The in vitro Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 and Type-2 Activity of Long Dan Xie Gan Tan, a Prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Department of Cosmetic Applications and Management, Tung Fang Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 1.29). 02/2008; 54(2):77-83. DOI: 10.1159/000119705
Source: PubMed


Long Dan Xie Gan Tan (LDXGT), a decoction of radix gentianae for purging the pathogenic inflammation of the liver, is a widely used prescription among many in traditional Chinese medicine. The prescription is primarily used to treat the disorders induced by damp-heat in the liver and the gall bladder.
In this study, the in vitro anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and type-2 (HSV-2) activity of the water extract of LDXGT was investigated.
LDXGT water extract was shown to exhibit anti-HSV activity. The IC(50) values of LDXGT against HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were 257.5 +/- 12.2 and 494.6 +/- 1.8 microg/ml, respectively. It had a CC(50) value of 4,077.2 +/- 2.4 microg/ml towards Vero cells and showed no cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 2,000 microg/ml or below. The prescription was also found to inactivate HSV-2 infectivity in a dose-, time- and temperature-dependent manner.
In summary, the water extract of LDXGT was concluded to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection at different magnitudes of potency, and our observations also suggested that the effect was likely mediated by directly inactivating the virus infectivity.

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    • "We have previously reported several natural products and herbal medicines that inhibit HSV infection and replication. For instance, ent-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, extracted from Cassia javanica, inhibits HSV-2 replication; the herbal prescriptions Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tan (龍膽瀉肝湯 Lóng Dǎn Xiè Gān Tāng) and Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo Tang) both possess broad efficiency in diminishing HSV-1 and HSV-2 infectivity; hippomanin A, geraniin, 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose, and excoecarianin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria (葉下珠 Yè Xià Zhū) can potently impede HSV infection.[727374757677] In addition, we have also identified the hydrolyzable tannins chebulagic acid and punicalagin as cell surface glycosaminoglycan (GAG) competitors that can inhibit HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread.[78] "
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    ABSTRACT: Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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    • "In fact, studies on TCM therapy for viral diseases are popular [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]. For the treatment of PRRS, many reports on TCM are available, especially when its clinical effect receives recognition from veterinary experts. "
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    ABSTRACT: An ethylacetate-soluble fraction (ET4) from the lichen Ramalina farinacea has previously been shown to inhibit the infectivity of lentiviral and adenoviral vectors, as well as wild-type HIV-1. We now determined the antiviral activity of ET4 against other wild-type viruses, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Wild-type HIV-1, HSV-1 or RSV were pre-incubated with various concentrations of ET4 for 30 min at 37 degrees C before adding to P4CCR5 indicator cell line (HIV-1), ELVIS TM indicator cell line (HSV-1) or HEp2 cell line (RSV) in 96-well microtitre plates. Controls contain virus alone without ET4. The anti-HIV and anti-HSV activities were quantified by estimating beta-galactosidase expression of the respective indicator cell lines while the anti-RSV activity was determined via an immunofluorescent technique, employing monoclonal mouse antibody against the P-protein of RSV. Toxicity of ET4 to cell lines was evaluated in parallel using either the BrdU incorporation method or the MTT method. The effect of ET4 on the enzymatic activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was also evaluated using a chemiluminescent reverse transcriptase assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the whole methanol extract of R. farinacea involved sequential screening of HPLC fractions using a vector-based assay technique. ET4 inhibited HSV-1 and RSV potently (IC(50)=6.09 and 3.65 microg/ml, respectively). Time-of-addition studies suggest that both entry and post-entry steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle and the entry step of the RSV replication cycle are targeted. Furthermore, ET4 inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 0.022 microg/ml. Bioassay-guided fractionation of ET4 led to the identification sub-fraction rfO, with activity against lentiviral vector and HIV-1 (RNA viruses) but not against HSV-1 (DNA virus) and sub-fraction rfM, with activity against HSV-1 but not against the lentiviral vector. ET4 represents a novel fraction from the lichen R. farinacea with broad spectrum antiviral activity against DNA viruses (adenovirus and HSV-1) and RNA viruses (HIV-1 and RSV). The effect against DNA and RNA viruses is mediated by different sub-fractions within R. farinacea.
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