Linking Notch signaling to ischemic stroke

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 04/2008; 105(12):4856-61. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0709867105
Source: PubMed


Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke, the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of long-term neurological disability in the world. However, there is little insight into the underlying cellular pathways that link SMC function to brain ischemia susceptibility. Using a hitherto uncharacterized knockout mouse model of Notch 3, a Notch signaling receptor paralogue highly expressed in vascular SMCs, we uncover a striking susceptibility to ischemic stroke upon challenge. Cellular and molecular analyses of vascular SMCs derived from these animals associate Notch 3 activity to the expression of specific gene targets, whereas genetic rescue experiments unambiguously link Notch 3 function in vessels to the ischemic phenotype.

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Available from: Salvatore Salomone
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    • "Jagged1 plays a critical role in the regulation of VSMC recruitment/maturation via Notch3 during early embryonic development [28]. Deficiency of Notch3 has been shown to disrupt VSMC differentiation and to increase infarct size in ischemic stroke [29]–[31]. Recent studies reveal that ethanol and cyclic strain stimulate endothelial cell angiogenic activity via a Notch/Ang-1/Tie-2 pathway suggesting potential cross-talk between Notch signaling and the Ang-1/Tie-2 pathway [32], [33]. The present data show that overexpression of Ang-1 significantly increased Jagged 1 and Notch3 expression in the db/db mouse hearts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic progenitor CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells have been shown to be involved in myocardial healing following myocardial infarction (MI). Previously we demonstrated that angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) is beneficial in the repair of diabetic infarcted hearts. We now investigate whether Ang-1 affects CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cell recruitment to the infarcted myocardium thereby mediating cardiac repair in type II (db/db) diabetic mice. db/db mice were administered either adenovirus Ang-1 (Ad-Ang-1) or Ad-β-gal systemically immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant increase in CXCR-4/SDF-1α expression and promoted CD133(+)/c-kit(+), CD133(+)/CXCR-4(+) and CD133(+)/SDF-1α(+) cell recruitment into ischemic hearts. Overexpression of Ang-1 led to significant increases in number of CD31(+) and smooth muscle-like cells and VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM). This was accompanied by significant decreases in cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and an increase in myocardial capillary density. Ang-1 also upregulated Jagged-1, Notch3 and apelin expression followed by increases in arteriole formation in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant improvement of cardiac functional recovery after 14 days of ischemia. Our data strongly suggest that Ang-1 attenuates cardiac apoptosis and promotes cardiac repair by a mechanism involving in promoting CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells and angiogenesis in diabetic db/db mouse infarcted hearts.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "ANK = ankyrin repeat; cDNA = position of the SNP according to the NOTCH3 cDNA sequence, EGFR = epidermal growth factor-like repeat; LCR = low complexity region; LNR = Lin12/Notch repeat; NOD = Notch domain; NS = non-synonymous mutation, prom: promoter; S = synonymous mutation; SNP ID = Identification number of rare SNP according to their position in the NOTCH3 gene; TMD = transmembrane domain; WML + = individuals with severe white matter lesions, WML À = individuals with normal MRI. 3392 | Brain 2011: 134; 3384–3397 H. Schmidt et al. (Arboleda-Velasquez et al., 2008). Notch3 is also involved in the local vascular reaction to mechanical stress and to hypertension by modulating vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and by affecting the balance between their proliferation and apoptosis (Morrow et al., 2005, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral small vessel disease-related brain lesions such as white matter lesions and lacunes are common findings of magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. These lesions are thought to be major contributors to disability in old age, and risk factors that include age and hypertension have been established. The radiological, histopathologic and clinical phenotypes of age-related cerebral small vessel disease remarkably resemble autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, which is caused by mutations in NOTCH3. We hypothesized that genetic variations in NOTCH3 also play a role in age-related cerebral small vessel disease. We directly sequenced all 33 exons, the promoter and 3'-untranslated region of NOTCH3 in 195 participants with either coalescent white matter