emotions in socially acceptable ways in order to adapt quickly and to maintain good interpersonal relationships. Emotional regulation is a psychological characteristic at the core of social stability. The preschool period is a stage in which children’s emotional regulation develops rapidly. Because homes and preschools are the two main places where preschoolers grow and spend their time, their mothers and peers play key roles in their social interactions. Therefore, the present study explored how the emotional regulation strategies of preschool children in China are affected by children’s class grouping and their mothers’ emotional expressivity. The participants were 182 preschoolers (ages 3–5) who were recruited for this study. The Emotional Regulation Strategy Questionnaire and the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire were used to explore preschoolers’ emotional regulation strategies and their mothers’ emotional expressivity, respectively. The study results are as follows. (1) As they develop, preschool children use more positive emotional regulation strategies and fewer negative emotional regulation strategies. (2) Children in mixed-age classes use fewer passive reaction strategies than children in same-age classes do. For replacement activity strategies, only 4-year-old children in mixed-age classes score higher than children in same-age classes. (3) Mothers’ tendencies toward positive emotional expression can positively predict their children’s use of positive emotional regulation strategies, and their displays of negative emotions can positively predict their children’s use of negative emotional regulation strategies.
... Several theorists have proposed that anxiety disorders are the result of emotion dysregulation (Campbell-Sills and Barlow, 2007;Gross and Muñoz, 1995;Mennin et al., 2007). The association between emotion dysregulation and anxiety disorders has been empirically established (Amstadter, 2008;Cisler et al., 2010;Cisler and Olatunji, 2012) and recent models of anxiety disorders (Hofmann et al., 2012;Kashdan and Breen, 2008;Mennin et al., 2005) have highlighted the central role of emotion regulation. Several of the underlying cognitive and behavioral factors that maintain anxiety disorders (e.g. ...
Article
Background: Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms. Methods: A total of 147 individuals were assessed with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and statistical mediation analyses were conducted. Results: Our results indicate that the significant association between anxiety and attachment anxiety was mediated by emotion dysregulation, whereas attachment avoidance was not significantly related to anxiety when covarying for attachment anxiety. The primary limitation of our study is that data is cross-sectional and so causation cannot be inferred. Secondly, all measures used in this study were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Conclusions: Our results suggest that it is not insecure attachment in general that is important in anxiety disorders, but that attachment anxiety is specifically relevant. Thus, clinical interventions for anxiety disorders may improve by targeting attachment related difficulties.
... Examining the role of positive emotions in clinical psychology and psychopathology is not a trivial scientific conceptualization of psychopathology (Hofmann 2016). In fact, there is cumulative evidence from research showing that positive emotions are involved in different psychopathological problems (e.g., depression, social phobia, schizophrenia, and stress-related disorders) both in adults (Kashdan and Breen 2008;Kashdan et al. 2011;Watson and Naragon-Gainey 2010) and children and adolescents (Gilbert 2012). An example of this new wave of research on the role of positive emotions is well represented in the contribution of Gruber et al. (2016). ...
Article
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Research over the last two decades on the role of positive emotions and cognitions in psychological functioning is leading to conceptual changes regarding the nature of mental disorders and the mechanisms underlying their onset and maintenance. This introduction to the latest breakthrough research on positive emotions and cognition offers a brief description of the emerging presence of positivity in current diagnostic systems like the DSM5 and Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). It also analyzes some select findings from the literature on experimental psychopathology supporting the relevance of examining positive aspects of functioning in clinical psychology. In addition, the study of positive aspects of psychological functioning adds a more conceptually complex understanding of psychopathology. The multiple perspectives encompassed in this special issue shed light on our understanding of the different roles that positive emotions and cognitions play in mediating normal and abnormal human functioning and their importance to improving research methods and interventions in psychopathology.
... As avoidance behaviors mediate the relationship between social anxiety and depression (Moitra, Herbert, & Forman, 2008), approach-oriented strategies may promote more positive emotions and enhanced QoL. Further, among socially anxious individuals, coping strategies predict positive emotions regardless of the severity of self-reported anxiety (Kashdan & Breen, 2008), and the treatment may have facilitated the modification of coping strategies. However, positive affect was not included in these analyses and is often demonstrated to be unrelated to anxiety. ...
Article
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Individuals with anxiety disorders experience decrements in quality of life (QoL), though it is seldom assessed as an outcome in treatment studies. This study examined QoL as an outcome following transdiagnostic group cognitive-behavioral therapy (TGCBT) for anxiety. Treatment-seeking adults (N = 129; Mage = 33.1; 47.4% female) with social phobia, panic disorder, and/or generalized anxiety disorder rated their QoL by self-report before and after participating in TGCBT. Using general linear modeling, QoL was found to be similar across diagnostic groups both prior to and following treatment, with the exception that individuals diagnosed with social phobia scored significantly lower than the others in social functioning- related QoL following treatment. Otherwise, these groups improved similarly in overall QoL and achievement-, social functioning-, and personal growth-related QoL following 12 weeks of TGCBT. Thus, QoL significantly improves following transdiagnostic group treatment and represents a valuable outcome measure that can contribute to clinical assessment.
... Hofmann et al. 2012;Berking et al. 2013). Moreover, specific emotion regulation strategies (i.e., those that modify the magnitude and type of emotional experiences) may differ in their usefulness for reducing elevated negative affect and enhancing diminished positive affect, both of which are common to anxiety and depression (Campbell-Sills et al. 2006;D'Avanzato et al. 2013;Kashdan 2007;Kashdan and Breen 2008). Specific difficulties, such as decreased awareness, poor understanding, inhibited or inappropriate expression, and difficulty managing emotions, have all been associated with anxiety and depression in samples of adolescents (c.f. ...
Article
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Social anxiety and depression are common mental health problems among adolescents and are frequently comorbid. Primary aims of this study were to (1) elucidate the nature of individual differences in specific emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with symptoms of social anxiety and depression, and (2) determine whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) functions as a transdiagnostic factor. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1065) completed measures assessing emotion regulation and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. Results indicated that adolescents with high levels of social anxiety and depression symptoms reported decreased emotional awareness, dysregulated emotion expression, and reduced use of emotion management strategies. The hypothesized structural model in which RNT functions as a transdiagnostic factor exhibited a better fit than an alternative model in which worry and rumination function as separate predictors of symptomatology. Findings implicate emotion regulation deficits and RNT in the developmental psychopathology of youth anxiety and mood disorders.
