Phase II Study of Sunitinib Malate, an Oral Multitargeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Treated With an Anthracycline and a Taxane

ArticleinJournal of Clinical Oncology 26(11):1810-6 · April 2008with11 Reads
DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2007.14.5375 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Sunitinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, stem cell factor receptor (KIT), and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. This phase II, open-label, multicenter study evaluated sunitinib monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Sixty-four patients previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane received sunitinib 50 mg/d in 6-week cycles (4 weeks on, then 2 weeks off treatment). The primary end point was objective response rate. Plasma samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic and biomarker analysis. Seven patients achieved a partial response (median duration, 19 weeks), giving an overall response rate of 11%. Three additional patients (5%) maintained stable disease for >or= 6 months. Median time to progression and overall survival were 10 and 38 weeks, respectively. Notably, responses occurred in triple negative tumors and HER2-positive, trastuzumab-treated patients. Thirty-three patients (52%) required dose interruption during >or= 1 cycle, and 25 patients required dose reduction (39%). Thirty-six patients (56%) had dose modifications due to adverse events (AEs). Treatment was associated with increases in plasma VEGF and decreases in soluble VEGFRs and KIT. The most common AEs were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, mucosal inflammation, and anorexia. Most AEs were mild to moderate (grade 1 to 2) in severity and were effectively managed with dose delays or reductions. Sunitinib is active in patients with heavily pretreated MBC. Most AEs were of mild-to-moderate severity and manageable with supportive treatment and/or dose modification. Further studies in breast cancer are warranted.
    • "Targets of sunitinib include vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor receptors and stem cell factor receptor . In MBC, single agent sunitinib demonstrated antitumoral effect with overall response rate of 11% in a phase II trial (Burstein et al., 2008). In a subsequent phase III trial the addition of sunitinib to standard first line treatment with docetaxel was assessed (Bergh et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of longitudinal metastatic biopsies for gene expression profiling in breast cancer is unexplored. Dynamic changes in gene expression can potentially predict efficacy of targeted cancer drugs. Patients enrolled in a phase III trial of metastatic breast cancer with docetaxel monotherapy versus combination of docetaxel + sunitinib were offered to participate in a translational substudy comprising longitudinal fine needle aspiration biopsies and Positron Emission Tomography imaging before (T1) and two weeks after start of treatment (T2). Aspirated tumor material was used for microarray analysis, and treatment-induced changes (T2 versus T1) in gene expression and standardized uptake values (SUV) were investigated and correlated to clinical outcome measures. Gene expression profiling yielded high-quality data at both time points in 14/18 patients. Unsupervised clustering revealed specific patterns of changes caused by monotherapy vs. combination therapy (p = 0.021, Fisher’s exact test). A therapy-induced reduction of known proliferation and hypoxia metagene scores was prominent in the combination arm. Changes in a previously reported hypoxia metagene score were strongly correlated to the objective responses seen by conventional radiology assessments after 6 weeks in the combination arm, Spearman’s ρ = 1 (p = 0.017) but not in monotherapy, ρ = -0.029 (p = 1). Similarly, the Predictor Analysis of Microarrays 50 (PAM50) proliferation metagene correlated to tumor changes merely in the combination arm at 6 and 12 weeks (ρ = 0.900, p = 0.083 and ρ = 1, p = 0.017 respectively). Reductions in mean SUV were a reliable early predictor of objective response in monotherapy, ρ = 0.833 (p = 0.008), but not in the combination arm ρ = -0.029 (p = 1). Gene expression profiling of longitudinal metastatic aspiration biopsies was feasible, demonstrated biological validity and provided predictive information.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
    • "Tumour VEGF expression is significantly higher in TNBC compared with non TNBC presentations [65]. Studies identifying potential molecular markers of TNBC, such as VEGF [66], EGFR, Tyrosine Kinases [67], Src [68], and mTOR [69], have impacted on the design of clinical trials, investigating targeted treatments in the space of angiogenesis inhibitors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Treatment options for women presenting with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are limited due to the lack of a therapeutic target and as a result, are managed with standard chemotherapy such as paclitaxel (Taxol®). Following chemotherapy, the ideal tumour response is apoptotic cell death. Post-chemotherapy, cells can maintain viability by undergoing viable cellular responses such as cellular senescence, generating secretomes which can directly enhance the malignant phenotype. Scope of review: How tumour cells retain viability in response to chemotherapeutic engagement is discussed. In addition we discuss the implications of this retained tumour cell viability in the context of the development of recurrent and metastatic TNBC disease. Current adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatments available and the novel potential therapies that are being researched are also reviewed. Major conclusions: Cellular senescence and cytoprotective autophagy are potential mechanisms of chemoresistance in TNBC. These two non-apoptotic outcomes in response to chemotherapy are inextricably linked and are neglected outcomes of investigation in the chemotherapeutic arena. Cellular fate assessments may therefore have the potential to predict TNBC patient outcome. General significance: Focusing on the fact that cancer cells can bypass the desired cellular apoptotic response to chemotherapy through cellular senescence and cytoprotective autophagy will highlight the importance of targeting non-apoptotic survival pathways to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "an antiangiogenic effect on breast cancer [9]. A phase II clinical trial of sunitinib monotherapy to MBC was the first evaluation of its clinical efficacy in breast cancer [7]. A total of 64 patients previously failed on anthracycline and taxane drugs received sunitinib on a starting dosage of 50 mg daily in 6-week cycles with 4 weeks on followed by 2 weeks off. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-agent sunitinib as salvage treatment in Chinese patients with multidrug-resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Results: 37 patients were enrolled with median age of 48 years. 17 had hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors, 7 had HER2-positive tumors, and 10 had triple-negative tumors. Among 32 evaluable patients with follow-up, 6 (18.8%) achieved partial response, 14 (43.8%) achieved stable disease, and 11 (34.4%) exhibited tumor shrinkage. The response rate in 9 patients with carcinomatous ulcers was 77.8%. The median progression free survival (PFS) was 8.6 weeks. Patients with a better response had improved overall survival and PFS relative to patients with a worse response (p = 0.007, p < 0.001). Compared with HR-negative tumor, HR-positive tumor had significantly better response to sunitinib (p = 0.035). The most frequent non-hematologic adverse events were fatigue (82.8%) and hypertension (34.5%). Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity included neutropenia (82.8%) and thrombocytopenia (79.3%). There was no correlation between the clinical response and IHC findings. Materials and methods: Patients with MBC who were resistant to multiple salvage regimens (≥ 3 previous chemotherapy lines) were enrolled to receive sunitinib monotherapy. Dosage adjustment was allowed depending on adverse events. 14 patients underwent immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for VEGF, PDGFR, EGFR and c-KIT. Conclusions: Sunitinib salvage treatment provided modest antitumor effect to patients with refractory multidrug-resistant MBC, especially to those with troublesome carcinomatous ulcers. The treatment-related adverse events of sunitinib were manageable through dosage adjustment.
    Article · Nov 2014
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