Article

Injection Pharyngoplasty With Calcium Hydroxyapatite for Treatment of Velopalatal Insufficiency

Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.33). 04/2008; 134(3):268-71. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.134.3.268
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy of injectable calcium hydroxylapatite for treatment of velopalatal (VP) insufficiency (VPI).
Observational case series of 7 patients treated with injectable calcium hydroxylapatite for VPI and followed for 10 to 24 months.
Academic pediatric otolaryngology practice.
Seven children aged 6 to 16 years with clinically significant VPI stemming from documented small VP gaps and who did not benefit from speech therapy were treated with calcium hydroxylapatite injection pharyngoplasty.
Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation with calcium hydroxylapatite.
Treatment success was defined as (1) speech improvement to the degree that parents felt no additional treatment was needed and (2) meeting postoperative nasometric measures. Treatment failure was defined as parental report of insufficient improvement in speech. Complications and additional treatments for VPI were noted.
There were no major complications in any of the 7 children injected with calcium hydroxylapatite. There was 1 minor complication: 1 patient was readmitted for postoperative pain and dehydration. Of the 7 patients, 4 experienced a satisfactory result for up to 17 months. Findings from postoperative nasometry were either within reference range, or less than 1 SD greater than the reference range, for all sounds. There were 3 treatment failures, each with preexisting craniofacial abnormality. Two patients in the group that failed treatment later underwent revision superior pharyngeal flap surgery without complication or hindrance from the calcium hydroxylapatite injection. Four children underwent subsequent magnetic resonance imaging evaluations up to 1 year after injection, which revealed no evidence of migration.
The data from this small series suggest that posterior pharyngeal wall injection with calcium hydroxylapatite is safe and may be effective in treating select patients with VPI. Further longitudinal studies, with a larger series of patients, examining the safety, efficacy, and patient selection are warranted to better understand the possible use of posterior pharyngeal wall injection of calcium hydroxylapatite in children with symptomatic VPI.

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    • "All patients were fulfilling the following criteria: -The hypernasal speech started after adenoidectomy with a history of pre-adenoidectomy normal speech. -No speech improvement for at least 3 months after adenoid removal [8] [9] [10]. -No history of cleft palate repair. "
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent hypernasality after adenoidectomy is an infrequent problem in children with normal palate. However if it happened, it can render a child's speech unintelligible resulting in serious affection of social life. We aimed in this study to identify the causes of persistent post-adenoidectomy velopharyngeal insufficiency and to assess the efficacy of sphincter pharyngoplasty in the treatment of such problem. This study was conducted on 18 patients complained of hypernasal speech following removal of their adenoids after variable periods of failed expected spontaneous improvement. Their hypernasality was rated as being mild, moderate and severe, all cases were subjected to conservative treatment in the form of speech therapy for 3 months to correct the problem, and patients that did not respond to speech therapy were subjected to surgical intervention in the form of sphincter pharyngoplasty. Velopharyngeal closure was assessed using flexible nasopharyngoscopy, while speech was assessed using auditory perceptual assessment and nasometry. Hypernasality was mild in 9 cases, moderate in 7 cases and severe in 2 cases. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy showed occult submucous cleft in 5 cases, short palate in 2 cases, and deep nasopharynx in 3 cases. Speech improvement was achieved in 8 cases after completion of speech therapy program (all had mild hypernasality with no anatomical palatal defects). Ten patients that had palatal defects were subjected to sphincter pharyngoplasty, 8 of them showed complete recovery, while 2 cases with severe hypernasality showed partial improvement of their speech. Persistent post-adenoidectomy velopharyngeal insufficiency may be due to anatomical abnormalities of the palate such as an occult submucous cleft, short palate or deep nasopharynx; such conditions may be overlooked during the preoperative preparation for adenoid removal. Speech therapy is an effective method in mild hypernasality especially if there is no anatomical abnormality, while surgical correction is usually needed in moderate and severe cases, and sphincter pharyngoplasty is a useful choice for those patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Children with submucous cleft palate who suffer from chronic nasal obstruction because of hypertrophic adenoids usually are not subjected to adenoidectomy because of the fear of postoperative velopharyngeal insufficiency. These patients present a therapeutic challenge because we are aware more than ever of the importance of normal nasal breathing and nocturnal respiration, especially during childhood. Our hypothesis was that transnasal endoscopic horizontal limited adenoidectomy may relieve nasal obstruction while preserving the function of the velopharyngeal valve. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transnasal endoscopic horizontal partial adenoidectomy in patients with submucous cleft palate and adenoidal hypertrophy. Patients were either referred to the outpatient clinic of the Palate Surgery Unit (seven patients) or were patients referred to the senior author's (Y.F.) private clinic. All the patients had been operated on by this senior author (Y.F.). Ten children aged 3.5 to 13 years (six girls and four boys) with submucous cleft palate and hypertrophic adenoids were included in the study. All the patients were hyponasal and suffered nasal obstruction, loud snoring, and episodes of apnea. Endoscopic partial adenoidectomy was accomplished to open the lower third of the choanae. Nasal breathing was achieved in all the patients, and only mild snoring remained in two patients. The hyponasality disappeared and speech intelligibility normalized. Mild hypernasality developed in two patients but was still perceived as an overall improvement in speech. Transnasal endoscopic horizontal partial adenoidectomy may be an effective surgical method for relief of nasal obstruction while preserving velopharyngeal valve function in patients with submucous cleft palate who suffer from obstructive adenoids.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2002 · The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence and natural history of middle ear disease in children with congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) without cleft palate. Children with congenital VPI attending the combined cleft clinic at a tertiary cleft center. The diagnosis of congenital VPI in all cases was confirmed be the observation of hypernasality, nasal air escape, or both by a speech and language therapist and the demonstration of incompetence of the velopharyngeal sphincter by means of nasoendoscopy or videofluoroscopy. Children with overt cleft palate or postsurgical VPI were excluded. The children's medical records were reviewed, and a questionnaire regarding history of ear problems was sent to all parents. Children were divided into those with Pruzansky type I VPI (showing bifid uvula, midline diastasis of soft palate, or submucous cleft of the hard palate) and Pruzansky type II VPI (no visible stigmata). Incidence of reported ear problems, ear infections, hearing loss, and surgical intervention for middle ear disease in the whole group and in each of the subgroups. Seventy-one parents returned completed questionnaires. The overall incidence of middle ear disease was 63%, with 28% reported to have below-normal hearing. There was no significant difference between children with Pruzansky types I and II VPI with respect to incidence of otopathology or hearing loss. Irrespective of the presence of any visible palatal abnormalities, children with congenital VPI showed a substantial incidence of otopathology and should thus be closely monitored.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
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