... People may have the experience that, for some purpose, attempt to regulate their emotions, for instance by intensifying/weakening, masking, or completely hiding them (Kashdan and Breen 2008), which is called emotion regulation (Gross 2002). In this case, fake/suppressed emotion (Gross 2002) is defined as inhibiting ongoing emotionexpressive behavior, which is essential to socialization. ...
Article
This paper presents a recently collected natural, multimodal, rich-annotated emotion database, CASIA Chinese Natural Emotional Audio–Visual Database (CHEAVD), which aims to provide a basic resource for the research on multimodal multimedia interaction. This corpus contains 140 min emotional segments extracted from films, TV plays and talk shows. 238 speakers, aging from child to elderly, constitute broad coverage of speaker diversity, which makes this database a valuable addition to the existing emotional databases. In total, 26 non-prototypical emotional states, including the basic six, are labeled by four native speakers. In contrast to other existing emotional databases, we provide multi-emotion labels and fake/suppressed emotion labels. To our best knowledge, this database is the first large-scale Chinese natural emotion corpus dealing with multimodal and natural emotion, and free to research use. Automatic emotion recognition with Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks (LSTM-RNN) is performed on this corpus. Experiments show that an average accuracy of 56 % could be achieved on six major emotion states.
... The relationship between post-traumatic growth and coping styles is a complicated one. Evidence supporting an approach-oriented strategy is found in research indicating that if an individual is unwilling to address their emotional reactions, it is difficult for such reactions to be overcome and ultimately provide a source of growth (Kashdan & Breen, 2008;Kashdan, Morina & Priebe, 2008). Conversely, other research has indicated that avoidance strategies may form a component of an overall coping strategy (e.g. ...
Article
The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services. In the final model, exposure to stress related to well-being through several indirect paths that in sum accounted for the original direct relationship between these constructs. These several indirect paths were classified theoretically as either approach or avoidance coping behaviours or subsequent health outcomes. In general, approach coping behaviours were related to better well-being; and avoidance was related to a decrease in the outcome. The size of the present sample, as well as the diverse nature of the included first responders, suggests that the resulting model may offer a unique insight into potentially adaptive pathways for first-responder coping. Copyright
... Further, changes in experiential avoidance (avoiding unwanted internal experiences) predicted both the development of and recovery from depression and anxiety disorders across a 2-year period (i.e., increases in avoidance predicted disorder development, whereas decreases in avoidance predicted disorder recovery) in a sample of nearly 3,000 adults (Spinhoven, Drost, De Rooij, Van Hemert, & Penninx, 2014). Low emotional suppression interacted with low social anxiety in another study to predict heightened positive affect over a 3-month period (Kashdan & Breen, 2008). ...
Article
Methods: Initial emotion non-awareness, nonacceptance, and difficulties with goal-directed behavior were assessed in a community sample (n = 312, age range = 8-16, mean age = 11.68, 59% female, 69% Caucasian). Social anxiety, separation anxiety, and physical anxiety symptoms were assessed every 3 months for 3 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of emotion dysregulation assessed at baseline or 18 months on anxiety. Results: After controlling for depression, age, and gender, all three processes concurrently predicted physical and social anxiety, and all but nonacceptance predicted separation anxiety. Only difficulties with goal-directed behavior, however, predicted longitudinal change in separation anxiety over time with covariates. Additionally, emotion non-awareness and difficulties with goal-directed behavior predicted subsequent changes in social anxiety. Conclusions: Emotion dysregulation may serve as a potential risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among youth. It may be beneficial to target reductions in maladaptive strategies in prevention or intervention work.
... For example, within the internalizing domain, depression is often conceptualized as a disorder of impaired EREG given that sustained negative affect and a persistent reduction in positive affect are core features of a major depressive episode in adults (Campbell-Sills & Barlow, 2007;Joormann & Gotlib, 2010). EREG difficulties have also been incorporated into theoretical adult models of generalized anxiety disorder (Mennin, Holaway, Fresco, Moore, & Heimberg, 2007), social anxiety disorder (Kashdan & Breen, 2008), and bipolar disorder (Gruber, 2011). Adolescents and/or adults suffering from eating disorders and/or substance abuse also frequently have poor EREG as the use of substances and use/restraint of food can be conceptualized as an escape or coping strategy (Polivy & Herman, 2002;Sher & Grekin, 2007). ...
... In this respect, Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, and Lillis (2006) claim that there are reasons to believe that the predisposition to social anxiety works synergically with the ways in which people help, regulate, express and accept emotional experiences. In concrete, excessive social anxiety can become especially problematic in the presence of chronic and rigid tendencies to manage and hide emotional experiences and the situations which generate them (Kashdan & Breen, 2008). As a matter of fact, people with social anxiety face conflicts of acceptance-rejection between the desire to generate a good impression and be accepted by the others, and they are overwhelmed by beliefs about highly probable and costly rejection, expectations that socializing will cause undesired thoughts, feelings and sensations and that they will be assessed as negative. ...
Article
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Studies of social anxiety in university students have become of particular importance given its disabling impact over social adjustment and psychological well-being. The present research had the objective of developing an explanatory model of this phenomenon with principles based on attachment theory and the theories of emotional regulation. We worked with a sample of 438 university students and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. We produced an explanatory model which presented appropriate adjustment indexes (CFI= .95; GFI= .95; RMSEA= .05). In this model, the predictive role of expectations of social rejection and the difficulties in emotion regulation in the aetiology of social anxiety are clear. These factors are in turn influenced by the fear of abandonment linked to internal working models of insecure attachment of development in early childhood. Significant differences were found in favour of women in percentages of variance explained in social anxiety and expectations of social rejection.
... Emotion regulation difficulties have been implicated in a wide range of disorders, including social anxiety disorder (Gross and Jazaieri 2014;Kashdan and Breen 2008). Jazaieri et al. (2017) found that patients with social anxiety used less cognitive reappraisal and relied on greater suppression of emotion compared to non-anxious individuals. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group emotional schema therapy on emotional regulation, emotional schemas, and social anxiety. The research was quasi-experimental with a pretest and posttest design with a waiting list control group. The study population included 24 women aged 18 to 35 years old with social anxiety disorder, half of whom were randomly assigned to a treatment group or waiting list control. Ten sessions of group emotional schema therapy were conducted. Measures included an Emotional Regulation Questionnaire, Wells Anxious Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale. Compared to participants in the control group Emotional Schema Therapy (EST) reduced anxiety symptoms, including health anxiety and social anxiety, increased reappraisal, and decreased suppression. Finally, emotional schema therapy increased the use of positive emotional schemas and decreased the use of negative emotional schemas. These findings support the effectiveness of EST in the treatment of these anxiety disorders.
