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Eating disorders among professional fashion models

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Abstract

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds. The study was based on questionnaires and face-to-face interviews, to reduce the bias due to symptom under-reporting and to social desirability responding. When compared on three well-validated self-report questionnaires (the EAT, BITE, BAT), the models and controls did not differ significantly. However, in a detailed interview (the Eating Disorder Examination), models reported significantly more symptoms of eating disorders than controls, and a higher prevalence of partial syndromes of eating disorders was found in models than in controls. A body mass index below 18 was found for 34 models (54.5%) as compared with 14 controls (12.7%). Three models (5%) and no controls reported an earlier clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Further studies will be necessary to establish whether the slight excess of partial syndromes of eating disorders among fashion models was a consequence of the requirement in the profession to maintain a slim figure or if the fashion modeling profession is preferably chosen by girls already oriented towards symptoms of eating disorders, since the pressure to be thin imposed by this profession can be more easily accepted by people predisposed to eating disorders.

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... Body image dissatisfaction is related to low self-esteem, depression, eating disorders, and even suicide (Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008;Thompson & Cafri, 2007). Metaanalytical evidence consistently found that physically active individuals, including athletes, have lower body dissatisfaction than their sedentary counterparts (Campbell & Hausenblas, 2009;Hausenblas & Fallon, 2006;Hausenblas & Symons-Downs, 2001;Reel et al., 2007). ...
... and controls (8.2%-12.7%) (Preti et al., 2008;Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). No data is available for male models, a group highly under-reported in the literature. ...
... This suggests that adiposity and muscularity perceptions were similar between this group of models and controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have reported no significant differences on BI dissatisfaction between female models and controls (Brenner & Cunningham;Preti et al., 2008;Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). However, in spite of the lack of differences on BI satisfaction among female models and controls, it is emphasized that on average all females showed some degree of dissatisfaction with their physical appearance, which might be interpreted to mean that all wanted to look more muscular. ...
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The aim of the study was to determine the association between body composition, physical activity and body image (BI) among Costa Rican models and controls. Participants were female (n = 35) and male (n = 18) models and female (n = 40) and male (n = 42) controls. Participants underwent body composition assessments, completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and gender-specific BI scales. Body fat % (BF%) was lower in models than controls and lower in males than females (p ≤ 0.001). BI was similar between female models and controls and between male models and controls. Males showed higher physical activity (PA) levels than females (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were found between weekly PA and BF% (p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, Costa Rican models are taller and presented lower BF% than controls. Males were more physically active than females and BI perception was similar between genders and groups.
... Fenomena ini disebabkan oleh lebih besarnya tekanan sosial untuk tampil langsing, sehingga ditemukan kecenderungan mengalami underweight. 8 Sebuah penelitian pada remaja putri yang berprofesi sebagai model di Semarang menunjukkan bahwa asupan remaja yang berprofesi sebagai model belum baik dan sebagian memiliki status gizi yang kurang, dilihat dari sebanyak 80,6% remaja memiliki status gizi kurang. 9 Hal itu memperkuat pernyataan bahwa populasi remaja yang berprofesi sebagai model merupakan salah satu populasi risiko tinggi mengalami masalah gizi karena kelompok model yang cenderung underweight memiliki keinginan kuat untuk menjadi lebih kurus dibandingkan dengan kelompok nonmodel. ...
... 9 Hal itu memperkuat pernyataan bahwa populasi remaja yang berprofesi sebagai model merupakan salah satu populasi risiko tinggi mengalami masalah gizi karena kelompok model yang cenderung underweight memiliki keinginan kuat untuk menjadi lebih kurus dibandingkan dengan kelompok nonmodel. 8,10 Tingginya kompetisi di dunia fashion dan tekanan untuk mendapatkan bentuk tubuh ideal membuat model menerapkan sejumlah metode untuk mengontrol berat badan, antara lain berdiet, pantang makan, latihan yang berlebih, memuntahkan makan atau menggunakan obat-obatan untuk mengurangi asupan kalori. Faktor-faktor tersebut dapat memicu terjadinya gangguan makan dan indeks massa tubuh yang rendah pada model. ...
... Faktor-faktor tersebut dapat memicu terjadinya gangguan makan dan indeks massa tubuh yang rendah pada model. 8 Ketakutan mengalami kenaikan berat badan dan kebiasaan makan yang kurang baik adalah penyebab utama kurangnya sumber asupan hewani yang dapat berdampak pada anemia. 11 Indeks massa tubuh yang rendah juga menjadi indikator inadekuat asupan kalori dan juga merupakan determinan anemia pada remaja. ...
Article
Latar belakang: Remaja yang berprofesi sebagai model sering merasa takut jika mengalami kenaikan berat badan memiliki kecenderungan membatasi asupan makan. Hal ini dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya gangguan makan dan anemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis hubungan antara gangguan makan dan kualitas diet dengan status anemia pada remaja putri di Modelling School.Metode: Penelitian observasional dengan desain cross-sectional melibatkan 55 remaja putri berumur 12-19 tahun yang dipilih secara consecutive sampling dan dilakukan di Sekolah Model Semarang. Kadar hemoglobin (Hb) diukur dengan metode Cyanmethemoglobin, gangguan makan menggunakan kuesioner Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS), dan kualitas diet diukur dengan formulir food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), kemudian dihitung skor kualitas dietnya menggunakan panduan Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I). Analisis data menggunakan uji Chi Square. Hasil: Subjek yang mengalami anemia sebanyak 25 orang (45,5%). Gangguan makan ditemukan pada 29 subjek (52,7%) dengan 11 orang mengalami bulimia nervosa. Persentase remaja putri (63,6%) yang memiliki kualitas diet rendah pada penelitian ini lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan remaja (36,4%) yang memiliki kualitas diet tinggi. Hasil menunjukkan subjek (41,4%) yang anemia juga mengalami gangguan makan (p=0,243), dan subjek (45,7%) yang anemia memiliki kualitas diet yang rendah (p=0,959). Kualitas diet rendah (65,5%) ditemukan lebih banyak pada kelompok yang mengalami gangguan makan (p=0,866). Simpulan: Tidak ada hubungan antara gangguan makan dan kualitas diet dengan status anemia pada remaja putri di modelling school (p > 0,05)
... Out of the seven cross-sectional studies included in this review, six studies reported the prevalence of ED among fashion models [29][30][31][32][33][34]; of these, four studies also examined the body image concerns [29,31,32,34], and one study focused exclusively on body image concerns [35]. Table 1 summarizes the main characteristics of the studies included in this systematic review. ...
... Out of the seven cross-sectional studies included in this review, six studies reported the prevalence of ED among fashion models [29][30][31][32][33][34]; of these, four studies also examined the body image concerns [29,31,32,34], and one study focused exclusively on body image concerns [35]. Table 1 summarizes the main characteristics of the studies included in this systematic review. ...
... Six studies examined eating attitudes and the prevalence of ED among fashion models compared with control groups [29][30][31][32][33][34]. Garner and Garfinkel [30] conducted the first study on models who were considered at risk for AN due to increased pressure to maintain slender figure and identified significant differences between fashion students and the control group. ...
Article
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Purpose: In the light of recent concerns regarding the eating disorders among fashion models and professional regulations of fashion model occupation, an examination of the scientific evidence on this issue is necessary. The article reviews findings on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image concerns among professional fashion models. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted using ProQUEST, EBSCO, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Gale Canage electronic databases. Results: A very low number of studies conducted on fashion models and eating disorders resulted between 1980 and 2015, with seven articles included in this review. Overall, results of these studies do not indicate a higher prevalence of eating disorders among fashion models compared to non-models. Fashion models have a positive body image and generally do not report more dysfunctional eating behaviors than controls. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, and give higher importance to appearance and thin body shape, and thus have a higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders than controls. Conclusion: Despite public concerns, research on eating disorders among professional fashion models is extremely scarce and results cannot be generalized to all models. The existing research fails to clarify the matter of eating disorders among fashion models and given the small number of studies, further research is needed.
... That is, the need to maintain an extremely slender figure as a result of professional pressure and industry standards, on one hand, and unrealistic expectations among women who believe that extreme thinness will help them achieve success and attention as a fashion models on the other, is suggested to result in more negative body image among this group (Treasure et al., 2008;Mears, 2010). The excessive focus on appearance and body weight, extreme competitiveness, and widespread use of clinically underweight models in the fashion industry may further heighten appearance concerns among fashion models (Preti et al., 2008). While the significance of fashion models as a high risk group is frequently highlighted in scholarly commentary (e.g., Treasure et al., 2008) and the popular press, research on the prevalence of body image concerns among fashion models is surprisingly scant. ...
... In a recent study, Preti et al. (2008) suggested that these inconclusive findings may reflect methodological limitations in early study designs. For example, the tendency to use undergraduate populations as a control group may not be effective, given age and other demographic differences with fashion models. ...
... For example, the tendency to use undergraduate populations as a control group may not be effective, given age and other demographic differences with fashion models. Consistent with this proposition, two studies that have used community samples as control groups have indicated that the prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders (Santonastaso et al., 2002) and symptoms of eating disorders (Preti et al., 2008) is significantly higher among professional fashion models. In addition to traditional explanations for these findings (e.g., the professional pressure to be thin in the fashion industry), Preti et al. (2008) have further speculated that the fashion industry may be preferably chosen by women who are already oriented toward symptoms of disordered eating. ...
Article
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Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth in the research by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population.
... However, the existing studies may help us to understand this population better. Compared to non-models, female fashion models often report more disordered eating [1,18,19], and this is especially true for partial-syndromes ED since full syndromes are often not statistically more prevalent [18,19]. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, report more dysfunctional investment in their appearance, and even Year Type of study a Sample Garner and Garfinkel [1] 1980 Quant, Cr Female modeling students and other groups (ballet students, patients with AN, music students, and controls) Brenner and Cunningham [20] 1992 Quant, Cr ...
... However, the existing studies may help us to understand this population better. Compared to non-models, female fashion models often report more disordered eating [1,18,19], and this is especially true for partial-syndromes ED since full syndromes are often not statistically more prevalent [18,19]. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, report more dysfunctional investment in their appearance, and even Year Type of study a Sample Garner and Garfinkel [1] 1980 Quant, Cr Female modeling students and other groups (ballet students, patients with AN, music students, and controls) Brenner and Cunningham [20] 1992 Quant, Cr ...
... Female professional fashion models and controls Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, and Masala [18] 2008 Quant, Cr ...
Chapter
Fashion models, dancers, and aesthetic athletes are considered high-risk groups for the development of body image concerns and eating disorders. In all these aesthetic activities, physical appearance is seen as fundamental and lean bodies are required. Therefore, these contexts are considered subcultures in which social pressures to be thin are reinforced.
