Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95S, S5-S28

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Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.42). 07/2008; 95 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S5-S28. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.01.004
Source: PubMed


The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of later substance abuse and dependence disorders, smoking, and antisocial personality disorder. This article reports on impact to ages 19-21.
In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, three or four schools were matched and within each set randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) GBG, (2) a curriculum-and-instruction program directed at reading achievement, or (3) the standard program. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and then, within intervention schools, classrooms and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control.
By young adulthood significant impact was found among males, particularly those in first grade who were more aggressive, disruptive, in reduced drug and alcohol abuse/dependence disorders, regular smoking, and antisocial personality disorder. These results underline the value of a first-grade universal prevention intervention. REPLICATION: A replication was implemented with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers during the following school year, but with diminished mentoring and monitoring of teachers. The results showed significant GBG impact for males on drug abuse/dependence disorders with some variation. For other outcomes the effects were generally smaller but in the predicted direction.

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    • "Participants completed surveys through interviews with research staff who were blind to previous assessments and received rigorous training prior to field work. Additional study details can be found in previous papers (see Storr et al. 2004; Wilcox & Anthony, 2004; Kellam et al. 2008; Wilcox et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: To develop latent classes of exposure to traumatic experiences before the age of 13 years in an urban community sample and to use these latent classes to predict the development of negative behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. A total of 1815 participants in an epidemiologically based, randomized field trial as children completed comprehensive psychiatric assessments as young adults. Reported experiences of nine traumatic experiences before age 13 years were used in a latent class analysis to create latent profiles of traumatic experiences. Latent classes were used to predict psychiatric outcomes at age ⩾13 years, criminal convictions, physical health problems and traumatic experiences reported in young adulthood. Three latent classes of childhood traumatic experiences were supported by the data. One class (8% of sample), primarily female, was characterized by experiences of sexual assault and reported significantly higher rates of a range of psychiatric outcomes by young adulthood. Another class (8%), primarily male, was characterized by experiences of violence exposure and reported higher levels of antisocial personality disorder and post-traumatic stress. The final class (84%) reported low levels of childhood traumatic experiences. Parental psychopathology was related to membership in the sexual assault group. Classes of childhood traumatic experiences predict specific psychiatric and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term adverse effects of childhood traumas are primarily concentrated in victims of sexual and non-sexual violence. Gender emerged as a key covariate in the classes of trauma exposure and outcomes.
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    • "The GBG is a classroom-based intervention that aims to reinforce prosocial behaviour and reduce aggressive and disruptive behaviour (Barrish et al., 1969; Dolan et al., 1989) among primary school children. The GBG has been shown effective in preventing and reducing behavioural problems in the classroom (Embry, 2002; Van Lier et al., 2004; Tingstrom et al., 2006) and also has positive long-term effects on, for example, smoking, drug and alcohol abuse, antisocial personality disorder and violent and criminal behaviour (Kellam et al., 2008; Petras et al., 2008; Poduska et al., 2008; van Lier et al., 2009). Because of its strong beneficial short-and long-term effects, the GBG is able to deliver a substantial positive contribution to population health; however, to achieve this, the program has to be sustained for longer periods of time (see Box 1 for a detailed description of the GBG program and its implementation). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sustainability of health promotion programs is essential to maintain their positive effects. However, few studies have examined the extent of program sustainability and the factors influencing it. We examined these issues through the Good Behaviour Game (GBG), a classroom-based program in primary schools with beneficial behavioural and health-related effects that was implemented in 2008. GBG coordinators of 17 participating schools were invited in the study 2 years after the initial program implementation. Sustainability was measured using a 20-item checklist comprised of four dimensions of routinization including: memory, adaptation, values and rules. A semi-structured interview was then completed with 16 of the GBG coordinators to discuss the checklist scores and to probe in more depth the current level of sustainability. Based on the checklist scores, sustainability of the GBG was considered 'high' in five schools, 'medium' in another five and 'weak' in six. Factors influencing sustainability identified by GBG coordinators were organizational strength, strong leadership, program championship and the perceived modifiability and effectiveness of the GBG. Also, different factors were related to different dimensions of routinization. The combination of a sustainability checklist and an interview about influential factors may help to further clarify the sustainability construct and reveal which implementation sites, routinization dimensions and influential factors should be explored to further facilitate the sustaining of programs with proven effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
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    • "During the past two decades, researchers have conducted a handful of large violence prevention research trials in multiple schools across the United States (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group 2009; Kellam et al. 2008; The Multisite Violence Prevention environmental or higher-order factors rather than lower-order factors (Raudenbush and Sampson 1999). For example, in the Gottfredson et al. (2005) study, the low intra-class coefficients raise concern about considering school disorder as an environmental factor. "
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