... According to another result obtained from the present study, there is a positive relationship between internal dysfunctional emotion regulation and social anxiety sub-dimensions. This finding overlaps with many studies in the relevant literature (Kashdan & Breen, 2008;McLean, Miller & Hope, 2007;Perini, Abbott & Rapee, 2006;Brozovich & Heimberg, 2008). One of the internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies, suppression, manifests itself as inhibition of emotion expression. ...
... One of the main reasons that relationships of people with social anxiety suffer is concealing emotional experiences and inhibiting emotional expressions (Alden and Taylor 2004). They engage in such behavior as they think they will appear less vulnerable and hence deemed more socially attractive (Kashdan and Breen 2008). People with high social anxiety report more problems describing, understanding, and identifying emotions (Mennin et al. 2009;Turk et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Despite theoretical support for the conceptualization of emotion dysregulation as a pathway linking peer victimization to psychopathology, there is a dearth of empirical support for this association. Hence, the present study aims to investigate if emotion dysregulation acts as a mechanism linking peer victimization to social anxiety and comorbid disordered eating symptoms and behavior. Data was collected from 411 undergraduates from a technical institute in India, using self-report instruments. Mediation analyses showed that online victimization exerted its influence on social anxiety and disordered eating through a lack of emotional awareness. These findings may have important clinical implications for preventive interventions that seek to reduce the prevalence of psychopathology among youth confronting peer-related stressors.
... According to another result obtained from the present study, there is a positive relationship between internal dysfunctional emotion regulation and social anxiety sub-dimensions. This finding overlaps with many studies in the relevant literature (Kashdan & Breen, 2008;McLean, Miller & Hope, 2007;Perini, Abbott & Rapee, 2006;Brozovich & Heimberg, 2008). One of the internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies, suppression, manifests itself as inhibition of emotion expression. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to examine the relationships between high school students' social anxiety level and emotion regulation strategies and parental attitudes. 323 students studying at different types of high schools in Diyarbakır in the 2019-2020 academic years participated in the present study using the relational screening model. In the research, "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents", "Child Rearing Attitudes Scale", "Adolescent Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (AERQ)" and a personal information form prepared by the researcher were used. Descriptive statistics were explained in the analysis of the data, and the Pearson product-moments correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression analysis were used. According to the results, the model formed by the strict supervision / control attitude of the parents and the internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies used by adolescents predicts social anxiety, and the related variables can be risk factors for social anxiety in adolescence.
... Similarly, children or adolescents with depressive symptoms or social anxiety may be characterized with poor eye contact and poor facial expressions (B1 -Unusual Eye Contact, B2 -Facial Expressions directed to the Examiner), lack of enjoyment in interaction (B4 -Shared Enjoyment in Interaction), and limited ability to share their experiences with others (B7 -Reporting of Events, B8 -Conversation). There is ample research to suggest that depression and social anxiety are characterized by poor eye contact and difficulty sharing one's experience with others (e.g., Schneier, Rodebaugh, Blanco, Lewin, & Liebowitz, 2011;Kashdan & Breen, 2008;Fiquer et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The study addressed different assessment of ASD obtained with the use of the ADOS-2 and compared with the DSM-5 with children between 8 and 10 years old. Case series data were used on four children who were referred with suspected autism, and as a result a discrepancy was found between the ADOS-2 assessment and the overall diagnosis. Initial findings indicated that age, additional diagnoses, and over-reliance on observation may bias the ADOS-2 classification. In particular, children who were diagnosed with other disorders that share symptoms with ASD exhibit behaviors that may bias the ADOS-2 classification as it relies on observed behavior without considering the underlying cause. This discrepancy points to the importance of utilizing and integrating multiple sources of information in the process of establishing an ASD diagnosis, and suggests a need for specialized clinical training in diagnosing autism and other related co-morbid conditions in children aged 8–10. This preliminary data calls for further research into the area, especially due to the current over-reliance on the ADOS-2 in clinical practice and research.
... The results are in line with those of Kashdan and Breen (2008), Kashdan and Hofman (2008), Norton (2009), Kashdan and Weeks (2010). Rachmans (1980) believe that there are four classes of factors that may give rise to impulsive problems; i.e. avoidance, lack of experience, short-term acclimation, depression and more appreciated beliefs. ...
Conference Paper
The aim of the present study is to find out the role of social judgment and impulsiveness in predicting the reactivity of the girls with social phobia. The method of the study is of correlation kind. The statistical population of the study consists of all the girls with social phobia and normal girls of Islamic Azad University of Khoram Abad Branch in 2013. The sampling method of the study was multistage cluster one. In order to collect data, a comprehensive international clinical interview, social phobia scale, social judgment questionnaire, impulsiveness scale, interpersonal reaction index, and the inventory of a fear of evaluation (positive and negative) were used. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a stepwise multiple regression analysis were used in an attempt to analyze data. The findings indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between social judgment, impulsiveness and the reactions of women with social phobia, though there was a negative significant relation between a fear of positive and negative evaluation and reactivity. It was also made clear that 19%of the individual reactivity variance is explained by impulsiveness, social justice, and a fear of positive and negative evaluation variances. The results represent the contribution of social judgment and impulsiveness in predicting the reactivity of the girls with social phobia. https://civilica.com/doc/390603/
... However, Daros et al. (2019) did not assess DPDR symptoms. Individuals with social anxiety may be more prone to using maladaptive emotion regulation strategies when compared to those low in social anxiety (e.g., suppression; Kashdan & Breen, 2008). As a result, individuals with social anxiety who are unable to regulate their emotions, even while using emotion regulation strategies, may experience DPDR symptoms (i.e., flattening of affect, reduction in emotion sensitivity and intensity), which is thought to be an automatic or unconscious response for avoiding or suppressing negative emotions related to acute stressors (Michelson & Ray, 1996). ...