... Body image dissatisfaction is related to low self-esteem, depression, eating disorders, and even suicide (Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008;Thompson & Cafri, 2007). Metaanalytical evidence consistently found that physically active individuals, including athletes, have lower body dissatisfaction than their sedentary counterparts (Campbell & Hausenblas, 2009;Hausenblas & Fallon, 2006;Hausenblas & Symons-Downs, 2001;Reel et al., 2007). ...
... and controls (8.2%-12.7%) (Preti et al., 2008;Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). No data is available for male models, a group highly under-reported in the literature. ...
... This suggests that adiposity and muscularity perceptions were similar between this group of models and controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have reported no significant differences on BI dissatisfaction between female models and controls (Brenner & Cunningham;Preti et al., 2008;Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). However, in spite of the lack of differences on BI satisfaction among female models and controls, it is emphasized that on average all females showed some degree of dissatisfaction with their physical appearance, which might be interpreted to mean that all wanted to look more muscular. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to determine the association between body composition, physical activity and body image (BI) among Costa Rican models and controls. Participants were female (n = 35) and male (n = 18) models and female (n = 40) and male (n = 42) controls. Participants underwent body composition assessment, completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and gender specific BI scales. Body fat % (BF%) was lower in models than controls and lower in males than females (p ≤ 0.001). BI was similar between female models and controls and between male models and controls. Males showed higher physical activity (PA) levels than females (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were found between weekly PA and BF% (p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, Costa Rican models are taller and presented lower BF% than controls. Males were more physically active than females and BI perception was similar between genders and groups.La asociación entre la composición corporal, la actividad física y la imagen corporal en modelos y controles costarricensesRESUMEN: El propósito del estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la composición corporal, la actividad física y la imagen corporal (IC) en modelos y controles costarricenses. Participaron modelos femeninas (n= 35) y masculinos (n=18) y controles femeninas (n= 40) y masculinos (n= 42). A los participantes se les evaluó la composición corporal y llenaron el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física y escalas de IC específicas por sexo. El % de grasa corporal (%GC) fue menor en los modelos que en los controles y menor en hombres que en mujeres (p ≤ 0.001). La IC fue similar entre modelos femeninas y controles y entre hombres modelos y controles. Los hombres mostraron mayor actividad física (AF) que las mujeres (p = 0.001). Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la cantidad de AF semanal y el %GC (p ≤ 0.001). Se concluye que los modelos costarricenses son más altos y tienen menos %GC que los controles. Los hombres son físicamente más activos que las mujeres y la percepción de IC es similar entre sexos y grupos.Palabras claves: Imagen corporal, modelaje, composición corporal, hispanos, Costa Rica, actividad física, satisfacción corporal.
... Any threat (perceived or real) to their image could therefore be a more severe and distressing experience, relative to a similar individual in an unrelated occupation. This seems unsurprising given the industry's competitive nature, pressure to maintain low body weights (Park, 2017), and widespread employment of clinically underweight models (i.e., a body mass index [BMI] below 18; Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008;Santonastaso, Mondini, & Favaro, 2002). Despite claims that models may be at risk of body image dissatisfaction and/or psychological disorders, there have been few investigations of body image among professional models to date. ...
... For example, models appear to be no different than controls in the incidence of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa (van Hanswijck de Jonge & van Furth, 1999), the occurrence of amenorrhea, or with respect to purging behaviours, fasting, and binging (Santonastaso et al., 2002). Likewise, models and non-models have reported similar outcomes for the EAT (Brenner & Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso et al., 2002), the Body Attitudes Test (BAT; Preti et al., 2008;Probst, Vandereycken, van Coppenolle, & Vanderlinden, 1995), and measures of body dissatisfaction (Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). ...
... For example, models appear to be no different than controls in the incidence of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa (van Hanswijck de Jonge & van Furth, 1999), the occurrence of amenorrhea, or with respect to purging behaviours, fasting, and binging (Santonastaso et al., 2002). Likewise, models and non-models have reported similar outcomes for the EAT (Brenner & Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso et al., 2002), the Body Attitudes Test (BAT; Preti et al., 2008;Probst, Vandereycken, van Coppenolle, & Vanderlinden, 1995), and measures of body dissatisfaction (Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). ...
Article
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Female models are commonly viewed as “at‐risk” for eating and body image disorders. However, the existing literature is sparse and provides inconsistent evidence. It subsequently fails to decipher whether models are truly at any greater risk for body image disorders than non‐models. Such discrepancies may exist due to differences in population, method, and assessment, particularly where previous studies have focused on evaluative body image that mostly reflect normative body image concerns. This study sought to examine body image disturbance, dysmorphic appearance concern, the rate of probable eating disorders (EDs) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), depression, anxiety, stress, self‐esteem, and functional impairment in models. A sample of 100 female models was compared to 100 age‐matched tertiary students on measures of ED symptoms, body dysmorphic symptoms, psychopathology, and functional impairment. Ninety‐two models met referral criteria for an ED and 26 for non‐weight related BDD, compared to 53 (ED) and 2 (BDD) students. Models also reported greater body image disturbance, dysmorphic appearance concern, depression, stress, functional impairment, and ED symptoms, but equivalent degrees of anxiety, self‐esteem, and home‐based functional impairment. Not only are female models at‐risk of the physical effects of maintaining a clinically underweight body, but models are at greater risk of developing body image‐related psychological illnesses, experiencing emotional stressors, and facing functional impairment than their non‐model peers.
... The few studies that have investigated the relationship between models' self-reported BMI and their eating disorder symptomology have provided mixed findings. Studies have mainly relied on models' selfreported BMI, often collecting data by mail, or via online studies, instead of in-person experimenter-measured BMI of professional models in a prominent fashion city (e.g., London, Paris, New York, Milan) (Garner and Garfinkel, 1980;Preti et al., 2008;Rodgers et al., 2017;Van Hanswijck de Jonge and Van Furth, 1999). While a good start of investigation, these are problematic designs for several reasons. ...
... In earlier studies in which models and nonmodels self-reported their BMI, the models' reports indicated that they were significantly underweight (that is, self-reported BMI <18/18.5) (Brenner and Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso and Favaro, 2002;Swami and Szmigielska, 2013). Models perceived themselves as significantly taller than nonmodels but had similar eating disorder symptomatology (Brenner and Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso and Favaro, 2002;Swami and Szmigielska, 2013). ...
... (Brenner and Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso and Favaro, 2002;Swami and Szmigielska, 2013). Models perceived themselves as significantly taller than nonmodels but had similar eating disorder symptomatology (Brenner and Cunningham, 1992;Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso and Favaro, 2002;Swami and Szmigielska, 2013). Two studies conducted in Italy found that models reported higher eating disorder symptomatology (on the EDE and EDE-Q) than nonmodels (Preti et al., 2008;Santonastaso and Favaro, 2002). ...
Article
Low body mass index (BMI<18/18.5) is utilized as a mandated cutoff for professional fashion model employment, based on assumptions that low BMI indicates eating disorder pathology. No previous studies have examined the association between experimenter-measured BMI and eating disorder symptomatology in professional fashion models. We measured BMI and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) responses in United Kingdom (UK) professional fashion models, and nonmodels. Characteristics were compared using robust standardized mean difference (rSMD) obtained via probability of superiority. Associations between BMI and eating disorder symptomatology were examined using robust regression, controlling for age. Models exhibited lower BMI but higher fat-percentage and muscle mass. On the EDE-Q, models had higher Restraint, Global, Eating, and Weight Concerns, and similar Shape Concern scores compared to nonmodels. BMI was positively associated with eating disorder symptoms in both groups, and all but one of the eight models with clinically significant EDE-Q level had ≥18.5 measured BMI. Lower BMI was not indicative of worse eating disorder symptomatology in models or nonmodels. Thus, using a low BMI cutoff (<18.5) may not be an appropriate single index of health for detecting elevated eating disorder symptoms in models. Different policies to protect models’ health should be considered.
... In particular, modeling agencies have been reported to hold a large amount of power over the employment of fashion models and the development of their careers (Johnson, 2011). Relatedly, professional fashion models have been described as experiencing high levels of pressure to achieve and maintain an extremely thin appearance and commodify and adapt their bodies to increase their marketability (Brenner & Cunningham, 1992;Entwistle & Wissinger, 2006;Mears, 2008;Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008;Treasure, Wack, & Roberts, 2008). However, to date, data on fashion models' selfreported perceived pressure to maintain an extremely slender figure are lacking. ...
... While still scarce, some data do exist regarding the prevalence of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB) and disordered eating among fashion models, with up to 18% of professional models reporting restriction (Preti et al., 2008), 31% reporting nonpurging behavior including fasting in the past month (Santonastaso, Mondini, & Favaro, 2002), and up to 60% reporting bulimic episodes in the previous 3 months as compared to 34% of control participants (Preti et al., 2008). ...
... While still scarce, some data do exist regarding the prevalence of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB) and disordered eating among fashion models, with up to 18% of professional models reporting restriction (Preti et al., 2008), 31% reporting nonpurging behavior including fasting in the past month (Santonastaso, Mondini, & Favaro, 2002), and up to 60% reporting bulimic episodes in the previous 3 months as compared to 34% of control participants (Preti et al., 2008). ...
Article
The appearance pressures experienced by fashion models have been criticized as harmful to their health, as well as increasing eating disorder risk among youth by promoting ideals of extreme thinness. Given recent legislation to protect models, we undertook a strategic science study to assess professional fashion models' perceptions of the potential impact and feasibility of seven policy proposals. A sample of 85 female fashion models, mean age = 22.7 years (SD 3.7) completed an online survey assessing unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB), perceived pressure from agencies to lose weight, as well as the perceived impact and feasibility of seven potential policy actions. Chi-squared analyses and multivariable logistic regressions compared UWCB among models who were asked to lose weight and those who were not. Friedman and Kendall's W tests were conducted to examine differences in impact and feasibility ratings across the seven policy proposals. Models reported high levels of pressure to lose weight, which was associated with higher odds of engaging in UWCB. The policy approaches rated as most impactful were those to increase worker protections, though they were rated as only moderately feasible. Requiring employers to provide food and a 30-min break for jobs longer than 6 h was rated as both impactful and feasible. Imposing restrictions on minimum BMI was rated as the least impactful. Approaches providing employment protections and healthier working conditions are most supported by professional models. These findings help to illuminate viable policy approaches from the perspective of key stakeholders.
... The risk has been related with the development of a slender body as a beauty standard (5); set by the mass media, leading to potential damage to physical and emotional health (6,7). Women devoted to fashion modeling as a professional activity, present a greater EDR due the strict slenderness requirement for that activity (8). ...