lesions or lacunes and compared the results to 82 randomly selected participants with no focal changes on magnetic resonance images in the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. We detected nine common and 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 20 were novel. All common single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the entire cohort (n = 888), and four of them, rs1043994, rs10404382, rs10423702 and rs1043997, were associated significantly with both the presence and progression of white matter lesions. The association was confined to hypertensives, a result which we replicated in the Cohorts for Heart and Ageing Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium on an independent sample of 4773 stroke-free hypertensive elderly individuals of European descent (P = 0.04). The 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms were scattered over the NOTCH3 gene with three being located in the promoter region, 24 in exons (18 non-synonymous), three in introns and three in the 3'-untranslated region. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms affected a cysteine residue. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant, PolyPhen2 analyses and protein structure simulation consistently predicted six of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (H170R, P496L, V1183M, L1518M, D1823N and V1952M) to be functional, with four being exclusively or mainly detected in subjects with severe white matter lesions. In four individuals with rare non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, we noted anterior temporal lobe hyperintensity, hyperintensity in the external capsule, lacunar infarcts or subcortical lacunar lesions. None of the observed abnormalities were specific to cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy. This is the first comprehensive study investigating (i) the frequency of NOTCH3 variations in community-dwelling elderly and (ii) their effect on cerebral small vessel disease related magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes. We show that the NOTCH3 gene is highly variable with both common and rare single nucleotide polymorphisms spreading across the gene, and that common variants at the NOTCH3 gene increase the risk of age-related white matter lesions in hypertensives. Additional investigations are required to explore the biological mechanisms underlying the observed association.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Brain
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    • "To study N3 expression and function in T cell development, we generated mice from embryonic stems cells in which N3 is fused in frame with β-galactosidase (LacZ), generating a null allele of N3 and a reporter for N3 gene expression [37]–[39]. Upon challenge, N3LacZ/LacZ mice show increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke [40], but when unperturbed they appear normal and healthy, allowing us to determine how loss of N3 function impacts T cell development. We employed a sensitive fluorogenic substrate to detect N3/LacZ reporter expression in progenitors just before and after the β-selection checkpoint. "
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    ABSTRACT: Notch1 (N1) signaling induced by intrathymic Delta-like (DL) ligands is required for T cell lineage commitment as well as self-renewal during "β-selection" of TCRβ⁺CD4⁻CD8⁻ double negative 3 (DN3) T cell progenitors. However, over-expression of the N1 intracellular domain (ICN1) renders N1 activation ligand-independent and drives leukemic transformation during β-selection. DN3 progenitors also express Notch3 (N3) mRNA, and over-expression of ligand-independent mutant N3 (ICN3) influences β-selection and drives T cell leukemogenesis. However, the importance of ligand-activated N3 in promoting β-selection and ICN1-induced T cell leukemogenesis has not been examined. To address these questions we generated mice lacking functional N3. We confirmed that DN3 progenitors express N3 protein using a N3-specific antibody. Surprisingly however, N3-deficient DN3 thymocytes were not defective in generating DP thymocytes under steady state conditions or in more stringent competition assays. To determine if N3 co-operates with N1 to regulate β-selection, we generated N1;N3 compound mutants. However, N3 deficiency did not exacerbate the competitive defect of N1⁺/⁻ DN3 progenitors, demonstrating that N3 does not compensate for limiting N1 during T cell development. Finally, N3 deficiency did not attenuate T cell leukemogenesis induced by conditional expression of ICN1 in DN3 thymocytes. Importantly, we showed that in contrast to N1, N3 has a low binding affinity for DL4, the most abundant intrathymic DL ligand. Thus, despite the profound effects of ectopic ligand-independent N3 activation on T cell development and leukemogenesis, physiologically activated N3 is dispensable for both processes, likely because N3 interacts poorly with intrathymic DL4.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · PLoS ONE
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