Article
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Social anxiety is associated with dissociative experiences, which are thought to occur when coping or avoidance is unavailable, and distress is experienced. Emotion regulation difficulties maintain social anxiety. The current study examined the moderating effect of emotion regulation on social anxiety and dissociation. It was hypothesized that social anxiety would be positively associated with dissociation and that emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the relationship between social anxiety and dissociation such that the relationship would be stronger at higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties. College students aged 18 or older (n = 572) were recruited from a large public university. All participants completed measures of social anxiety, emotion regulation, and dissociation as part of a larger online study. Results supported both hypotheses. Future studies should investigate dissociative symptoms during times of acute stress or anxiety in social anxiety, how emotion regulation difficulties are associated with the genesis of dissociative symptoms, and how these variables are related in more diverse community samples.
... It is important to note that dampening of positive emotion was higher in the present study compared to unselected samples of college students (e.g., Feldman et al., 2008;McEvoy et al., 2018). Evidence in the anxiety literature suggests that individuals reporting high levels of anxiety may find emotional experiences distressing, including unpleasant and pleasant ones (Keough et al., 2010;Kashdan & Breen 2008), and efforts are engaged in to avoid or dampen these emotional experiences (Stapinski et al., 2010;Zvolensky & Forsyth, 2002). Present results indicate that students reporting high levels of anxiety and higher life satisfaction levels do not dampen positive emotions less than those reporting high levels of anxiety and lower life satisfaction levels, consistent with recommendations to help clients with high levels of anxiety learn tools to upregulate positive emotions as a useful treatment target (e.g., Carl et al., 2013;Tirpak et al., 2019). ...
Article
Anxiety disorders are prevalent among college students and contribute to problems in social and academic functioning. The primary focus in the anxiety literature has been on symptoms and deficits in functioning rather than psychological well-being. The present study investigated the extent to which high levels of anxiety co-occurred with self-reported psychological well-being using a dual-factor model of mental health approach. Participants (n = 100) were categorized into two groups (high anxiety crossed with low and high life satisfaction), and groups were compared on several psychological well-being indicators. Supporting a dual-factor approach, students reporting high levels of anxiety and life satisfaction reported higher levels of hope, grit, gratitude, self-focused positive rumination, and savoring of positive emotions than students reporting high levels of anxiety and low levels of life satisfaction. Groups did not differ in emotion-focused positive rumination or in dampening of positive emotion. These results highlight well-being heterogeneity within individuals reporting high levels of anxiety, with implications for treatment and prevention efforts.
... These include major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008), generalised anxiety disorder (Mennin, Holoway, Fresco, Moore, & Heimberg, 2007), social anxiety disorder (Kashdan & Breen, 2008), somatoform disorders (Waller & Scheidt, 2006), borderline personality disorder (Schulze et al., 2011), and eating disorders (Wild et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Recent advances in clinical practice emphasise transdiagnostic interventions as an effective alternative to single disorder approaches. This current systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the treatment efficacy of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) across internalising disorders, as an emotion regulation (ER) based intervention program. Across 15 studies and 1244 participants, large effect size reductions were found across symptoms of anxiety, depression, generalised anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder with/without agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder. In addition, there were moderate effect sizes indicating increased use of adaptive and decreased use of maladaptive ER strategies, highlighting the UP as an effective ER based intervention. Secondary treatment benefits in functional impairment and quality of life were also evident. Implications on future transdiagnostic ER based research are discussed.
... Rather, memories for emotional experiences are particularly enduring (Christianson and Loftus 1990;Sheldon and Levine 2013;Yonelinas and Ritchey 2015), and thus negative memories can create a persistent emotion regulation challenge. Memory and affective symptoms are intertwined in many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression (Elzinga and Bremner 2002)for example, both ruminative memory patterns (Harrington and Blankenship 2002;Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 2008) and habitual emotion regulation strategies (Blalock and Joiner 2000;Holahan et al. 2005;Kashdan and Breen 2008;Aldao et al. 2010) are related to mental health outcomes. Yet, though clinical psychology has long leveraged memory processes in order to analyze or explore past experiences using treatments such as psychodynamic therapy (Luborsky 1977;Schafer 1980), memory specificity training ( Neshat-Doost et al. 2013;Moradi et al. 2014;Eigenhuis et al. 2017), and exposure therapy (Foa et al. 1995;van Minnen et al. 2002), little is known about the basic memory mechanisms involved in mediating successful long-term regulation of emotional episodic memories. ...
Article
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Background The ability to modulate undesirable emotions is essential for maintaining mental health. Negative emotions can arise both while experiencing and remembering an unpleasant event, which presents a persistent emotion regulation challenge because emotional memories tend to be particularly vivid and enduring. Despite the central role that memories play in our affective lives, little is known about the memory processes supporting successful regulation of emotions associated with long-term memories, which we refer to as retrospective emotion regulation. Methods In this paper, we review the literature on the mechanisms of memory modification, which may contribute to the success of retrospective emotion regulation. In particular, we review rodent and human studies that examine the modification of conditioned fear associations and emotional episodic memories. Conclusions Based on this literature, we conclude that memory reactivation plays a crucial role in memory modification. We discuss further the potential role of memory reactivation in mediating the success of cognitive reappraisal, which may be considered a special case of memory modification. We propose that the completeness, or strength, of reactivation during retrospective emotion regulation will be related to the likelihood of updating an episodic memory, reducing its emotional impact upon later recall. Understanding the role of memory processes in emotion regulation can help to inform research on memory-based treatments for affective disorders.
... Previous studies have reported that mood regulation strategies are often important regulatory variables affecting psychological changes in task conflict situations. For example, suppression can moderate the effect of social anxiety on positive emotion (Kashdan and Breen, 2008). Similarly, we speculate that suppression moderates the impact of family-work conflict on positive psychological capital and perceived social support, affecting the improvement of post-traumatic growth. ...
Article
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Under the impact of COVID-19, the status and mechanisms of post-traumatic growth among medical workers facing challenges related to family-work conflict are of great concern. In view of the complex relationship between family-work conflict and post-traumatic growth, the present study sought to explore the specific relationships between family-work conflict and post-traumatic growth as well as the specific roles of positive psychological capital, perceived social support, and suppression. We recruited 1,347 participants. The results revealed that positive psychological capital and perceived social support played mediating roles, while suppression strategies moderated the mediating effect. Compared with the low suppression group, the negative impact of family-work conflict on positive psychological capital and perceived social support was reduced in the high suppression group. Thus, a higher level of suppression was more conducive to post-traumatic growth. The current study enriches and expands the findings of previous studies in theory and provides practical ways to promote post-traumatic growth in medical workers.