... European studies suggest female fashion models (FM) have more vulnerability in developing thinness and to have a slimmer body when being compared to women of their age who are not related to modelling (8). It is possible that this infl uence is not as high in developing countries like Mexico. ...
... EDR in Mexican FM and control women were similar (10%), that data showed almost three rate points above the percentage described in the most recent survey in a similar population in Sardina Italy, where Preti et al. emphasizes evaluation by face to face interviews in order to minimize bias (8). In European FM showed a slightly higher frequency in comparison to our study (12.7%). ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the risk of Eating Disorders Behaviour (EDB), and its anthropometric profile, physical activity and alimentary intake between Mexican fashion models (FM) and control women Methods: We included 50 FM and 50 control women, of the same social group, all over 18 years old, from Guadalajara, Mexico, matched by age. We evaluated the risk of EDB with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26); the anthropometric measures were taken according to the criteria of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), 24-hour recall to estimate energy intake and physical activities. Results: The risk prevalence of EDB was 10% for both groups. The mean and standard deviation of the percentage of body fat in FM was 22,4±2, lower than in the controls (27,8±4, p
... Disciplinary regimens of body weight surveillance among professional models are a commonly discussed topic in academic literature (Entwistle, 2004;Mears, 2011). When compared with their average peers, models exhibit elevated eating disorder symptoms and a higher prevalence of low, medically concerning BMI (Preti et al., 2008;Rodgers et al., 2017). Although they are certainly not the type of laborer pictured when thinking of those who work in poor conditions, thousands of models worldwide experience tremendous industry pressure to achieve the skeletal body shape to become aesthetically eligible to display high-fashion collections on the runway (Record & Austin, 2016), commonly leading to eating disorders among this population (Treasure et al., 2008). ...
... Prevention of occupational hazards among the runway modeling population faces practical challenges. Most models, even when they have eating disorders, are uninterested in seeking treatment because they know that maintaining an unrealistically thin appearance is the precondition to maintaining employment (Gladstone, 2016;Preti et al., 2008). Seeking treatment for eating disorders is also not often encouraged by modeling agencies (Clements, 2013;Simmerson, 2013), and industry representatives may even argue that BMI is an arbitrary metric and thus is an imperfect measure of human health (Treasure et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Runway models play a central role in creating and promoting cultural beauty and body ideals. However, little is known about body measurements (BMs) and anthropometric health parameters among this modeling population. The main purpose of this quantitative study is to describe BMs and anthropometric health parameters to understand the severity of thinness among models. Secondary industry-reported data were analyzed to quantify female and male models' BMs and to assess anthropometric health parameters over seven consecutive fashion-week seasons. Low and decreasing BMs and body mass index values, over these years, provide alarming evidence that extreme thinness seriously affects models' lives and general health. Considering the reach of fashion images and their detrimental effects on consumers, as well as the commonality of eating disorders among professional models, this study implores scholars in the field of clothing and textiles to consider feasible and compelling scholarly initiatives and cross-disciplinary collaborations to uncover problem solutions
... Self and care of the self have been growing interests in the 2000s in both the individualization of working life and in the consumer market of products related to health and dieting . As a result of more stressful conditions in some predominantly female fields such as social work and fashion modeling, earlier research into both effective and harmful forms of self-care in working life has focused mostly on women, which has implicitly excluded men from conversations on work-related self-care (see Preti et al., 2008;Salloum et al., 2015). Gender and bodies are often ignored at work as irrelevant, although assumptions about behavior and bodies are gendered in workplaces. ...
... We treat symptoms of eating disorders as self-care that aims to support both gender identity and occupational identity. Contrary to most of the previous research on care of the self in working life Salloum et al., 2015), we argue that self-care does not necessarily increase well-being (Preti et al., 2008). ...
... A growing body of research has linked the readership of beauty and fashion world with the development and perpetuation of anorexic behaviors (Preti et al., 2008;Di Corrado et al., 2021). Much of the research that explores the fashion world's influence on Eating Disorders (EDs) symptomatology focuses on the effects of frequent exposure to messages and images that perpetuate a "thin-ideal" stereotype (Volontè, 2019). ...
... The current frequency of full-syndrome ED did not differ between the groups, but partialsyndrome ED were significantly more common among fashion models than among controls. Other italian authors (Preti et al., 2008) compared a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia to a group of 110 girls of the same age, with comparable social and cultural backgrounds. They found idea of self, sometimes with a sort of secret mental reserve and with resentment. ...
Article
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The Bridging campaign: Fashion model as a special population Summary A recent event, represented by the publication on Mediapart on August 2021 of a journalistic investigation, brought to light the dimensions of sexual harassments towards models acted by a known Parisian fashion photographer. The investigation started from the messages of accusations of models posted like ephemeral states by another famous Parisian fashion photographer in his Instagram page. The topic of sexual misconducts towards models had been addressed on 10th October 2020 in a webinar conference, entitled Prelude, by the Bridging Eastern and Western Psychiatry’s scientific association. About the other issues on which Bridging drew attention (the risk of extreme thinness and the substance abuse in the fashion world) exists an extensive literature, reported in this review. Bridging, however, urged, also with an article that appeared in one of the most authoritative Italian newspapers during Milan Fashion Week, to implement prevention practices, to avoid that the codes of conduct remain a dead letter, which does not affect the real world of Fashion. The Authors propose that fashion models have to be addressed as a “special” population, which will continue to be a focus of research, interventions to reduce the risk of extreme thinness, substance abuse and to be exposed to sexual misconduct for the overcoming of professional barriers have to be hoped and sustained.
... Self and care of the self have been growing interests in the 2000s in both the individualization of working life and in the consumer market of products related to health and dieting . As a result of more stressful conditions in some predominantly female fields such as social work and fashion modeling, earlier research into both effective and harmful forms of self-care in working life has focused mostly on women, which has implicitly excluded men from conversations on work-related self-care (see Preti et al., 2008;Salloum et al., 2015). Gender and bodies are often ignored at work as irrelevant, although assumptions about behavior and bodies are gendered in workplaces. ...
... We treat symptoms of eating disorders as self-care that aims to support both gender identity and occupational identity. Contrary to most of the previous research on care of the self in working life Salloum et al., 2015), we argue that self-care does not necessarily increase well-being (Preti et al., 2008). ...
... Other research recognized that a large portion of college female studentathletes reported significant body dissatisfaction [38][39][40]. Further studies [41][42][43] showed that professional fashion models bear a higher risk of eating disorders than their peers, because of the constant pressure to maintain a thin shape. ...
... First of all, post hoc comparisons showed that the aspiring fashion models had significantly higher body dissatisfaction index, perceived stress, and risk of eating attitude disorder, and lower self-efficacy and internal locus of control than athletes and controls; moreover, they reported a BMI below 18, the cut-off for under-nutrition. Similarly, previous studies [41][42][43]55] reported that an elevated body image dissatisfaction and poor self-efficacy were related to health-related effects, such as stressor symptoms and greater risk of clinical eating disorders, in a sample of fashion models, compared to their peers. Social factors, such as the constant exposure to media images or the constant pressure to maintain a thin shape, can also contribute to the unhealthy lifestyle. ...
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It is widely documented that negative body image is a significant public health concern due to its association with symptoms of disordered eating and worse psychological well-being. The purpose of the study was to develop a path model of intrapersonal dimensions (self-efficacy and internal locus of control) as antecedents of perceived stress toward females’ body dissatisfaction and eating attitude disorders. A total of 300 females, including 100 aspiring fashion models, 100 athletes and 100 students (controls), between 15 and 24 years of age (M = 19.6, SD = 1.85) participated in the study. Measures included level of psychological stress, self-efficacy and locus of control dimensions, body dissatisfaction and eating attitude disorder indices. A path analysis confirmed our research hypothesis. Comparing the three subsamples, we found better fit indexes in the two subgroups with elevated investment on their body image with respect the control group. More specifically, the model in the group of aspiring fashion models showed the best fit index. These results indicated that aspiring fashion models have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or to become thinner. For this reason, a suitable involvement of expert health workers in the nutritional and psychological field could be extremely essential in the fashion world to maintain a healthier well-being.
... Groesz [20] reported that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa and higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders were significantly higher among professional fashion models compared to controls. Santonastaso [21] and Preti [22] have shown that a high body (image) dissatisfaction and low self-efficacy were associated to health-related complications, such as stressor indicators and elevated risk of clinical eating disorders, in a sample of fashion models compared to their peers as a consequence of the persistent pressure to preserve a thin silhouette. However, further studies [23,24] have failed to find significant differences between professional fashion models and controls on such dimensions as eating-disordered behavior. ...
... Partial-syndrome anorexia nervosa was detected in cases of underweight according to the subsequent symptoms: amenorrhea, influence of body shape, or fear of getting fat; partial-syndrome bulimia nervosa was diagnosed in cases of binge eating (about eight times per month in the earlier three months) and self-esteem concerning the influence of body shape, or recurrent purging behavior (about eight times per month in the earlier three months). Before the interview, all participants received the set of self-report inventories to evaluate both abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors and related psychological symptoms [22]. Measurements were conducted individually or in small groups of four or five participants (approximately 15 min) in a quiet room, under the supervision of two researchers. ...
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It is widely recognized that body dissatisfaction is an important public health concern. In the past, being a fashion model was almost synonymous with anorexia/bulimia, and even today, there are cases of eating disorders in young women whose ambition is to become a top model. Moreover, stress can play a substantial role within ill health via related behaviors such as smoking, substance abuse, and inappropriate eating. In our study, we examined 112 aspiring fashion models aged between 15 and 24 years (M = 19.5, SD = 2.08) from 32 different countries of the world during an international contest, and 100 students (control group), aged between 16 and 22 years (M = 18.6, SD = 1.39). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether stress mediated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The study included the administration of stress and self-efficacy and the locus of control dimensions, body (image) dissatisfaction, and eating attitude disorder. Results indicated higher scores on body dissatisfaction, stress level, and eating attitudes disorder among the group of fashion models compared to the control. Mediational analyses showed that body dissatisfaction was partially mediated by stress level on eating disorders. Especially in the aspiring fashion models, there are often many possibilities that competitive stress causes candidates to exacerbate attempts to maintain their body weight below normal weight/height parameters. These results indicated that appropriate intervention for the management of stress level could possibly defend against the negative impact of body dissatisfaction on eating disorder symptoms. The presence of skilled health workers in the field of nutrition and psychology can be extremely important in the field of fashion to maintain an adequate quality of life.
... [8] Badania Preti i współpracowników przeprowadzone przy udziale 55 modelek i 110 kobiet niewykonujących tego zawodu wykazały wysokie rozpowszechnienie zaburzeń odżywiania w obrębie tej grupy zawodowej. [31] U 34 modelek (54,5 proc. grupy badanej) wskaźnik BMI plasował się poniżej 18 w porównaniu z 14 (12,7 proc.) ...
