Association between herpes simplex virus-1 infection and idiopathic unilateral facial paralysis in children and adolescents
Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein of College Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
(Impact Factor: 2.72).
06/2008; 27(5):468-9. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31816507c3
We studied the association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection and Bell palsy in children. Thirty-three of 42 affected patients had a positive HSV-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with 16 of 41 controls (P = 0.0003). Ten of 47 affected patients had a positive HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction compared with 4 of 45 of controls (P = 0.08). Our findings support an association between HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy in children.
Available from: Pawin Numthavaj
- "Although the actual cause of Bell's palsy is unknown, the widely accepted mechanism is inflammation of the facial nerve during its course through the bony labyrinthine part of the facial canal, which leads to compression and demyelination of the axons, and disruption of blood supply to the nerve itself. Previous studies have suggested viral infection as the etiology of the disease based on serological evidence;[4,5] for example, positive serology for Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) has been reported in 20-79% of patients. "
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ABSTRACT: Previous meta-analyses of treatments for Bell's palsy are still inconclusive due to different comparators, insufficient data, and lack of power. We therefore conducted a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect comparisons for assessing efficacy of steroids and antiviral treatment (AVT) at 3 and 6 months.
We searched Medline and EMBASE until September 2010 using PubMed and Elsviere search engines. A network meta-analysis was performed to assess disease recovery using a mixed effects hierarchical model. Goodness of fit of the model was assessed, and the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated.
Six studies (total n = 1805)were eligible and contributed to the network meta-analysis. The pooled ORs for resolution at 3 months were 1.24 (95% CI: 0.79 - 1.94) for Acyclovir plus Prednisolone and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.73 - 1.42) for Valacyclovir plus Prednisolone, versus Prednisolone alone. Either Acyclovir or Valacyclovir singly had significantly lower efficacy than Prednisolone alone, i.e., ORs were 0·44 (95% CI: 0·28 - 0·68) and 0·60 (95% CI: 0·42 - 0·87), respectively. Neither of the antiviral agents was significantly different compared with placebo, with a pooled OR of 1·25 (95% CI: 0·78 - 1·98) for Acyclovir and 0·91 (95% CI: 0·63 - 1·31) for Valacyclovir. Overall, Prednisolone-based treatment increased the chance of recovery 2-fold (95% CI: 1·55 - 2·42) compared to non-Prednisolone-based treatment. To gain 1 extra recovery, 6 and 26 patients need to be treated with Acyclovir and prednisolone compared to placebo and prednisolone alone, respectively.
Our evidence suggests that the current practice of treating Bell's palsy with AVT plus corticosteroid may lead to slightly higher recovery rates compared to treating with prednisone alone but this does not quite reach statistical significance; prednisone remains the best evidence-based treatment.
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ABSTRACT: The use of eponyms has long been contentious, but many remain in common use, as discussed elsewhere (Editorial: Oral Diseases. 2009: 15; 185-186). The use of eponyms in diseases of the head and neck is found mainly in specialties dealing with medically compromised individuals (paediatric dentistry, special care dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology and oral and maxillofacial surgery) and particularly by hospital-centred practitioners. This series has selected some of the more recognised relevant eponymous conditions and presents them alphabetically. The information is based largely on data available from MEDLINE and a number of internet websites as noted below: the authors would welcome any corrections. This document summarises data about Bell paralysis.
Available from: Nicolas Waespe
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ABSTRACT: A variety of microorganisms have been shown to cause peripheral facial nerve palsy (PFNP) and/or aseptic meningitis in children. Clinical findings and history may help to predict the specific etiology of these entities.
Children > or =12 months old hospitalized at the University Children's Hospital Basel, Switzerland, from 2000 to 2005 with clinical signs of PFNP and/or aseptic meningitis were studied retrospectively. History, clinical, and laboratory findings were evaluated using analysis of variance with Bonferroni (Dunn) correction.
Of 181 patients, 123 (68%) had aseptic meningitis, 28 (15%) had PFNP, and 30 (17%) had a combination of both. PFNP with aseptic meningitis was associated with Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) infection in the majority of patients (73%) compared with 11% and 9% of patients with PFNP or aseptic meningitis, respectively. The majority of patients with aseptic meningitis without PFNP had enterovirus infection (63%). In patients with aseptic meningitis, mean leukocyte counts in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were higher with enterovirus (565/microL) compared with Bb infection (191/microL; P < 0.01) or unknown causes (258/microL; P < 0.01). Further, CSF mean mononuclear cell proportion was higher in patients with Bb (89%) than in those with enterovirus infection (51%; P < 0.01) or unknown causes (60%; P < 0.01). Mean time interval between onset of disease and admission to hospital showed significant differences between Bb (7.6 days) and enterovirus infection (2.8 days; P < 0.01) or unknown causes (2.0 days; P < 0.01).
Time interval between onset of disease and hospital admission and CSF characteristics can contribute to distinguishing the etiology of aseptic meningitis with or without PFNP. As expected, the most common etiology for aseptic meningitis with PFNP was Bb infection whereas enterovirus infection was the predominant cause for aseptic meningitis alone.
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