... According to another result obtained from the present study, there is a positive relationship between internal dysfunctional emotion regulation and social anxiety sub-dimensions. This finding overlaps with many studies in the relevant literature (Kashdan & Breen, 2008;McLean, Miller & Hope, 2007;Perini, Abbott & Rapee, 2006;Brozovich & Heimberg, 2008). One of the internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies, suppression, manifests itself as inhibition of emotion expression. ...
... In other words, cognitive emotion regulation strategies significantly predict self-efficacy and life quality of women suffering from cancer. The results of this study are in line with the results of studies conducted by Barghi Irani (2013), Bahmani (2013), Amstadter (2008), Martin andDahlin (2005) , Nolan et al. (2008), Kashdan and Breen (2008), Ghasempour et al. (2012), and Mennin et al. (2007). ...
Article
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The objective of the present research is Predicting the Self-Efficacy and Life Quality of Women Suffering from Breast Cancer based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies. The statistical population included all women who were suffering breast cancer and were undergoing treatment in Breast. 78 of them were selected b y convenience sampling and were assessed by using the questionnaires of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, self-efficacy and life quality. Then, the collected data were analyzed using multivariate regression. According to the attained findings, there is a significant relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and self-efficacy and life quality of women suffering from breast cancer. In other words, cognitive emotion regulation strategies specify around 27.4% of changes of self-efficacy and about 23.9% of changes of life quality of the subjects.
... Centrally regulated systems reflect attention characteristics, for example, in skin conductance and heart rate responses. Variation of these responses is often studied in relation to temperament types, control of arousal, emotion control and coping (Goldin et al. 2012;Kashdan and Breen 2008;Ochsner et al. 2004). ...
Article
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In this paper we discuss the strategies of self-regulation that are used under stressful condition. The strategies were assessed by means of heart rate biofeedback with game plot that models a stressful situation as a sport competition. Special attention was paid to the analysis of personality traits, behavioral patterns, and other psychological correlates of effective learning of self-regulation skills during biofeedback training. It was shown that the training based on biofeedback computer game allows modifying self-regulation strategies of the subjects towards more effective ones. The steadiness of the stress-resilience skills was statistically confirmed. The psychological tolerance of ambiguity was found to be a basic feature of personality that determines the efficiency of self-regulation strategies under stress.
... As identified in a large body of evidence, anxiety disorders are particularly characterized by a dysfunctional implementation of emotion regulation strategies. For example, a recent review of studies has shown that social anxiety disorder patients are more prone to inefficiently implement cognitive reappraisal or tend to suppress positive rewards for potential negative evaluations [95]. ...
Chapter
The principal aim to this chapter is to present the latest ideas in virtual reality (VR), some of which have already been applied to the field of anxiety disorders, and others are still pending to be materialized. More than 20 years ago, VR emerged as an exposure tool in order to provide patients and therapists with more appealing ways of delivering a technique that was undoubtedly effective but also rejected and thus underused. Throughout these years, many improvements were achieved. The first section of the chapter describes those improvements, both considering the research progresses and the applications in the real world. In a second part, our main interest is to expand the discussion of the new applications of VR beyond its already known role as an exposure tool. In particular, VR is enabling the materialization of numerous ideas that were previously confined to a merely philosophical discussion in the field of cognitive sciences. That is, VR has the enormous potential of providing feasible ways to explore nonclassical ways of cognition, such as embodied and situated information processing. Despite the fact that many of these developments are not fully developed, and not specifically designed for anxiety disorders, we want to introduce these new ideas in a context in which VR is experiencing an enormous transformation.
... Research using diary techniques and other retrospective methods shows that individuals with elevated social anxiety tend to experience blunted positive affect and, in some cases, report fewer and less intense positive events (Blanco & Joormann, 2017;T. A. Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Farmer & Kashdan, 2012;Geyer et al., 2018;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2007Kashdan & Breen, 2008;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). For example, Farmer and Kashdan (2012) used 2 weeks of diary data to demonstrate that individuals with higher levels of social anxiety report significantly less intense positive affect in their daily lives. ...
Article
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Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety. At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of trait social anxiety on momentary changes in emotions, sense of belonging, and social approach versus avoidance motivation following positive events in daily life. Over the course of a week, people with elevated social anxiety experienced greater momentary anxiety and social avoidance motivation and lower momentary happiness and sense of belonging on average. Despite these impairments, individuals with elevated social anxiety experienced greater psychological benefits-in the form of reduced anxiety and motivation to avoid social situations, and an increased sense of belonging-following positive events during the past hour that were rated as particularly intense. This pattern of findings was not specific to social anxiety, with evidence of similar effects for other forms of internalizing psychopathology (general anxiety and depression). These observations detail circumstances in which individuals with social anxiety, and other emotional disturbances, can thrive-creating potentially important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... En ese sentido, varios estudios han indagado respecto de la disposición a utilizar ciertas estrategias de regulación emocional en diferentes trastornos como la depresión (Nolen-hoeksema, wisco, y Lyubomirsky, 2008;werner-Seidler, Banks, Dunn, y Moulds, 2012), trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (Mennin, holoway, Fresco, Moore, y heimberg, 2007), trastorno de estrés postraumático (Badour y Feldner, 2013;Tull y Roemer, 2003) y ansiedad social (Kashdan y Breen, 2008). No obstante, mientras que algunas investigaciones hallaron que las estrategias basadas en la evitación emocional incrementaban la tendencia a la psicopatología (Berman, wheaton, McGrath y Abramowitz, 2010;Karekla y Panayiotou, 2011); otros estudios mientras que otras registraron sólo una asociación débil entre ambas variables (Legerstee, Garnefski, Verhulst yutens, 2011). ...
... In a research that was concerned with the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions and adjusting them, the findings revealed that one has to pay attention to individual differences including strategies for adjusting emotions in order to understand special anxiety and experience emotions (Todd et al, 2008;Todd et al, 2010). ...