... osobami z grupy kontrolnej. [31] Autorzy sugerują konieczność wykonania dalszych badań w celu uzyskania odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy powszechność zaburzeń odżywiania w modelingu wynika z zawyżonych standardów i wymagań wobec przedstawicieli tej profesji, czy też istnieje zależność odwrotna i zawód ten ze względu na swoją specyfikę preferowany jest przez osoby mające skłonności bądź cierpiące na zaburzenia odżywiania. Możliwy jest również wariant pośredni, według którego jednostki przejawiające skłonności do zaburzeń odżywiania decydowałyby się na modeling, ponieważ w profesji tej istnieje większe przyzwolenie na specyficzne zachowania żywieniowe w imię nadrzędnych celów, a następnie presja wszechobecna w tym środowisku doprowadzałaby do rzeczywistego rozwinięcia się zaburzeń. ...
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Czynniki predysponujące do zachorowania na jadłowstręt psychiczny ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zawodów podwyższonego ryzyka STRESZCZENIE. Cel. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie środowiskowych czynników wpływających na występowanie jadłowstrętu psychicznego w grupach podwyższonego ryzyka (aktorki/aktorzy, modelki/modele, sportsmenki/sportsmeni, akrobatki/akrobaci, tan-cerki/tancerze, osoby na kierowniczych stanowiskach oraz osoby udzielające się w prze-strzeni publicznej). Poglądy. Obecnie jadłowstręt psychiczny staje się coraz bardziej po-wszechnym problemem, szczególnie w pewnych kręgach zawodowych i środowiskach, które wywierają ogromny wpływ zwłaszcza na młodych ludzi, kształtując współczesne kanony zdrowia i urody. W wielu przypadkach zaburzenia odżywiania stają się formą au-todestrukcyjnej regulacji stanów emocjonalnych. Duży postęp w diagnostyce jadłowstrętu psychicznego pozwolił na wyselekcjonowanie pozabiologicznych czynników etiologicz-nych predysponujących do zachorowania na zaburzenia odżywiania. Wnioski. Mimo że na wystąpienie jadłowstrętu psychicznego szczególnie narażeni są przedstawiciele profesji podwyższonego ryzyka, dotyka on ludzi niezależnie od płci, wieku, rasy, pochodzenia et-nicznego, kształtów ciała i wagi, orientacji seksualnej i statusu społeczno-ekonomicznego. Dokładne i wielopłaszczyznowe przyjrzenie się jego etiologii i specyfice umożliwia opraco-wanie i podjęcie odpowiednich oddziaływań profilaktycznych. Niezbędne są działania edu-kacyjne ukierunkowane szczególnie na osoby młode oraz kształtowanie u nich zdrowych postaw wobec jedzenia. ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this article is to present environmental factors affecting the onset of anorexia nervosa in high-risk groups (actresses / actors, models / models, sportsmen / sportsmen, acrobats / acrobats, dancers / dancers, people on managerial positions or people in the social space). Views. Currently, anorexia nervosa is becoming an increasingly common problem, especially in certain professional circles and environments that exert enormous influence, especially on young people, shaping contemporary canons of health and beauty. In many cases eating disorders become a self-destructive form of emotion regulation. A great advance in the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa allowed for the selection of non-biological etiological factors predisposing to developing eating disorders. Conclusions. Although the representatives of certain professions are particularly at risk of anorexia nervosa, it also affects people regardless of gender, age, race, ethnic origin, body shape and weight, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. An accurate and multifaceted view of etiology and specificity enables the development and undertaking of an appropriate prophylactic intervention. Educational activities aimed specifically at young people and shaping healthy attitudes towards eating are also necessary.
... According to several studies, fashion models [4,5], along with dancers [6,7], gymnasts, and certain athletes [8][9][10] represent professions in which the prevalence of full-or partial syndrome eating disorders seems to be higher than for the general population. Research suggests that exposure to media images depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image distortion in women [11], and an increasingly thin ideal is dominating the press, television, and internet communities. ...
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Objective: We investigated dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image in relation to personality styles in a group of professional models. Method: Dysfunctional cognitions in professional models (n = 43) and a control group (n = 43) were assessed with the 'Eating Disorder Cognition Questionnaire' (EDCQ), eating attitudes with the 'Eating Attitudes Test' (EAT), and personality with the 'Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory' (PSDI-S). Results: Models had higher scores than controls on the EDCQ and EAT and on nine scales of the PSDI-S. Moderation analyses showed significant interactions between groups and personality styles in predicting EDCQ scales: The ambitious/narcissistic style was related to "negative body and self-esteem", the conscientious/compulsive style to "dietary restraint", and the spontaneous/borderline style to "loss of control in eating". Conclusions: The results indicate that not all models are susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image. Models are at a higher risk of developing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional assumptions relating to body size, shape and weight, especially if they have high scores on the above personality styles.
... Los investigadores concluyeron que las modelos poseen un mayor riesgo de tener desórdenes de alimentación y el uso de drogas ilícitas que las mujeres de la población general. Se han encontrado hallazgos similares respecto a problemas de alimentación en modelos italianas (Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008), en donde además se ha reportado que un 54.5% de las modelos poseen un índice de masa corporal (IMC = peso en kg/estatura en m 2 ) menor de 18 kg/m 2 ; valor considerado como de desnutrición o un peso muy bajo para la estatura de esa persona (American College of Sports Medicine, 2010Medicine, , 2014. ...
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The purpose of the study was to describe the kinanthropometric characteristics and nutritional intake of female and male Costa Rican advertising models. Models and controls participated in a cross-sectional study. Kinanthropometric characteristics and food intake were measured. This is a cross-sectional study in which models and controls completed questionnaires. Kinanthropometric characteristics and food intake were measured. Participants were 135 subjects divided into groups of models (females, n = 35, males, n = 18) and controls (females, n = 40, males, n = 42). Regardless of gender, body fat percentage was lower in models than in control participants (p < .001). Female models had a lower conicity index than female controls (p < .001), and male models and controls had a similar conicity index (p = .692). Rice and beans were the most common complex carbohydrates in the diet of individuals in general. Compared to controls, the models had a lower frequency consumption of rice, higher starch vegetables and whole grains intake, a preference for healthy fats and lower intake of sweet cookies, pastries and vegetable oil. In conclusion, advertising models had a lower adiposity and their food consumption consisted on healthier portions than their control counterparts. © Copyright: Federación Espanola de Asociaciones de Docentes de Educación Física (FEADEF).
... Los investigadores concluyeron que las modelos poseen un mayor riesgo de tener desórdenes de alimentación y el uso de drogas ilícitas que las mujeres de la población general. Se han encontrado hallazgos similares respecto a problemas de alimentación en modelos italianas (Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008), en donde además se ha reportado que un 54.5% de las modelos poseen un índice de masa corporal (IMC = peso en kg/estatura en m 2 ) menor de 18 kg/m 2 ; valor considerado como de desnutrición o un peso muy bajo para la estatura de esa persona (American College of Sports Medicine, 2010Medicine, , 2014. ...
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Resumen. El propósito del estudio fue describir las características cineantropométricas y la ingesta nutricional de mujeres y hombres costarricenses dedicados al modelaje publicitario. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo con modelos y controles. Se midieron características cineantropométricas y la ingesta de alimentos. Participaron 135 personas, divididas en grupos de modelos (mujeres, n = 35, hombres, n = 18) y controles (mujeres, n = 40, hombres, n = 42). Independientemente del sexo, el porcentaje de grasa corporal fue menor en las personas que se dedican al modelaje que los participantes control (p < .001). Las mujeres modelos tenían un menor índice de conicidad que las mujeres controles (p < .001), y los hombres modelos y los controles tuvieron un índice de conicidad similar (p = .692). El arroz y los frijoles fueron los carbohidratos complejos más comunes en la dieta de los sujetos en general. En comparación con los controles, los modelos presentan una menor frecuencia de consumo de arroz, un mayor consumo de verduras harinosas y cereales integrales, una preferencia por grasas saludables y menor consumo de galletas dulces, repostería y aceite vegetal. En conclusión, las personas que se dedican al modelaje tienen una adiposidad menor e ingieren alimentos en porciones más saludables que quienes no son modelos. Abstract. The purpose of the study was to describe the kinanthropometric characteristics and nutritional intake of female and male Costa Rican advertising models. Models and controls participated in a cross-sectional study. Kinanthropometric characteristics and food intake were measured. This is a cross-sectional study in which models and controls completed questionnaires. Kinanthropometric characteristics and food intake were measured. Participants were 135 subjects divided into groups of models (females, n = 35, males, n = 18) and controls (females, n = 40, males, n = 42). Regardless of gender, body fat percentage was lower in models than in control participants (p < .001). Female models had a lower conicity index than female controls (p < .001), and male models and controls had a similar conicity index (p = .692). Rice and beans were the most common complex carbohydrates in the diet of individuals in general. Compared to controls, the models had a lower frequency consumption of rice, higher starch vegetables and whole grains intake, a preference for healthy fats and lower intake of sweet cookies, pastries and vegetable oil. In conclusion, advertising models had a lower adiposity and their food consumption consisted on healthier portions than their control counterparts.
... Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). Weight concern amongst models may be exacerbated by the widespread employment of clinically underweight models (Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008). Despite the relationship between exposure to the fashion industry and body dissatisfaction amongst fashion consumers and models, there is a paucity of information investigating the experiences of other individuals (i.e. ...
Article
It has been argued that the fashion industry represents a ‘toxic’ environment, which increases the incidence of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders amongst both fashion models and consumers [Treasure, J. L., Wack, E. R., & Roberts, M. R. (2008). Models as a high-risk group: The health implications of a size zero culture. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 243–244]. There is, however, a paucity of information investigating the experiences of designers working in the fashion industry. The present study addresses this limitation and considers the experiences of female fashion design students. Interviews were conducted with eight students and subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three master themes emerged from the analysis. These were: Personal Style; Body Dissatisfaction; and Design. Two sub-themes formed the Personal Style theme: Casual and Comfortable and Covered and Protected. The Body Dissatisfaction theme contained two sub-themes: Personal Experience and Industry Exposure. The Design theme contained three sub-themes: Strength and Confidence; Differences Between Personal Style and Design; and Gender. Findings have important implications for the recruitment, retention, and well-being of female fashion design students.
