Immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptide FF-like in the brain of the turtle: Relation to catecholaminergic structures
Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Brain Research Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.72). 04/2008; 75(2-4):256-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.10.025
A previous study in the lizard Gekko gecko has revealed that neuropeptide FF (NPFF, a neuropeptide involved in nociception, cardiovascular regulation, and endocrine function) is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord. Although the distribution of NPFF immunoreactivity shares many features with that found in other vertebrates, it was noted that Gekko shared more features with anamniotes in terms of number of cell groups, more elaborate networks of fibers, and lack of colocalization with catecholamines, than with mammals. To assess the primitive or derived character of these features, NPFF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibodies have been applied to the brain and spinal cord of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, which belongs to a different radiation of reptiles. As in Gekko, major NPFF-ir cell groups were found in the diagonal band nucleus of Broca and in the hypothalamus, whereas additional cells were identified in the anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and dorsal cortices, dorsal ventricular ridge, and the intergeniculate leaflet formation. Notable differences are the presence of NPFF-ir cells in the medial cortex and striatum of Pseudemys, which are lacking in Gekko. On the other hand, no NPFF-ir cells could be detected in the septal region and dorsal horn of the spinal cord in Pseudemys. Double staining with NPFF and TH antibodies revealed an intimate relationship between NPFF-ir and TH-ir structures but colocalization could not be established. In conclusion, the distribution of NPFF in the brain of Pseudemys has corroborated previous results in Gekko, but also revealed some notable species differences.
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ABSTRACT: With the aim of gaining more insight into the evolution of the orexinergic systems in the brain of vertebrates we have conducted a comparative analysis of the distribution of orexin-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in two reptiles, the lizard Gekko gecko and the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. In both species most immunoreactive neurons were found in the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the infundibular hypothalamus. Only in the gecko, orexinergic cell bodies were present in the dorsolateral hypothalamic nucleus and the periventricular preoptic nucleus. Fiber labeling was observed in all main brain subdivisions but was more abundant in regions such as the septum, preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and median eminence. Less conspicuous was the innervation of the olfactory bulbs, pallial regions, habenula, dorsomedial and dorsolateral thalamic nuclei, torus semicircularis and spinal cord. Double immunohistofluorescence techniques were applied for the simultaneous detection of the orexinergic systems and the catecholaminergic or serotoninergic systems in the brain of reptiles. Actual colocalization of orexins and catecholamines or serotonin in the same neurons was not observed. However, orexinergic innervation was found in dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic cell groups, such as the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the midbrain tegmentum, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the raphe nuclei.The comparison of the distribution of orexin-immunoreactive neurons and fibers found in reptiles with those reported for other vertebrates reveals a strong resemblance but also notable variations. In addition, the relation between the orexinergic and monoaminergic systems observed in the brain of reptiles seems to be a shared feature among vertebrates.
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ABSTRACT: The patterns of distribution of a set of conserved brain developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the subpallium of the juvenile turtle, Pseudemys scripta. Immunohistochemical techniques were used with a combination of primary antibodies for the identification of the main boundaries and subdivisions in the basal telencephalon. In the basal ganglia, the combinatorial expression on Pax6, Nkx2.1, and GABA was a powerful tool for the identification of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsal portion of the striatum, and the pallidal regions. It was also possible to suggest migratory streams of neurons from the pallidum into the striatal regions. On the basis of GABA, Pax6, Tbr1, tyrosine hydroxylase, Darpp32, and Nkx2.1 combinatorial expression patterns, the boundaries of the septal subdivisions and their embryological origin were assessed. In particular, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis was identified. Within the amygdaloid complex, the striatal central amygdala was characterized by Pax6 expression, whereas Orthopedia gene expression highlighted, at least, a subdivision of the medial amygdala. A newly identified preoptic commissural area and the boundaries of the preoptic area were assessed, mainly by the localization of Nkx2.1 expression. Finally, additional data were obtained by combining immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques on the interneuronal nature of the cholinerginergic, nitrergic, and Nkx2.1-positive striatal cells. Taken together, all the results of the present study allowed recognizing main features in the organization of the subpallium in reptiles that, in most cases, are shared with other amniotes and amphibians.
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ABSTRACT: The patterns of distribution of a set of conserved brain developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the hypothalamus of the juvenile turtle, Pseudemys scripta. Combined immunohistochemical techniques were used for the identification of the main boundaries and subdivisions in the optic, paraventricular, tuberal, and mammillary hypothalamic regions. The combination of Tbr1 and Pax6 with Nkx2.1 allowed identification of the boundary between the telencephalic preoptic area, rich in Nkx2.1 expression, and the prethalamic eminence, rich in Tbr1 expression. In addition, at this level Nkx2.2 expression defined the boundary between the telencephalon and the hypothalamus. The dorsalmost hypothalamic domain was the supraoptoparaventricular region that was defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6 and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. Ventrally, the suprachiasmatic area was identified by its catecholaminergic groups and the lack of Otp, and could be further divided into a rostral portion, rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2, and a caudal portion, rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1 expression. The expressions of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 defined the tuberal hypothalamus, whereas only the rostral portion expressed Otp. Its caudal boundary was evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary area, which expressed Nkx2.1 and Otp. All these results provide an important set of data on the interpretation of the hypothalamic organization in a reptile, and hence make a useful contribution to the understanding of hypothalamic evolution.
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