Chapter
Humans, like other animals, are fundamentally motivated to pursue rewarding outcomes and avoid aversive ones. Anxiety disorders are conceptualized, defined, and treated based on heightened sensitivity to perceived aversive outcomes, including imminent threats as well as those that are uncertain yet could occur in the future. Avoidance is the central strategy used to mitigate anticipated aversive outcomes – often at the cost of sacrificing potential rewards and hindering people from obtaining desired outcomes. It is for these reasons that people are often motivated to seek treatment. In this chapter, we consider whether and how anhedonia – the loss of interest in pursuing and/or reduced responsiveness to rewarding outcomes – may serve as a barrier to recovering from clinically impairing anxiety. Increasingly recognized as a prominent symptom in many individuals with elevated anxiety, anhedonia is not explicitly considered within prevailing theoretical models or treatment approaches of anxiety. Our goal, therefore, is to review what is known about anhedonia within the anxiety disorders and then integrate this knowledge into a functional perspective to consider how anhedonia could maintain anxiety and limit treatment response. Our overarching thesis is that anhedonia disrupts the key processes that are central to supporting anxiety recovery. We end this chapter by considering how explicitly targeting anhedonia in treatment can optimize outcomes for anxiety disorders.
Thesis
This study consists of two separate studies. In the first study, the Turkish adaptation of the Beliefs About Emotions Questionnaire (BAEQ; Manser et al., 2012) was carried out. A total of 436 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.5, SD = 3.19) participated in the study. The findings showed that the data set confirmed the factor structure suggested for BAEQ with some modifications, and that the 37-item scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used by emotion regulation researchers and mental health professionals in Turkey. In the second study, a structural equation model was tested in order to better understand the relationships between trait/dispositional mindfulness, beliefs about emotions, adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, and negative and positive mental health. A total of 608 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.14, SD = 2.89) participated in the study. The findings revealed that the indirect effect of trait/dispositional mindfulness on adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies as well as on positive and negative mental health through beliefs about emotions and the indirect effect of beliefs about emotions on negative and positive mental health through maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies were statistically significant. The present findings are discussed in accordance with the relevant literature.
Chapter
This chapter explores the associations between positive emotional experience and major forms of psychopathology. In reviewing this evidence, it uses the hierarchical structure of affect as an organizing framework. The chapter examines three types of psychopathology that are clearly associated with anhedoniaand deficits in positive affect: depression, social anxiety/social phobia and schizophrenia/schizotypy. It also describes an examination of the bipolar disorders, which show a very different relation to positive affect. Heightened positive affect is clearly relevant to mania, in that the definition of manic episodes includes abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. The chapter concludes by highlighting three basic considerations that should inform future work in this area. First, specificity evidence still is limited in a number of key areas. Second, this review demonstrates the importance of distinguishing carefully between strongly related, but separable, constructs. Third, future studies should clarify the nature and source of these observed deficits.
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Studies have found that anxiety is among the common negative emotions in individuals with substance use disorders. Anxiety affects drug abstention motivation, but the mechanism underlying this effect is still unclear. The current study aimed to examine the relationship among anxiety, regulatory emotional self-efficacy, psychological resilience and drug abstention motivation in an attempt to explore the mechanism underlying drug abstention motivation. The participants were 732 men with substance use disorders who were sent to compulsory rehabilitation in China. All participants completed measures of anxiety, regulatory emotional self-efficacy, psychological resilience and drug abstention motivation through questionnaires. The results indicated that anxiety negatively predicts drug abstention motivation. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy mediates the relationship between anxiety and drug abstention motivation. In addition, psychological resilience moderates the mediation between anxiety and regulatory emotional self-efficacy. The current results are not only helpful for understanding the relationship between anxiety and drug abstention motivation from the perspective of emotion but also of great significance for guiding individuals with substance use disorders in enhancing their drug abstention motivation by reducing negative emotion.
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Background It is known that social anxiety disorder (SAD) interferes in a great deal of life areas, ranging from social and private relationships to work related environments. We aimed to investigate the comparative efficacy of three emotion-regulation strategies in a job interview task for individuals with SAD. We considered both different categories of emotion-regulation strategies (reappraisal vs. suppression) but also different types of the same strategy (functional vs. positive reappraisal). Methods 92 participants diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups and a no strategy control group. Participants were required to present themselves in front of external observers who would rate their performance and decide if they are suited for the job. We measured subjective mood, rated performance, EEG asymmetries, and autonomic flexibility at three different phases: while anticipating the discourse, after the statement (when emotion regulation strategy was offered), and when recovering. Results The functional reappraisal strategy was found to be superior to no strategy for anxiety, confidence, and coded performance. We found a higher level of left side PFC activity for the functional reappraisal group at the statement phase, with a moderation effect for PFC asymmetry of SAD severity.
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Objectives: The current study aims to investigate the indirect associations between experiential avoidance (EA) and burnout, wellbeing, and productivity loss (PL) via the mediating role of positive and negative emotions among police officers. Methods: Data were collected on 187 officers (84% male) aged 21-64 years between 2019 and 2020. Participants completed online self-report measures. Results: EA was indirectly associated with burnout via positive and negative affect. EA was indirectly associated with wellbeing through positive affect, positive affect and burnout, and negative affect and burnout. Finally, EA was indirectly associated with PL via positive affect and burnout, and negative affect and burnout. Conclusion: Results provide support for the role of EA in officers' wellbeing and job performance via increasing negative affect and decreasing positive affect. This highlights the importance of interventions, such as acceptance and commitment therapy that target acceptance and psychological flexibility.
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Several investigations have examined the potential role of mentation suppression in various psychological disorders. Existing studies do not, however, differentiate between the effects of suppressing imagery- versus thought-based mentation. This distinction is an especially important one for worry, given the predominantly thought-based nature of the worry process. The present study sought to distinguish between the effects of suppressing thoughts versus images about worrisome versus neutrally valenced topics. Consistent with past studies of worry suppression, results failed to find a rebound effect regardless of valence (worrisome, neutral) or mentation content (thoughts, images). However, results did indicate that a decrease in worrisome mentation across two consecutive expression periods was more pronounced when the worrisome material was imagery-based rather than thought-based in nature. Implications of these findings as they pertain to the perpetuation of worrisome activity and to treatment of generalized anxiety disorder are discussed.
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In a study of self-presentational motives in everyday social encounters, 164 first-year and upper-class undergraduate students described their social interactions for 1 week using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record. These descriptions focused on the strength of self-presentational motives and concerns for others’ evaluations. Participants also completed measures of individual differences hypothesized to be relevant to self-presentation, which formed four distinct factors. A series of multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that individual differences in factors labeled Impression Motivation, Impression Construction Positivity, and Impression Construction Appropriateness were positively related to participants’ nervousness in interaction and individual differences in Impression Motivation were positively related to the strength of self-presentational motives in interaction. A fourth factor, Negative Self-Evaluation, was positively related to the strength of participants’ self-presentational motives for first-year students but negatively related to self-presentational motives for upper-class students, and Negative Self-Evaluation was related to self-presentation differently for men and women.
