Molecular Characteristics of Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma, Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma Subtype, Predict Response to Erlotinib

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 04/2008; 26(9):1472-8. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2007.13.0062
Source: PubMed


We conducted this phase II trial to determine the efficacy of erlotinib in patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype, and to determine molecular characteristics associated with response.
Patients (n = 101) with BAC (n = 12) or adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype (n = 89), were enrolled. All patients received erlotinib 150 mg daily. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, EGFR copy number, EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC), and KRAS mutation status were analyzed in available tumors. The primary end point was response rate (RR).
Overall RR was 22% (95% CI, 14% to 31%). In patients with pure BAC, the RR and median survival were 20% and 4 months, as compared with 23% and 19 months in those with adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype. No patient (zero of 18; 95% CI, 0% to 19%) whose tumor harbored a KRAS mutation responded to erlotinib. Patients with EGFR mutations had an 83% RR (15 of 18; 95% CI, 65% to 94%) and 23-month median OS. On univariate analysis, EGFR mutation and copy number were associated with RR and PFS. EGFR IHC was not associated with RR or progression-free survival (PFS). After multivariate analysis, only EGFR mutation was associated with RR and PFS. No molecular factors were associated with overall survival.
Erlotinib is active in BAC and adenocarcinoma, mixed subtype, BAC. Testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations can predict RR and PFS after treatment with erlotinib in this histologically enriched subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These data suggest that histologic subtype and molecular characteristics should be reported in clinical trials in NSCLC using EGFR-directed therapy.

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    • "Recent efforts in lung cancer research to detect driver mutations and novel target sites hold promise to categorize lung cancer patients for suitable therapy regimens. For example, the EGFR-TKI erlotinib represents a potentially effective cancer drug for a subset of lung tumors dependent on the mutation status of EGFR and KRAS [1] [2] [3]. However, 30–40% of patients do not respond to therapy , and most of the Erlotinib responders develop resistance after few months [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The therapeutic scheme for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients can be improved if adapted to the individual response. For example, 60–70% of adenocarcinoma patients show response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the presence of mutated EGFR. We searched for additional target molecules involved in the action of the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in the absence of EGFR mutations, which might be suitable for combinatorial therapy approaches. Materials and Methods Erlotinib-response associated proteins were investigated in patient-derived NSCLC mouse xenografts by reverse-phase protein array technology (RPPA) and Western blotting. A combinatorial treatment approach was carried out in NSCLC cell lines and H1299 mouse xenografts, and subsequently analysed for consequences in cell growth and signal transduction. Results AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression was increased in erlotinib responders before and after treatment. In a combinatorial approach, activation of AMPK by A-769662 and erlotinib treatment showed a synergistic effect in cell growth reduction and apoptosis activation in H1299 cells compared to the single drugs. AMPK pathway analyses revealed an effective inhibition of mTOR signaling by drug combination. In H1299 xenografts, the tumor size was significantly decreased after combinatorial treatment. Conclusion Our results suggest that AMPK activation status affects response to erlotinib in distinct lung tumor models.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Lung Cancer
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    • "Development of resistance to TKI is a thorny problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment [42]. Despite the initial promising response to EGFR-TKIs in majority of NSCLC patients harboring sensitizing EGFR mutations [43], [44], most patients eventually relapse due to the emergence of acquired resistance such as the EGFR T790M mutation or MET amplification, both accounting for about 70% of the acquired resistance [4]. The challenge of tumor drug resistance therefore represents a barrier that confounds the ultimate goal of cure or long-term control of NSCLC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to TKI treatment is a major obstacle in effective treatment of NSCLC. Besides EGFR mutation status, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Some evidence supports a role for microRNA 21 in modulating drug sensitivity of chemotherapy but its role in NSCLC TKI resistance still remains unexplored. This study aimed to investigate whether NSCLC miR-21 mediated resistance to TKIs also results from Pten targeting. Here, we show miR-21 promotes cancer by negatively regulating Pten expression in human NSCLC tissues: high miR-21 expression levels were associated with shorter DFS in 47 NSCLC patients; high miR-21/low Pten expression levels indicated a poor TKI clinical response and shorter overall survival in another 46 NSCLC patients undergoing TKI treatment. In vitro assays showed that miR-21 was up-regulated concomitantly to down-regulation of Pten in pc-9/GR cells in comparison with pc-9 cells. Moreover, over-expression of miR-21 significantly decreased gefitinib sensitivity by down-regulating Pten expression and activating Akt and ERK pathways in pc-9 cells, while miR-21 knockdown dramatically restored gefitinib sensitivity of pc-9/GR cells by up-regulation of Pten expression and inactivation of AKT and ERK pathways, in vivo and in vitro. We propose alteration of miR-21/Pten expression as a novel mechanism for TKI resistance in NSCLC cancer. Our findings provide a new basis for using miR 21/Pten-based therapeutic strategies to reverse gefitinib resistance in NSCLC.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "A high EGFR copy number showed a trend toward poor prognosis in the absence of EGFR-TKI treatment [10,11]. Recent studies have shown that high EGFR gene copy number is associated with increased response rates to TKI therapy, as well as improved PFS [12,13] and OS[14-16]. Several studies have demonstrated that increased EGFR gene copy number and mutations display a high degree of overlap and the fluorescence in-situ hybridization-positive (FISH+) rate in patients with EGFR mutations was approximately 62.5% to 77.6% [3,17-20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study was designed to determine whether advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high copy number of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Methods EGFR gene copy number was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and EGFR mutations was tested using Luminex xTAG technology in 502 TKI-treated NSCLC patients. The association between both biomarkers and clinical benefit from EGFR-TKI were analyzed. Results EGFR FISH + and EGFR mutations were significantly associated with higher response rates (37.2% and 43.7%, respectively), superior progression-free survival (PFS) (FISH+, 11.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.62; p < 0.001; mutation+, 11.7 months; HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.45; p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (FISH+, 30.2 months; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.65; p < 0.001; mutation+, 30.2 months; HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.58; p < 0.001). In patients with wild-type EGFR, EGFR FISH + correlated with longer PFS than EGFR FISH- status (4.4 months vs. 2.0 months; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.75; p < 0.001), so did amplification (5.0 months vs. 2.0 months; HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.76; p = 0.003). However, FISH + had no association with improved PFS in EGFR-mutated patients (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.03; p = 0.076). Conclusions A combined analysis of EGFR FISH and mutation is an effective predictor of EGFR-TKI therapy. Specifically, a high EGFR copy number may predict benefit from TKIs treatment for NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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