... For example, individuals with AN, especially severe and enduring AN, sometimes desire and " achieve " levels of thinness (i.e., emaciation) that are far thinner than those widely considered attractive based on thin-ideal media. To illustrate, professional models typically have bodies that are slender and low-weight, with body mass indices (BMIs) commonly in the low range of the " healthy weight " category, or the upper range of the " underweight " category (e.g.,Preti, Usai, Miotto, Petretto, & Masala, 2008;Swami & Szmigielska, 2013). Yet some women seeking treatment for AN have BMIs that are much lower (e.g.,Fairburn et al., 2013;Touyz et al., 2013) than those reported in samples of professional models. ...
... Едновременно с това, по данни от интервюто, при моделите има по-висока честота на т. нар. частични синдроми на разстройства на храненето и по-голям брой докладвани симптоми на разстройства на храненето (Preti et al., 2008) Значимостта на обсъжданата тема се подкрепя и от още един риск за подрастващите и за хората в млада възраст, които са найуязвими за възникване на разстройства на храненето. Той е свързан с докладваната в литературата връзка между поведението, насочено към изграждане на тялото (bodybuilding), завладяло голям процент младежи в последните десетилетия и нагласите за употреба на различни вещества, които според спортуващите помагат за постигане на по-бързи резултати, главно анаболни стероиди (Blouin A, 1995; Baum A, 2006). ...
... Also, a body mass index below 18 was found for 34 models (54.5%) as compared with 14 controls (12.7%) (9). These studies indicate that thinness, and anorexia nervosa behaviors are considered acceptable in order to pursue careers in dance, modeling, acting, and other arenas where beauty is a requirement. ...
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This study examines differences in knowledge of and the attitude toward anorexia nervosa among Israeli women. Methods: This study used data from a survey questionnaire answered by 360 Israeli women during the years 2007-2008. Data was split from two groups of 180 women, ages 45-65 and 15-25 years of age. Results: In contrast to the older age group the younger age group had a poorer understanding of the symptoms of AN; a more positive conception of being thin and a lower opinion of their body self-image. The younger women displayed higher percentages of socially beneficial elements considered outcomes of AN: finding jobs, having more friends, being popular and accepted and being the object of admiration. Discussion: Younger women viewed AN more positively than the older women. The distorted views of self and of the disease of AN among young Israeli women, warrants further investigation and implementation of intervention established.
... Review of international research reveals a diversity of positions. Some state that the body type of the fashion model is ideal and beautiful 10-11 , while others claim that female models with a waistto-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.7 are the most attractive and that they set the standard for appeal; still others list professional fashion models among the groups affected by eating disorders 12- 15 . This diversity shows that professional fashion models are subject to social pressure to maintain a thin or ideal body type. ...
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[Purpose] The present study compared the physical characteristics and body composition of professional fashion models and women in general, utilizing the skinfold test. [Methods] The research sample consisted of 90 professional fashion models presently active in Korea and 100 females in the general population, all selected through convenience sampling. Measurement was done following standardized methods and procedures set by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Body density (mg/ mm) and body fat (%) were measured at the biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac areas. [Results] The results showed that the biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac areas of professional fashion models were significantly thinner than those of women in general (p<.001), and that their waist size was also significantly smaller (p<.001). However, hip circumference showed no significant difference. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat (%) in professional fashion models were significantly lower than those in women in general (p<.001), while the body density in professional fashion models was significantly greater (p<.001). [Conclusion] Body density in professional fashion models is higher, due to taller stature, than in women in general. Moreover, there is an effort on the part of fashion models to lose weight in order to maintain a thin body and a low weight for occupational reasons.
... The epidemiology of eating disorders in six European countries: (ESEMeD-WMH project) was presented by Preti et al. (2009): lifetime estimated prevalence of anorexia nervosa was 0.48%. Some groups, for example, professional fashion models have a high risk for eating disorders (Preti et al., 2008). The prevalence rate in non-Western countries (0.002% to 0.9%) is lower than in Western countries (0.1% to 5.7% in female subjects) according to Makino et al. (2004) . ...
Article
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The treatment of eating disorders is a complex process that relies not only on the use of psychotropic drugs but should include also nutritional counselling, psychotherapy and the treatment of the medical complications, where they are present. In this review recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED)) are presented, based on the available literature. The guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of eating disorders are based on studies published between 1977 and 2010. A search of the literature included: anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, eating disorder and binge eating disorder. Many compounds have been studied in the therapy of eating disorders (AN: antidepressants (TCA, SSRIs), antipsychotics, antihistaminics, prokinetic agents, zinc, Lithium, naltrexone, human growth hormone, cannabis, clonidine and tube feeding; BN: antidepressants (TCA, SSRIs, RIMA, NRI, other AD), antiepileptics, odansetron, d-fenfluramine Lithium, naltrexone, methylphenidate and light therapy; BED: antidepressants (TCA, SSRIs, SNRIs, NRI), antiepileptics, baclofen, orlistat, d-fenfluramine, naltrexone). In AN 20 randomized controlled trials (RCT) could be identified. For zinc supplementation there is a grade B evidence for AN. For olanzapine there is a category grade B evidence for weight gain. For the other atypical antipsychotics there is grade C evidence. In BN 36 RCT could be identified. For tricyclic antidepressants a grade A evidence exists with a moderate-risk-benefit ratio. For fluoxetine a category grade A evidence exists with a good risk-benefit ratio. For topiramate a grade 2 recommendation can be made. In BED 26 RCT could be identified. For the SSRI sertraline and the antiepileptic topiramate a grade A evidence exists, with different recommendation grades. Additional research is needed for the improvement of the treatment of eating disorders. Especially for anorexia nervosa there is a need for further pharmacological treatment strategies.
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Dancers are prone to have high risk of eating disorder, obsess to be physically thin and generally will have body image distortion. This research has studied the prevalence of risk of eating disorder among dancers, comparison of the body composition between dancers and control subjects and to examine the relationship between eating attitude, body image concern, body composition and dieting behaviour. A set of self-administered questionnaires that consist of Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Body Attitude Test (BAT) and Dieting Behaviour were conducted on 23 dancers and 50 lean subjects. Measurement on weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness of triceps, abdomen, suprailiac and thigh was taken. The result showed dancers have high prevalence of risk of eating disorder (21.74%) compared to control subjects (12.00%). There were also significant mean differences in percentage of fats and percentage of lean body weight, when p<0.05. In addition, there were significant positive strong correlation between eating attitude and body image concern (p = 0.002, r = 0.606) as well as correlation between dieting behaviour and body image concern (p = 0.012, r = 0.515). Moreover, the relationship between BMI and dieting behaviour showed positive strong correlation when p = 0.002 and r = 0.614 where dancers choosed to use diet pills (p = 0.001), vomit and taken laxatives (p = 0.016) for dieting. In conclusion, dancers were very concern about body figure, appearnce and fear of gaining weight which can lead to unhealthy dieting habits.
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Unlabelled: Some professional groups (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. Beauticians may be a possible risk group, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Measures: Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. Results: Questionnaire data of 276 subjects were analysed. The study sample comprised 128 beauticians from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females). This group was compared with a control group consisting of 148 subjects (25 males, 123 females). Such weight reducing methods as dieting, exercise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics were significantly more prevalent in the beautician group. Mean total score and the scores of the Dieting subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the beautician group in comparison with the control group. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical eating disorders (2.4% subclinical bulimia nervosa and 1.6% subclinical anorexia nervosa) was significantly higher in the beautician group. Beauticians invest significantly (p < 0.0001) more money and time for body care. Conclusion: The above results suggest that working in the beauty industry may represent an increased risk of developing eating disorders.
Article
Introduction: Beauticians are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Aim: The aim of the authors was to examine whether eating and body image disorders occur more frequently among beauticians than in control subjects. Methods: Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, and body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. The study sample included 56 beauticians from Transylvania and 59 from Hungary. These groups were compared with control groups including 57 subjects from Transylvania and 54 subjects from Hungary. Questionnaire data were analysed. Results: The occurrence of weight reducing methods such as binge eating was significantly more prevalent in the beautician groups than in controls. Subclinical eating disorders were more frequent in the Transylvanian beautician group. Conclusions: Clinical and subclinical eating disorders occur more frequently in beauticians than in control subjects.
Article
Objective: Sociocultural influences, including an increasing pressure for fashion models to maintain a thin body frame may be crucial in the development of eating disorders. The present study aimed to establish whether fashion models are more likely than non-models to develop eating disorders. Methods: Female fashion models were selected by snowball sampling (n = 179, mean age: 25.9 SD = 4.70 years). They were compared with an age adjusted control group (n = 261, mean age: 25.0 SD = 4.97 years). Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the Eating Disorder Inventory. Results: The average BMI of the fashion models was in the underweight range (mean BMI = 18.1 SD = 1.68). The BMI of the control group was significantly higher (mean = 22.1 SD = 4.23, p < 0.001). The frequency of simulated anorexia nervosa was 3.9% among the fashion models and 1.1% in the control group (p = 0.057). 14.6% of the models showed subclinical anorexia nervosa symptoms versus 2.7% in the control group (p < 0.001). The ratio of bulimia nervosa and subclinical bulimia nervosa showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Female fashion models showed no significant difference from the control group in the frequency of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa but had a significantly higher frequency of the subclinical form of anorexia nervosa.
Chapter
Eating disorders, defined as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified, have become a very important public health issue. In general, eating disorders are labelled as culture-bound syndromes as they are more common in Western industrialized countries than in other world areas. They are greatly prevalent in young females. In Western countries, the prevalence of eating disorders among young females is currently estimated as 0.2–1% for anorexia nervosa and as 1.5–5% for bulimia. Partial syndromes are generally reported to be more widespread. Eating disorders are less common in males than in females. Anyway, males are not immune to eating disorders. Some groups of people may also be at high risk for developing eating disorders. Subjects who “have” to be thin for their career or their job appear to be more vulnerable: for this reason, ballet dancers, athletes and models are frequently mentioned as high-risk groups. Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, in particular in sports such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. In this chapter, prevalence and incidence rates as well as developmental and sociocultural risk factors are presented.