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Positive emotions are hypothesized to undo the cardiovascular aftereffects of negative emotions. Study 1 tests this undoing effect. Participants (n = 170) experiencing anxiety-induced cardiovascular reactivity viewed a film that elicited (a) contentment, (b) amusement, (c) neutrality, or (d) sadness. Contentment-eliciting and amusing films produced faster cardiovascular recovery than neutral or sad films did. Participants in Study 2 (n = 185) viewed these same films following a neutral state. Results disconfirm the alternative explanation that the undoing effect reflects a simple replacement process. Findings are contextualized by Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998).
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We investigated the hypothesis that people's facial activity influences their affective responses. Two studies were designed to both eliminate methodological problems of earlier experiments and clarify theoretical ambiguities. This was achieved by having subjects hold a pen in their mouth in ways that either inhibited or facilitated the muscles typically associated with smiling without requiring subjects to pose in a smiling face. Study 1's results demonstrated the effectiveness of the procedure. Subjects reported more intense humor responses when cartoons were presented under facilitating conditions than under inhibiting conditions that precluded labeling of the facial expression in emotion categories. Study 2 served to further validate the methodology and to answer additional theoretical questions. The results replicated Study 1's findings and also showed that facial feedback operates on the affective but not on the cognitive component of the humor response. Finally, the results suggested that both inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms may have contributed to the observed affective responses.
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Recent scientific work has established both a theoretical basis and strong empirical evidence for a causal impact of social relationships on health. Prospective studies, which control for baseline health status, consistently show increased risk of death among persons with a low quantity, and sometimes low quality, of social relationships. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of humans and animals also suggest that social isolation is a major risk factor for mortality from widely varying causes. The mechanisms through which social relationships affect health and the factors that promote or inhibit the development and maintenance of social relationships remain to be explored.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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Evidence for the role of affective states in social judgments is reviewed, and a new integrative theory, the affect infusion model (AIM), is proposed as a comprehensive explanation of these effects. The AIM, based on a multiprocess approach to social judgments, identifies 4 alternative judgmental strategies: (a) direct access, (b) motivated, (c) heuristic, and (d) substantive processing. The model predicts that the degree of affect infusion into judgments varies along a processing continuum, such that judgments requiring heuristic or substantive processing are more likely to be infused by affect than are direct access or motivated judgments. The role of target, judge, and situational variables in recruiting high- or low-infusion judgmental strategies is considered, and empirical support for the model is reviewed. The relationship between the AIM and other affect-cognition theories is discussed, and implications for future research are outlined.
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L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model of depression and anxiety that divides symptoms into 3 groups: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestations of anhedonia and low positive affect that are specific to depression, and symptoms of somatic arousal that are relatively unique to anxiety. This model was tested by conducting separate factor analyses of the 90 items in the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (D. Watson & L. A. Clark, 1991) in 5 samples (3 student, 1 adult, 1 patient). The same 3 factors (General Distress, Anhedonia vs. Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety) emerged in each data set, suggesting that the symptom structure in this domain is highly convergent across diverse samples. Moreover, these factors broadly corresponded to the symptom groups proposed by the tripartite model. Inspection of the individual item loadings suggested some refinements to the model.
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The cardiovascular effects of embarrassment and of attempts to suppress embarrassment were examined. In 2 studies, embarrassment was associated with substantial increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure which monotonically increased over a 2-minute embarrassment period. In contrast, heart rate (HR) rose significantly during the 1st minute of embarrassment but returned to baseline levels during the 2nd minute. This pattern of reactivity may be distinctive. The effects of trying to suppress emotion in an interpersonal situation were also tested. Relative to the no-suppression group, suppression participants showed greater blood pressure during embarrassment and during posttask recovery. Suppression did not significantly affect HR. Possible mechanisms for these results, including passive coping, are discussed. Nonverbal behavior was also examined.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the range of situations feared by social phobic individuals. There is a need for additional instruments that consider differences in the types of situations (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) that may be feared by social phobics and between subgroups of social phobic patients. This study provides validational data on two instruments developed by Mattick and Clarke (1989): the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), a measure of anxiety in social interactional situations, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), a measure of anxiety in situations involving observation by others. These data support the use of the SIAS and SPS in the assessment of individuals with social phobia.
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The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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presents some of the findings regarding the impact of mild positive affect on thinking and motivation / explores the processes underlying them and the circumstances under which they are likely to be observed / focus is on decision making, but in order to understand affect's influence on decisions, it is helpful to consider its impact on cognitive organization (or the way material is thought about and related to other material) and on motivation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The criterion validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) was investigated by pairing blind BDI-II administrations with the major depressive episode portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997) in a sample of 137 students receiving treatment at a university counseling center. Student BDI-II scores correlated strongly ( r=.83) with their number of SCID-I depressed mood symptoms. A BDI-II cut score of 16 yielded a sensitivity rate of 84% and a false-positive rate of 18% in identifying depressed mood. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to produce cut scores for determining severity of depressed mood. In a second study, a sample of 46 student clients were administered the BDI-II twice, yielding test-retest reliability of .96. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model of asymmetric contributions to the control of different subcomponents of approach- and withdrawal-related emotion and psychopathology is presented. Two major forms of positive affect are distinguished. An approach-related form arises prior to goal attainment, and another form follows goal attainment. The former is hypothesized to be associated with activation of the left prefrontal cortex. Individual differences in patterns of prefrontal activation are stable over time. Hypoactivation in this region is proposed to result in approach-related deficits and increase an individual's vulnerability to depression. Data in support of these proposals are presented. The issue of plasticity is then considered from several perspectives. Contextual factors are superimposed upon tonic individual differences and modulate the magnitude of asymmetry. Pharmacological challenges also alter patterns of frontal asymmetry. A diverse array of evidence was then reviewed that lends support to the notion that these patterns of asymmetry may be importantly influenced by early environmental factors that result in enduring changes in brain function and structure.
