Bridging Science and Practice in Violence Prevention: Addressing Ten Key Challenges

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop F63, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
American Journal of Community Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 07/2008; 41(3-4):197-205. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-008-9171-2
Source: PubMed


This article illustrates ideas for bridging science and practice generated during the Division of Violence Prevention's (DVP) dissemination/implementation planning process. The difficulty of moving what is known about what works into broader use is near universal, and this planning process pushed us to look beyond the common explanations (e.g., providers were resistant/unwilling to change practice) and think about the multiple layers and systems involved. As part of this planning process, the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) was developed and then applied to the fields of child maltreatment and youth violence prevention. Challenges for each of the three systems in the ISF are discussed as well as and action and research ideas to address the challenges. Also described are actions taken by DVP in response to the planning process to illustrate how a funder can use the ISF to bridge science and practice.

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    • "This article shares information from a collaboration between a state university, a public child welfare agency, and four private foster care providers that formed in response to the Children's Bureau's Permanency Innovations Initiative. Despite a considerable body of research on the diffusion of innovation (Rogers, 1962, 1983, 1995, 2003), and significant advances among implementation scientists to define the core components of successful evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation (Aarons, Hurlburt, & Horwitz, 2011; Fixsen, Blase, Naoom, & Wallace, 2009; Kitson, Harvey, & McCormack, 1998), surprisingly little has been published about the real-world process by which a human services agency might choose the most appropriate EBP for its target population (Damanpour, 1991; see Arean & Gum, 2006; and Saul et al., 2008 for noteworthy exceptions). To augment actionable knowledge about the stages of implementation increasingly known as Exploration and Adoption (Aarons et al., 2011; Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005), this article describes an iterative fourstep process used by the Kansas Intensive Permanency Project (KIPP), a PII grantee, to select an EBP to improve permanency outcomes for a subpopulation at highest risk of LTFC: children with a serious emotional disturbance (SED). "
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    ABSTRACT: A growing implementation literature outlines broad evidence-based practice implementation principles and pitfalls. Less robust is knowledge about the real-world process by which a state or agency chooses an evidence-based practice to implement and evaluate. Using a major U.S. initiative to reduce long-term foster care as the case, this article describes three major aspects of the evidence-based practice selection process: defining a target population, selecting an evidence-based practice model and purveyor, and tailoring the model to the practice context. Use of implementation science guidelines and lessons learned from a unique private-public-university partnership are discussed.
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    • "In addition, information about what works has not been effectively communicated to practitioners (Kerner & Hall, 2009; Saul et al., 2008). As a result, most community practice is not based on evidence of effectiveness (Glasgow, Lichtenstein, & Marcus, 2003; Ringwalt et al., 2009; Saul et al., 2008). That is, communities most often implement preventive interventions that have not been evaluated or which show no evidence of success in reducing problem behaviors, which hampers the ability to significantly reduce rates of youth violence community-and nation-wide. "
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    • "While collaborations develop for different purposes, they have been proposed as a valuable facilitator of macro-level change. Formalized coordination is especially critical for youth violence prevention, as this issue suffers from the " many homes " and " no home " syndromes, i.e., responsibility to address youth violence is typically fragmented across agencies or falls through the cracks between them (Saul et al. 2008). Collaboration is beneficial because it can focus attention on an issue and " braid together " efforts of separate organizations (Spoth and Greenberg 2011). "
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