Article
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Abstract Some professional groups (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. Beauticians may be a possible risk group, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Measures: Eating disorders were as- sessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. Results: Questionnaire data of 543 subjects were analysed. The study sam- ple comprised 128 beauticians from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females), 167 beauticians from Hungary (10 males, 157 females). These groups were compared with control groups in Transylvania and Hungary, consisting of 148 (25 males, 123 females) subjects in Transylvania and 101 subjects (5 males, 95 females) in Hungary. Such weight loss methods as dieting, exer- cise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics were significantly more prevalent in the beautician group. The mean total score and the scores of the Dieting and Bulimia subscales were higher in the beautician group in comparison with the control group. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical eating disorders was higher in the beautician group. Beauticians invest more money and time for body care. On the basis of the above results, working in beauty industry may be an increased risk for eating disorders. Keywords eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, beauticians
Data
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32. Гаджиев, А. А. Рефлексотерапия конституционально-экзогенного ожирения у детей / А. А. Гаджиев, В. В. Мугараб-Самеди, И. И. Исаев, С. К. Ра-фиева // Проблемы эндокринологии. 1996. - Т. 42, № 3. - С. 21—24. Научная библиотека диссертаций и авторефератов disserCat http://www.dissercat.com/content/klinika-dinamika-sistematika-pogranichnykh-nervno-psikhicheskikh-rasstroistv-u-podrostkov-s-#ixzz4vSldXD7i
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Issue addressed: The narrow representation of body image in the media has been linked to body dissatisfaction, particularly among readers of women's fashion magazines. Some countries have made efforts to improve body image diversity in the media and the fashion industry. This has included attempts to regulate minimum body size of models (eg, Israel, France), and the development of codes of practices such as the Australian Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. However, there is little evidence of whether these efforts have impacted media content. Method: This study aimed to gauge the state of body image diversity in the print media 5 years after the introduction of the Australian Code of Conduct via a content analysis of 13 Australian women's fashion magazines published in 2015. Results: Results revealed low levels of diversity in body size, ethnicity and age among models depicted in fashion magazine images. Models were predominantly young, white and underweight. Conclusion: The results suggest that efforts to improve body image diversity have had little impact on print media. Further research is needed to understand the barriers to increased diversity in the representation of body image in the media so that the industry and regulatory bodies can further address this important issue. This is increasingly pressing given the proliferation of content now enabled through online media platforms.
Article
Fashion models are often assumed to have a glamorous job with limited consideration for their well-being. This study aims to assess the well-being of models through semi-structured interviews with six professional fashion models and six industry professionals. Thematic analysis revealed that although models experienced improved self-confidence, they also reported heightened anxiety levels, body image issues and negative influence of modelling on their self-esteem. By contrast, industry professionals reported no or minimum concerns about anxious behaviours or the general well-being of fashion models. Being resilient as a model was perceived as an essential attribute to have by both models and industry professionals as they face recurrent rejection in this industry. These results demonstrate a significant gap in the current understanding of the well-being of fashion models between industry professionals and the models themselves. Findings imply that there is an inherent need for change in the modelling industry to promote and enhance their well-being.
Article
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Some groups of professionals (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. We assume that those working in the beauty industry may also be a high risk group for developing eating disorders, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, and the tests for assessment of body image included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. Questionnaire data of 543 subjects were analysed. The study sample comprised 128 models from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females) and 167 models from Hungary (10 males, 157 females). These groups were compared with control groups in Transylvania and Hungary, consisting of 148 (25 males, 123 females) subjects in Transylvania and 101 subjects (5 males, 95 females) in Hungary. Weight reducing methods, such as dieting, exercise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics, were significantly more prevalent in the group of models. The mean total score and the scores of the Dieting and Bulimia subscales were higher in the group of models in comparison with the control group. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical eating disorders was higher in the group of models. The percentage of subjects scoring above the cut-off score on the Body Dissatisfaction Scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory was higher in the Hungarian control group. The Hungarian control subjects scored higher on the General Body Dissatisfaction Scale of the Body Attitudes Test. Models invest more money and time in their body care. The above results suggest that working in beauty industry may pose an increased risk of developing eating disorders.
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Objectives of this issue There is still debate about the effects of childhood sexual abuse and development of eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa. Some recent studies, including the National Women's Study, found a higher lifetime prevalence of criminal victimization among women with bulimia nervosa than among women without an eating disorder. • Two frequently cited reviews of the literature have concluded that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is not a significant risk factor for the development of bulimia nervosa (BN).'-^ More recent studies have also come to the same conclusion, although all of these studies have melhodologic limitations.'"' Given this, we would like to make EDR readers aware of important results from some unpublished studies.
Article
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The Body Attitude Test (BAT) is a new self-report questionnaire developed for female patients suffering from eating disorders. Its psychometric characteristics have been tested in a large number of patients and control subjects (eating disorders, Weight Watchers, and normal subjects). Repeated analyses yielded a stable four factor structure: negative appreciation of body size, lack of familiarity with one's own body, general body dissatisfaction, and a rest factor. Repeated tests in different subgroups have shown the BAT to be reliable and valid, as well as easy and practical (only 20 items).
Article
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Synopsis Data on the development of a 40-item measure of the symptoms in anorexia nervosa are reported. The scale (EAT) is presented in a 6-point, forced choice, self-report format which is easily administered and scored. The EAT was validated using 2 groups of female anorexia nervosa patients ( N = 32 and 33) and female control subjects ( N = 34 and 59). Total EAT score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership( r = 0·87, P < 0·001), suggesting a high level of concurrent validity. There was very little overlap in the frequency distributions of the 2 groups and only 7% of the normal controls scored as high as the lowest anorexic patient. Female obese and male subjects also scored significantly lower on the EAT than anorexics. Recovered anorexic patients scored in the normal range on the test, suggesting that the EAT is sensitive to clinical remission.
Article
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SYNOPSIS A population of professional dance ( N = 183) and modelling ( N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students ( N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa ( N = 68), and music students ( N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6·5%) of primary anexoria nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.
Article
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1) To estimate the heritability of body mass index (BMI) in twins aged 16y and 17y, with a special emphasis on gender-specific genetic effects and 2) to compare heights, weights, BMIs, and prevalences of 'overweight' (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) in these twins and in singletons aged 16.5y. Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological questionnaire study of twins at ages 16y and 17 y, and cross-sectional study of singletons at age 16.5y. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated from self-reported heights (m) and weights (kg). 4884 twins (2299 boys, 2585 girls) at baseline (age 16 y), 4401 twins (2002 boys, 2399 girls) at age 17 y, and 2509 singletons (1147 boys, 1362 girls) at age 16.5 y. Both twin and singleton samples are nationally representative. At the ages of 16y and 17y, genetic effects accounted for over 80% of the interindividual variation of BMI. The correlations for male-female pairs were smaller than for either male-male or female-female dizygotic pairs. The singletons, especially the boys, had a higher BMI than the twins. Nine percent of singleton boys, but only 4-6% of twin boys and twin and singleton girls were 'overweight' (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2). Among adolescents, genetic factors play a significant role in the causes of variation in BMI. The genetic modelling suggested that the sets of genes explaining the variation of BMI may differ in males and females. At this age, the twin boys, but not girls, seem to be leaner than singletons. Further follow-up will indicate whether these small differences disappear, and if not, what implications it might have to the generalizability of twin studies.
Article
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This manuscript reviews the literature involved with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), first developed in the late 1970s as a self-report, indicative of the symptoms of eating disorders. The EAT has good psychometric properties of reliability and validity, and reasonable sensitivity and specificity for the eating disorders, but very low positive predictive value because eating disorders are relatively uncommon. In addition they exist on a continuum, because of denial and social desirability, the results of a self-report instrument may be affected. A very large literature has documented the use of the EAT in a variety of cultures. It is used to screen eating disturbances in general as the first part of a two-part diagnostic screen, as an ability to compare across groups and to measure change between groups and over time.
Article
Objective In recent years there has been increased interest regarding the role of crime victimization in the development and/or maintenance of eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa. Method: To examine the relationship among assault, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, a national, representative sample of 3,006 women completed structured telephone interviews. Results: Lifetime prevalence of completed, forcible rape for respondents with bulimia nervosa was 26.6%, as compared with 11.5% for respondents with binge eating disorder and 13.3% for respondents without bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Compared to respondents without bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, aggravated assault history was significantly more prevalent in women with bulimia nervosa (26.8%), as was a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (36.9%). Characteristics of sexual assault experiences were not associated with dysfunctional eating patterns. Specific types of disordered eating such as compensatory behaviors in bulimia nervosa were associated with higher rates of victimization. Conclusions: In sum, the significantly higher rates of both sexual and aggravated assault among women with bulimia nervosa compared with women without such a diagnosis support the hypothesis that victimization may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of bulimia nervosa. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 21: 213–228, 1997.
Article
Objective The purpose of this paper was to review the research literature related to eating behaviors and disturbances among American minority groups. Method: A computer‐based literature search was conducted to locate articles pertaining to this topic. Results: This review indicates that, compared to Caucasian females, eating disturbances are equally common among Hispanic females, more frequent among Native Americans, and less frequent among Black and Asian American females. Risk factors for eating disorders (EDs) are greater among minority females who are younger, heavier, better educated, and more identified with White, middle‐class values. Discussion: Further studies of EDs among American minority groups are needed, especially studies that are longitudinal and developmental in nature and that focus more specifically on the effects of racism in the development of EDs. © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Objective Twin methodology has been used to delineate etiological factors in many medical disorders and behavioral traits including eating disorders. Although twin studies are powerful tools, their methodology can be arcane and their implications easily misinterpreted. Method The goals of this study are to (a) review the theoretical rationale for twin studies; (b) provide a framework for their interpretation and evaluation; (c) review extant twin studies on eating disorders; and (d) explore the implications for understanding etiological issues in eating disorders. Discussion On the basis of this review, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the precise contribution of genetic and environmental factors to anorexia nervosa. Twin studies confirm that bulimia nervosa is familial and reveal significant contributions of additive genetic effects and of unique environmental factors in liability to bulimia nervosa. The magnitude of the contribution of shared environment is less clear, but in the studies with the greatest statistical power, it appears to be less prominent than additive genetic factors. © 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 27: 1–20, 2000.
Article
An investigation of current American society's depiction of the ideal female body was performed. Body measurements of Playboy magazine centerfolds and Miss America contestants for 1979-1988 indicated body weight 13-19% below expected weight for women in that age group. Miss America contestants showed a significant decrease in expected weight between 1979 and 1988. Comparisons were made with an earlier study which had demonstrated that body measurements of both groups had decreased during the period 1959-1978. Diet-for-weight-loss and exercise articles in six women's magazines were tabulated for 1959-1988. A significant increase in both diet articles and exercise articles occurred during this period. These findings suggest that the overvaluation of thinness continues and thinness is now sought through both dieting and exercise.