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In this chapter, the authors present a social functional account of emotions that attempts to integrate the relevant insights of evolutionary and social constructivist theorists. The authors' account is summarized in 3 statements: (1) social living presents social animals with problems whose solutions are critical for individual survival; (2) emotions have been designed in the course of evolution to solve these problems; and (3) in humans, culture loosens the linkages between emotions and problems so that cultures find new ways of using emotions. In the first half of the chapter the authors synthesize the positions of diverse theorists in a taxonomy of problems of social living and then consider how evolution-based primordial emotions solve those problems by coordinating social interactions. In the second half of the chapter the authors discuss the specific processes according to which culture transforms primordial emotions and how culturally shaped elaborated emotions help solve the problems of social living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The emerging field of emotion regulation studies how individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them. This review takes an evolutionary perspective and characterizes emotion in terms of response tendencies. Emotion regulation is defined and distinguished from coping, mood regulation, defense, and affect regulation. In the increasingly specialized discipline of psychology, the field of emotion regulation cuts across traditional boundaries and provides common ground. According to a process model of emotion regulation, emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: (a) selection of the situation, (b) modification of the situation, (c) deployment of attention, (d) change of cognitions, and (e) modulation of responses. The field of emotion regulation promises new insights into age-old questions about how people manage their emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is argued that insufficient attention has been paid to the nature and processes underlying positive experiences. An analogy is drawn between coping with negative events and the processes of taking advantage of, or capitalizing on, positive events. It was hypothesized that expressive displays (e.g., communicating the event to others, celebrating, etc.) and perceived control would be effective capitalizing responses after positive events. These responses were predicted to augment the benefits of the events on temporary moods and longer-term well-being. Two daily-diary studies of college undergraduates showed that expressive responses and perceived control were associated with positive affect above and beyond the benefits due to the valence of the positive events themselves.
Article
Using an explicit model of emotion, we developed the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. This measure of emotional expressivity has three facets: impulse strength, negative expressivity, and positive expressivity. After evaluating its factor structure and psychometric properties, we tested propositions derived from an analysis of display rules. As predicted, women were more expressive than men; Asian-Americans less expressive than other ethnic groups; and Democrats more expressive than Republicans. Expressivity also was related to two mood dimensions and to four of the Big Five personality dimensions. The pattern of findings for the subscales showed convergent and discriminant validity. Positive mood, Extraversion, and Agreeableness were most strongly related to the Positive Expressivity subscale. Negative mood, Neuroticism, and somatic complaints were most strongly related to the Impulse Strength and Negative Expressivity subscales.
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From an emotion regulation framework, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can be conceptualized as a syndrome involving heightened intensity of subjective emotional experience, poor understanding of emotion, negative reactivity to emotional experience, and the use of maladaptive emotion management strategies (including over-reliance on cognitive control strategies such as worry). The current study sought to replicate previous findings of emotion dysregulation among individuals with GAD and delineate which aspects of emotion dysregulation are specific to GAD or common to GAD and another mental disorder (social anxiety disorder). Individuals with GAD reported greater emotion intensity and fear of the experience of depression than persons with social anxiety disorder and nonanxious control participants. Individuals with social anxiety disorder indicated being less expressive of positive emotions, paying less attention to their emotions, and having more difficulty describing their emotions than either persons with GAD or controls. Measures of emotion differentiated GAD, social anxiety disorder, and normal control groups with good accuracy in a discriminant function analysis. Findings are discussed in light of theoretical and treatment implications for both disorders.
Article
This article elaborates a view of anxiety as deriving from a basic human need to belong to social groups. Anxiety is seen as a pervasive and possibly innately prepare form of distress that arises in response to actual or threatened exclusion from important social groups. The reasons groups exclude individuals (incompetence, deviance or immorality, and unattractiveness) therefore should all be linked to anxiety, and events that implicate the self as incompetent, guilty, or unattractive should create anxiety. This "exclusion theory" of anxiety can be considered a broader revision of separation anxiety theory and is distinguished from theories that base anxiety on fear of death, fear of castration, and perception of uncertainty. Current evidence from multiple sources is reviewed to show the explanatory power and utility of exclusion theory, and implications of this theory are developed in relation to culturally changing standards of sexual behaviour, the motivations underlying the Oedipus complex, and the formation and functions of the self.
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The broaden‐and‐build theory (Fredrickson, 199819. Fredrickson , BL . (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 2: 300–319. [CrossRef], [PubMed]View all references, 200121. Fredrickson , BL . (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden‐and‐build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56: 218–226. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) hypothesises that positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Two experiments with 104 college students tested these hypotheses. In each, participants viewed a film that elicited (a) amusement, (b) contentment, (c) neutrality, (d) anger, or (e) anxiety. Scope of attention was assessed using a global‐local visual processing task (Experiment 1) and thought‐action repertoires were assessed using a Twenty Statements Test (Experiment 2). Compared to a neutral state, positive emotions broadened the scope of attention in Experiment 1 and thought‐action repertoires in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, negative emotions, relative to a neutral state, narrowed thought‐action repertoires. Implications for promoting emotional well‐being and physical health are discussed.
Article
Selected sociodemographic and clinical features of social phobia were assessed in four US communities among more than 13,000 adults from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Rates of social phobia were highest among women and persons who were younger (age, 18 to 29 years), less educated, single, and of lower socioeconomic class. Mean age at onset was 15.5 years, and first onsets after the age of 25 years were uncommon. Lifetime major comorbid disorders were present in 69% of subjects with social phobia and usually had onset after social phobia. When compared with persons with no psychiatric disorder, uncomplicated social phobia was associated with increased rates of suicidal ideation, financial dependency, and having sought medical treatment, but was not associated with higher rates of having made a suicide attempt or having sought treatment from a mental health professional. An increase in suicide attempts was found among subjects with social phobia overall, but this increase was mainly attributable to comorbid cases. Social phobia, in the absence of comorbidity, was associated with distress and impairment, yet was rarely treated by mental health professionals. The findings are compared and contrasted with prior reports from clinical samples.
Article
We review psychometric and other evidence relevant to mixed anxiety-depression. Properties of anxiety and depression measures, including the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and clinical ratings, and interrater reliability, are examined in patient and normal samples. Results suggest that anxiety and depression can be reliably and validly assessed; moreover, although these disorders share a substantial component of general affective distress, they can be differentiated on the basis of factors specific to each syndrome. We also review evidence for these specific factors, examining the influence of context and scale content on ratings, factor analytic studies, and the role of low positive affect in depression. With these data, we argue for a tripartite structure consisting of general distress, physiological hyperarousal (specific anxiety), and anhedonia (specific depression), and we propose a diagnosis of mixed anxiety-depression.
Article
Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.