Epidemiology of Heart Failure

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia (Impact Factor: 3.79). 03/2004; 57(2):163-70. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.300268
Source: PubMed


Of all persons aged over 40 years, approximately 1% have heart failure. The prevalence of heart failure doubles with each decade of life, and is around 10% in persons over 70 years of age. In Spain, heart failure causes nearly 80,000 hospital admissions every year. As in other developed countries, heart failure is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among persons 65 years of age and over, and is responsible for 5% of all hospitalizations. The incidence of heart failure increases with age, and reaches 1% per year in those over 65. Heart failure is a progressive, lethal disorder, even with adequate treatment. Five-year survival is around 50%, which is no better than that for many cancers. In Spain, heart failure is the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, after coronary disease and stroke. In 2000, heart failure caused 4% of all deaths and 10% of cardiovascular deaths in men; the corresponding figures for women were 8% and 18%. In recent decades the prevalence and number of hospitalizations due to heart failure have increased steadily in developed countries. Heart failure will probably continue to increase in coming years: although its incidence has not materially decreased, survival is increasing due to better treatment. The control of risk factors for hypertension and ischemic heart disease, the main causes of heart failure in Spain, is the only method to halt the foreseeable increase in heart failure in the near future.

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Available from: Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Feb 13, 2014
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    • "The salient finding in the present study was that FABP4 was independently and negatively correlated with e’, which reflects LV relaxation and is known as one of the most sensitive indexes of LV diastolic function in a healthy population [14]. LV diastolic dysfunction often precedes LV systolic dysfunction in heart diseases, and moderate diastolic dysfunction alone potentially induces heart failure, which is referred to as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) [15]. A recent study in which data from the Framingham cohort study were analyzed showed that age, diabetes mellitus, BMI, smoking and atrial fibrillation were predictors of HFpEF [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown secretion of FABP4 from adipocytes and association of elevated serum FABP4 level with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about role of FABP4 in cardiac function.Methods From the database of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, data for 190 subjects (male/female: 82/108) who were not treated with any medication and underwent echocardiography in 2011 or 2012 were retrieved for analyses of relationships between serum FABP4 concentration, metabolic markers and parameters of echocardiography.ResultsSerum FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), LDL cholesterol, HOMA-R and mean left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (LVWT, males: r¿=¿0.315, females: r¿=¿0.401, p¿<¿0.01) and was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and peak myocardial velocity during early diastole (e¿; males: r¿=¿¿0.434, females: r¿=¿¿0.353, p¿<¿0.01), an index of LV diastolic function. However, no significant correlation was found between FABP4 level and LV end-diastolic dimension, LV ejection fraction or LV mass index. There were significant correlations of e¿ with age, BMI, BP, eGFR, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), FABP4, metabolic markers and LVWT. Multivariate regression analysis adjusted by HOMA-R, BMI, eGFR, BNP or LVWT in addition to age, gender and BP revealed that serum FABP4 concentration was independently correlated with e¿.Conclusions Elevation of circulating FABP4 may contribute to LV diastolic dysfunction in a general population.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    • "Heart failure (HF) is increasing at a more rapid pace than in other cardiovascular diseases in the United States (US), largely due to an aging population and advances in the treatment of coronary artery disease [1, 2]. The highest prevalence of HF is among older adults and is estimated to be 10% among those of 75 years of age, increasing to 20% among those of over the age of 80, and this number is projected to dramatically rise over the next several decades [3, 4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "Advanced heart failure (HF) is characterised by repeated episodes of cardiac decompensation, frequent and prolonged hospitalisation, and severely compromised patient quality of life [1]. The ageing of the population and the availability of improved life-prolonging treatment options are contributing to an increase in the burden of chronic advanced HF [2]. The rising prevalence of this end-stage HF is not only associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, but also causes significant healthcare expenditure due mostly to repeated hospitalisations [3] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The intravenous inodilator levosimendan was developed for the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. In the last decade scientific and clinical interest has arisen for its repetitive or intermittent use in patients with advanced chronic, but not necessarily acutely decompensated, heart failure. Recent studies have suggested long-lasting favourable effects of levosimendan when administered repetitively, in terms of haemodynamic parameters, neurohormonal and inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes. The existing data, however, requires further exploration to allow for definitive conclusions on the safety and clinical efficacy of repetitive use of levosimendan. A panel of 30 experts from 15 countries convened to review and discuss the existing data, and agreed on the patient groups that can be considered to potentially benefit from intermittent treatment with levosimendan. The panel gave recommendations regarding patient dosing and monitoring, derived from the available evidence and from clinical experience. The current data suggest that in selected patients and support out-of-hospital care, intermittent/repetitive levosimendan can be used in advanced heart failure to maintain patient stability. Further studies are needed to focus on morbidity and mortality outcomes, dosing intervals, and patient monitoring. Recommendations for the design of further clinical studies are made.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · International journal of cardiology
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