Article
Reviews information about ethnicity and eating disorders from a variety of case series, epidemiological surveys, and clinical case reports in recent scientific literature from Africa, the UK, and North America. The data have established that both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia (BUL) exist in non-White women and that AN may develop outside a Western culture. Also, eating disorders in non-White women have been described in all social classes and in both traditional and Westernized families. Clinical features and demographic data show no major differences from those reported in the White eating-disordered population, but there are some differences (e.g., there appears to be a tendency for Black anorexics to display the bulimic variant of the disorder). Although the majority of evidence indicates that the prevalence of AN and BUL in non-White populations is low, it is impossible to eliminate the effect of referral biases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Objective – The study aims to construct and validate a new screening questionnaire for the identification of cases at risk for eating disorders. Setting and sample – We assessed 218 female adolescent students-recruited in a vocational school in Mestre (VE) and 88 patients consecutively referred to the Eating Disorders Unit of the University of Padova. Procedure and main outcome measures – All subjects completed the new questionnaire, the Inventory for the Screening of Eating Disorders (ISED), and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Sixty-two percent of female students and all the patients underwent a structured diagnostic interview (SCID for DSM-IV) for the diagnosis of eating disorders. The reliability, validity and screening ability of the questionnaire have been assessed. Results – The reliability of the ISED, measured by Cronbach's alpha, is good (α=0.87), as is the convergent validity (correlations with EAT). In order to improve the screening ability, the questionnaire has been further divided in two subscales: one for the identification of cases at risk for anorexia nervosa (ISED-AN) and the other for cases at risk for bulimia nervosa (ISED-BN). The screening ability of the two subscales is greater than that of EAT, although the difference is not statistically significant. The ISED cutoff points have greater positive predictive values than those of EAT in the screening of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Conclusions – The ISED appears to-be a valid and reliable questionnaire among female adolescents. Its use might improve the identification of cases at risk for eating disorders and in particular those at risk for anorexia nervosa.Other studies are needed to confirm the validity and performance of the questionnaire among samples of different ages and socio-economic status.
Article
In this study the authors analyse the content of 347 articles (on eating disorders, nutrition, fitness, beauty and body care, cosmetic surgery, and fashion models) issued in national newspapers and magazines over the 1985–1995 decade. The results show: (a) an agreement between the information released by the media and scientific reports on clinical symptoms and sociocultural cause of eating disorders; (b) the press' tendency not to present anorexia and bulimia nervosa as ‘true mental disorders’; (c) the media's tendency to show an increase of frequency of eating disorders, to put the blame on parents and to propose single treatments; (d) the diffusion of an ideal of feminine beauty that is impossible to attain for the average woman, and the presence of strategies proposed to achieve this beauty ideal.
Article
Objective Twin methodology has been used to delineate etiological factors in many medical disorders and behavioral traits including eating disorders. Although twin studies are powerful tools, their methodology can be arcane and their implications easily misinterpreted.Method The goals of this study are to (a) review the theoretical rationale for twin studies; (b) provide a framework for their interpretation and evaluation; (c) review extant twin studies on eating disorders; and (d) explore the implications for understanding etiological issues in eating disorders.DiscussionOn the basis of this review, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the precise contribution of genetic and environmental factors to anorexia nervosa. Twin studies confirm that bulimia nervosa is familial and reveal significant contributions of additive genetic effects and of unique environmental factors in liability to bulimia nervosa. The magnitude of the contribution of shared environment is less clear, but in the studies with the greatest statistical power, it appears to be less prominent than additive genetic factors. © 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 27: 1–20, 2000.
Article
Eating attitudes, body concept, and self-esteem were investigated among professional fashion models and controls. Samples were predominantly Caucasian and from upper and middle class backgrounds. Women displayed significantly more eating-disordered behavior and lower levels of body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. Whereas the self-esteem of female models was higher than that of female controls the self-esteem of male models and male controls did not differ. Female undergraduates displayed the lowest self-esteem among the groups. Finally, despite findings that the majority of female models were underweight while the majority of female undergraduates were within recommended weight ranges, both groups displayed similar levels of eating-disordered behavior. Results suggest that the slender figures of professional fashion models are best viewed as lying at one extreme of the normal distribution of body types rather than as the product of purposeful dieting behavior to be attained by average women.
Article
A general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of a test. α is therefore an estimate of the correlation between two random samples of items from a universe of items like those in the test. α is found to be an appropriate index of equivalence and, except for very short tests, of the first-factor concentration in the test. Tests divisible into distinct subtests should be so divided before using the formula. The index [`(r)]ij\bar r_{ij} , derived from α, is shown to be an index of inter-item homogeneity. Comparison is made to the Guttman and Loevinger approaches. Parallel split coefficients are shown to be unnecessary for tests of common types. In designing tests, maximum interpretability of scores is obtained by increasing the first-factor concentration in any separately-scored subtest and avoiding substantial group-factor clusters within a subtest. Scalability is not a requisite.
Article
When more than one statistical test is performed in analysing the data from a clinical study, some statisticians and journal editors demand that a more stringent criterion be used for “statistical significance” than the conventional P<0.05.1 Many well meaning researchers, eager for methodological rigour, comply without fully grasping what is at stake. Recently, adjustments for multiple tests (or Bonferroni adjustments) have found their way into introductory texts on medical statistics, which has increased their apparent legitimacy. This paper advances the view, widely held by epidemiologists, that Bonferroni adjustments are, at best, unnecessary and, at worst, deleterious to sound statistical inference. #### Summary points Adjusting statistical significance for the number of tests that have been performed on study data—the Bonferroni method—creates more problems than it solves The Bonferroni method is concerned with the general null hypothesis (that all null hypotheses are true simultaneously), which is rarely of interest or use to researchers The main weakness is that the interpretation of a finding depends on the number of other tests performed The likelihood of type II errors is also increased, so that truly important differences are deemed non-significant Simply describing what tests of significance have been performed, and why, is generally the best way of dealing with multiple comparisons Bonferroni adjustments are based on the following reasoning.1-3 If a null hypothesis is true (for instance, two treatment groups in a randomised trial do not differ in terms of cure rates), a significant difference (P<0.05) will be observed by chance once in 20 trials. This is the type I error, or α. When 20 independent tests are performed (for example, study groups are compared with regard to 20 unrelated variables) and the null hypothesis holds for all 20 comparisons, the chance of at least one test being significant is no longer 0.05, but 0.64. …
Article
An investigation of current American society's depiction of the ideal female body was performed. Body measurements of Playboy magazine centerfolds and Miss America contestants for 1979–1988 indicated body weight 13–19% below expected weight for women in that age group. Miss America contestants showed a significant decrease in expected weight between 1979 and 1988. Comparisons were made with an earlier study which had demonstrated that body measurements of both groups had decreased during the period 1959–1978. Diet-for-weight-loss and exercise articles in six women's magazines were tabulated for 1959–1988. A significant increase in both diet articles and exercise articles occurred during this period. These findings suggest that the overvaluation of thinness continues and thinness is now sought through both dieting and exercise.
Article
A new brief questionnaire, the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), for the detection and description of binge-eating is described. Data from two separate populations demonstrate satisfactory reliability and validity. The scale has measures of both symptoms and severity. All items in the DSM-III definition of bulimia and Russell's definition of bulimia nervosa are covered but the questionnaire is more than just an operationalised checklist of these diagnostic criteria.
Article
Many published papers include large numbers of significance tests. These may be difficult to interpret because if we go on testing long enough we will inevitably find something which is “significant.” We must beware of attaching too much importance to a lone significant result among a mass of non-significant ones. It may be the one in 20 which we expect by chance alone. Lee et al simulated a clinical trial of the treatment of coronary artery disease by allocating 1073 patient records from past cases into two “treatment” groups at random.1 They then analysed the outcome as if it were a genuine trial of two treatments. The analysis was quite detailed and thorough. As we would expect, it failed to show any significant difference in survival between those patients allocated to the two treatments. Patients were then subdivided by two variables which affect prognosis, the number of diseased coronary vessels and whether the left ventricular contraction pattern was normal or abnormal. A significant difference in survival between the two “treatment” groups was found in those patients with three diseased vessels (the maximum) and abnormal ventricular contraction. As this would be the subset of patients with the worst prognosis, the finding would be easy to account for by saying that the superior “treatment” …
Article
Eating disorders can lead to death. The prevalence of subclinical and eating disorders is high among female athletes, and the prevalence of eating disorders is higher among female athletes than nonathletes. Athletes competing in sports where leanness or a specific bodyweight is considered important are more prone to develop eating disorders than athletes competing in sports where these factors are considered less important. It appears necessary to examine true eating disorders, the subclinical disorders and the range of behaviours and attitudes associated with eating disturbances in athletes, to learn how these clinical and subclinical disorders are related. Because of methodological weaknesses in the existing studies, including deficient description of the populations studied and the methods of data collection, the best instrument or interview method is not known. Therefore, more research on athletes and eating disorders is needed. Suggestions of the possible sport specific risk factors associated with the development of eating disorders in athletes exist, but large scale longitudinal studies are needed to learn more about risk factors and the aetiology of eating disorders in athletes at different competitive levels and within different sports. Further studies are required on the short and long term effects of eating disorders on athletes' health and athletic performance.
Article
The purpose of this paper was to review the research literature related to eating behaviors and disturbances among American minority groups. A computer-based literature search was conducted to locate articles pertaining to this topic. This review indicates that, compared to Caucasian females, eating disturbances are equally common among Hispanic females, more frequent among Native Americans, and less frequent among Black and Asian American females. Risk factors for eating disorders (EDs) are greater among minority females who are younger, heavier, better educated, and more identified with White, middle-class values. Further studies of EDs among American minority groups are needed, especially studies that are longitudinal and developmental in nature and that focus more specifically on the effects of racism in the development of EDs.
Article
The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6&percnt;) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1 dancer (1.6&percnt;) and 3 students (1.3&percnt;) had bulimia nervosa and 5 dancers (8.3&percnt;) and 9 students (4.2&percnt;) had an unclassified eating disorder. Another dancer had been treated for anorexia nervosa in the past. One dancer was treated for bulimia nervosa and 6 for weight loss. Dancers were more likely to have been told to increase their body weight. Dancers were not more likely to be afraid of losing control of their weight and becoming obese if they attempted weight gain, to ignore the advice to gain weight or resist gaining weight. Regular self-induced vomiting was reported by 4&percnt; of women. Dancers are at risk for the development of eating disorders.
Article
In recent years there has been increased interest regarding the role of crime victimization in the development and/or maintenance of eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa. To examine the relationship among assault, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, a national, representative sample of 3,006 women completed structured telephone interviews. Lifetime prevalence of completed, forcible rape for respondents with bulimia nervosa was 26.6%, as compared with 11.5% for respondents with binge eating disorder and 13.3% for respondents without bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Compared to respondents without bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, aggravated assault history was significantly more prevalent in women with bulimia nervosa (26.8%), as was a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (36.9%). Characteristics of sexual assault experiences were not associated with dysfunctional eating patterns. Specific types of disordered eating such as compensatory behaviors in bulimia nervosa were associated with higher rates of victimization. In sum, the significantly higher rates of both sexual and aggravated assault among women with bulimia nervosa compared with women without such a diagnosis support the hypothesis that victimization may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of bulimia nervosa.
