Thrombotic microangiopathy following pancreas after kidney transplants
Department of Surgery and Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Clinical Transplantation
(Impact Factor: 1.52).
03/2007; 22(2):236-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2007.00765.x
Advances in immunosuppressive therapy and refinement in surgical techniques have allowed pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation to become a viable therapeutic option for patients with brittle type I diabetic recipients of a living donor or previous deceased kidney alone transplant. Although maintenance immunosuppressive therapy is not significantly changed after the addition of a pancreas, a temporary booster in immunosuppressive therapy and an increase in the dose of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) are required after PAK transplantation. The latter has been implicated in the observed variable decline in kidney allograft function. We herein report two cases of kidney allograft dysfunction following PAK transplant due to biopsy-proven transplant, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Whether PAK transplantation pre-disposes a subset of patients to the development of post-transplant TMA is not known. Diagnostic kidney biopsies should be considered in PAK transplant recipients with worsening kidney allograft function.
Available from: Amitabh Gautam
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ABSTRACT: The reasons for kidney allograft failure subsequent to pancreas after kidney (PAK) are multifactorial; therefore, we examined these factors to identify a meaningful risk assessment that could assist in patient selection.
Five transplant centers in New England collaborated for this multiinstitutional retrospective study of 126 PAK transplantation recipients who had a functioning pancreas allograft 7 days after transplantation. Host factors (age at pancreas transplant, gender, body weight, glomerular filtration rate at 3 months pre-PAK and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post-PAK, presence of proteinuria, pre- or post-PAK kidney rejection, pancreas rejection, cytomegalovirus disease, and HbA1C at 6-month post-PAK) and transplant factors (time to PAK, use of induction antibody therapy, and combinations of immunosuppressive medications) were assessed in both univariate and multivariate analyses for the primary outcome of kidney allograft failure.
Of the variables assessed, factors associated with kidney allograft loss after PAK include impaired renal function in the 3 months before PAK, proteinuria, the occurrence of a post-PAK kidney rejection episode, and interval between kidney and pancreas transplantation more than 1 year.
In our analysis, post-PAK kidney allograft loss was strongly associated with glomerular filtration rate less than 45 mL/min pre-PAK, K to P interval of over 1 year, pre-PAK kidney rejection episode, and pre-PAK proteinuria. Diabetic candidates for PAK with any of these conditions should be counseled regarding the risk of post-PAK renal transplant failure.
Available from: Richard Chinnock
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ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have been clearly associated with posttransplant thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTMA). We report a case of de novo PT-TMA involving predominantly small arteries and arterioles of a renal allograft in a patient receiving tacrolimus. Serial biopsies demonstrate the natural history of this lesion through the chronic nonspecific phase. The case is discussed in the context of a literature review of PT-TMA in general and CNI use in particular.
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