Article
To investigate the issue of systematic bias in self-reported weight and height, and produce a simple procedure which can be used to correct reporting bias. Cross-sectional, with self-reported questionnaires. A sub-sample (n = 143) of secondary school students in Siena, Italy, taken from the Food Behaviour Survey (sample size, n = 779). In the teenage sub-sample, both males and females under-reported their weight and over-reported their height, such that underestimation of the overweight prevalence was in the order of about 8% for both genders. For both weight and height, the correlations between self-reported and measured values were over 0.90. Conversion factors were derived to correct the reported body mass index (BMI) distribution by adjusting the percentages of erroneously classified subjects in the four BMI categories. High correlation coefficients (r > or = 0.75), showing a systematic tendency for erroneous self-reporting of a 'slim-body shape', justify the use of conversion factors (measured/self-reported) to correct BMI distributions calculated from self-reported values.
Article
Obstetrical complications, based on parental recall, have been reported to be associated with development of anorexia nervosa. We used prospectively collected data about pregnancy and perinatal factors to examine the subsequent development of anorexia nervosa. This population-based, case-control study was nested in cohorts defined by all liveborn girls in Sweden from 1973 to 1984. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, 781 girls had been discharged from any hospital in Sweden with a main diagnosis of anorexia nervosa at the age of 10 to 21 years. For each case, 5 controls were randomly selected, individually matched by year and hospital of birth (n = 3905). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential risk factors. Increased risk of anorexia nervosa was found for girls with a cephalhematoma (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.1) and for very preterm birth (< or = 32 completed gestational weeks) (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.2). In very preterm births, girls who were small for gestational age faced higher risks (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.1-28.7) than girls with higher birth weight for gestational age (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8). Our results show that perinatal factors, possibly reflecting brain damage, had independent associations with anorexia nervosa. These risk factors may uncover the mechanisms underlying the development of the disorder, even if only a fraction of cases of anorexia nervosa may be attributable to perinatal factors.
Article
Since body dissatisfaction is an essential part of anorexia/bulimia nervosa, we wanted to assess the patients' body experience before and after intensive treatment. Body experience was studied in 290 eating disorder patients, admitted to a specialised unit, after six months and again after one year using the Body Attitude Test (BAT), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale (EDES). The clearly negative body experience of eating disorder patients evolved in a positive way after therapy and this improvement lasted for up to one year after admission. EDI scores and Body Mass Index at the time of admission appeared to be the strongest predictors of the total BAT score at follow-up. Although body dissatisfaction can be quite persistent in eating disorders, intensive treatment can substantially improve the patients' body experience.
Article
The study aims to construct and validate a new screening questionnaire for the identification of cases at risk for eating disorders. We assessed 218 female adolescent students recruited in a vocational school in Mestre (VE) and 88 patients consecutively referred to the Eating Disorders Unit of the University of Padova. PROCEDURE AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All subjects completed the new questionnaire, the Inventory for the Screening of Eating Disorders (ISED), and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Sixty-two percent of female students and all the patients underwent a structured diagnostic interview (SCID for DSM-IV) for the diagnosis of eating disorders. The reliability, validity and screening ability of the questionnaire have been assessed. The reliability of the ISED, measured by Cronbach's alpha, is good (alpha = 0.87), as is the convergent validity (correlations with EAT). In order to improve the screening ability, the questionnaire has been further divided in two subscales: one for the identification of cases at risk for anorexia nervosa (ISED-AN) and the other for cases at risk for bulimia nervosa (ISED-BN). The screening ability of the two subscales is greater than that of EAT, although the difference is not statistically significant. The ISED cutoff points have greater positive predictive values than those of EAT in the screening of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The ISED appears to be a valid and reliable questionnaire among female adolescents. Its use might improve the identification of cases at risk for eating disorders and in particular those at risk for anorexia nervosa. Other studies are needed to confirm the validity and performance of the questionnaire among samples of different ages and socio-economic status.
Article
This article describes procedures for presenting standardized measures of effect size when contrasts are used to ask focused questions of data. The simplest contrasts consist of comparisons of two samples (e.g., based on the independent t statistic). Useful effect-size indices in this situation are members of the g family (e.g., Hedges's g and Cohen's d) and the Pearson r. We review expressions for calculating these measures and for transforming them back and forth, and describe how to adjust formulas for obtaining g or d from t, or r from g, when the sample sizes are unequal. The real-life implications of d or g calculated from t become problematic when there are more than two groups, but the correlational approach is adaptable and interpretable, although more complex than in the case of two groups. We describe a family of four conceptually related correlation indices: the alerting correlation, the contrast correlation, the effect-size correlation, and the BESD (binomial effect-size display) correlation. These last three correlations are identical in the simple setting of only two groups, but differ when there are more than two groups.
Article
Animal data suggest that neuroactive steroids, such as 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (3a,5a-THP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and its sulfated metabolite (DHEA-S), are involved in the modulation of eating behavior, aggressiveness, mood, and anxiety. Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are eating disorders characterized by abnormal eating patterns, depressive and anxious symptoms, enhanced aggressiveness, and endocrine alterations. Previous studies reported decreased blood levels of DHEA and DHEA-S in small samples of anorexic patients, whereas no study has been performed to evaluate the secretion of these neuroactive steroids in BN as well as the production of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in both AN and BN. Therefore, we measured plasma levels of DHEA, DHEA-S, 3alpha,5alpha-THP and other hormones in patients with AN or BN and explored possible relationships between neuroactive steroids and psychopathology. Ninety-two women participated in the study. There were 30 drug-free AN patients, 32 drug-free BN patients, and 30 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Blood samples were collected in the morning for determination of hormone levels. Eating-related psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and aggressiveness were rated by using specific psychopathological scales. Compared with healthy women, both AN and BN patients exhibited increased plasma levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol but reduced concentrations of 17beta-estradiol. Plasma testosterone levels were decreased in anorexic women but not in bulimic women. Plasma levels of neuroactive steroids were not correlated with any clinical or demographic variable. These findings demonstrate increased morning plasma levels of peripheral neuroactive steroids in anorexic and bulimic patients. The relevance of such hormonal alterations to the pathophysiology of eating disorders remains to be elucidated.
Article
Although considerable progress has been made over the past 2 decades in the field of eating-disorder epidemiology, there is room for improvement. Eating disorder diagnoses for children, need assessment, prospective longitudinal studies, studies of natural cause, treatment dose-effect studies, and bias are all areas that need careful consideration. Clinicians should consider establishing a Cochrane database for eating disorders. The mortality studies reviewed in this article are dominated by small, sparse, unbalanced data sets, and publication bias and bias caused by loss to follow-up limits the validity of the reported findings. Some methodologic advice is given in the hope that some of the more obvious pitfalls can be avoided in future research.
Article
To explore the links between social desirability and eating disorders in a sample of adolescents in a north-east area of Italy. A mixed male-female sample of 1000 school-aged adolescents, corresponding to 10% of the young population aged 15-19 years living in the district, were investigated with self-reported questionnaires, including the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE), the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAT), and an Italian version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Females scored higher than males at all eating disorder inventories. In both genders there was a negative relationship (in all cases P < 0.01) between scores at the eating disorder inventories and those at the MC-SDS. When analysing eating disorder "caseness", as measured by cut-off, "cases" reported significantly lower scores than "non-cases" at the MC-SDS in both genders. Personality traits measured by the MC-SDS, such as defensiveness, self-esteem, and dependence from approval, might contribute to the development of abnormal eating patterns at risk of eating disorders.
Article
Few studies to date have investigated whether in fact the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and/or use of illicit drugs is higher among models than among other groups of females. A group of 63 professional fashion models of various nationalities were studied by means of self-reported questionnaires. They were compared with a control group of 126 female subjects recruited from the general population. Fashion models weigh significantly less than controls, but only a small percentage of them uses unhealthy methods to control their weight. The current frequency of full-syndrome ED did not differ between the groups, but partial-syndrome ED were significantly more common among fashion models than among controls. Current substance use or alcohol abuse was reported by 35% of fashion models and 12% of controls. Our findings suggest that fashion models are more at risk for partial ED and use of illicit drugs than females in the general population.
Article
To explore the links between propensity to aggression and eating disorders in a sample of school-aged adolescents in a northeastern area of Italy. In a mixed male-female sample of 1000 adolescents (10% of the district's population aged 15-19 years) we administered the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and the Body Attitudes Test, as measures of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Aggression Questionnaire, as a measure of the propensity to aggression. Females scored significantly higher than males at all eating disorders inventories (P < 0.0001). Males scored higher than females at the Aggression Questionnaire. In both genders, there was a positive correlation between scores at any of the eating disorders inventories and those at the Aggression Questionnaire (P < 0.0001). Overtly expressed aggression might have a negative impact on the course of eating disorders and on the compliance with treatment, also enhancing the risk of suicide.
Article
The current study compared the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) and the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in adolescents with eating disorders. Adolescents (N = 70) with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 21), partial-syndrome BN (PBN; n = 25), and anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 24) were assessed with the EDE and EDE-Q. Moderate to high correlations were found on all four subscales within and between diagnostic groups. The discrepancy between the EDE and EDE-Q was significantly greater in BN relative to PBN and AN for the Eating Concern subscale. Objective binge episode (OBE) frequency in BN and subjective binge episode (SBE) frequency in BN and PBN were higher with the EDE compared with the EDE-Q. Self-induced vomiting was highly correlated between the two measures. Adolescents with BN, PBN, and AN exhibited strong correspondence between the EDE interview and questionnaire formats. However, this consistency was not as pronounced for BN as it was for PBN and AN. The current study lends preliminary credibility to the use of the EDE-Q in adolescent eating disorder samples.
Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni method Gender differences in eating attitudes, body concept, and self-esteem among models
  • J M Bland
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Bland, J.M., Altman, D.G., 1995. Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni method. British Medical Journal 310, 170. Brenner, J.B., Cunningham, J.G., 1992. Gender differences in eating attitudes, body concept, and self-esteem among models. Sex Roles 27, 413–437.
Validazione italiana del Body Attitudes Test (BAT) Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria CXIX
  • Con Un Campione Di Studentesse
con un campione di studentesse: Validazione italiana del Body Attitudes Test (BAT). Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria CXIX, 423–436.
Costruzione e validazione di un nuovo strumento di screening per i disturbi dell'alimentazione: the Inventory for the Screening of Eating Disorders (ISED)
  • Favaro
Favaro, A., Santonastaso, P., 2000. Costruzione e validazione di un nuovo strumento di screening per i disturbi dell'alimentazione: the Inventory for the Screening of Eating Disorders (ISED).