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Abstract

This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking.
Usability and trust in e-banking
USABILITY AND TRUST IN E-BANKING1
GABRIELLA PRAVETTONI, SALVATORE NUCCIO LEOTTA, AND CLAUDIO
LUCCHIARI,
Department of Social and Political Studies University of Milano
RAFFAELLA MISURACA
Department of Psychology University of Palermo
1 This is a pre-print version. To Cite this article: Pravettoni, G., Leotta, S. N., Lucchiari, C., & Misuraca, R. (2007).
USABILITY AND TRUST IN E-BANKING 1. Psychological reports, 101(3F), 1118-1124.
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Usability and trust in e-banking
Summary. This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A
questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for
the experiment (M age = 30.5 y., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability
(Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Results
showed that the website usability of e-banking services does not play a very important role for the
User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web
merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank are the crucial factors in the actual adoption
of e-banking.
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Usability and trust in e-banking
In the last decade of the twentieth century, new types of economic transactions have become
increasingly more prevalent. The most widespread is e-business (electronic business), which derives
from a feature of IBM’s marketing strategy: organising customers and company business generally,
through electronic equipment and software. In e-business, information and communication
technologies are used to enhance the business, including any process that an organisation conducts
over a computer network. In e-commerce (electronic commerce), information and communication
technologies are used in interorganisational transactions and in business-to-consumer transactions.
E-commerce eliminates the middleman between the producer and the consumer. The real novelty
for the consumer is the continuous and ubiquitous availability of service.
E-banking is a particular branch of e-commerce. It allows bank clients to obtain information
and carry out transactions online, and much more. Transactional home banking systems can be used
to carry out online fund transfers, to make tax, invoice and bill payments, and to check and change
personal data. It is also possible to trade on the stock exchange in real time, to participate in public
share offerings, to access detailed financial analyses, and to buy and sell shares with lower
commissions than in traditional banking or phone banking (Cusamano & Yoffie, 1998). These
characteristics let e-banking to be considered by researchers as a promising new technology
(Gunasekaran & Love, 1999; Yousafzai, Pallister, & Foxall, 2003); as a potentially infinite universe
of information (e.g., Page-Thomas & Uncles, 2004) where decisions can be more informed (e.g.,
Alba, Lynch, Weitz, Janiszewski, Lutz, Sawyer, & Wood, 1997; Mishra & Olshavsky, 2005).
E-banking had relative fast growth in the last ten years. However, there is a great difference
across geographical areas. In the U.S. the average use of online banking is 44%, higher than the
European (E.U.) average of 36% (Deutsche Bank Research, 2006). Across Europe the use of e-
banking varies from 70% in northern countries (such as Finland, Iceland, etc.) to 20% in southern
countries (such as Italy and Greek). There are several factors limiting or slowing the growth of e-
banking in some countries. One of these is lack of trust (Aladwani, 2001; Sillence, Briggsa, Harris,
& Fishwick, 2006). Online transactions and relationships do not allow customers the natural
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Usability and trust in e-banking
benefits of face-to-face interaction (Gefen, 2003; Yousafzai, et al., 2003; Gefen, Karahanna, &
Straub, 2003; DeRose, Hantula, Kock, & D’Arcy, in press), are characterized by uncertainty,
anonymity, spatial and temporal separation, lack of control, and potential opportunistic behaviours.
Worries about Internet-related technology and infrastructures’ robustness, privacy and security and
possibility of fraud play a key role in adoption of e-banking.
All these characteristics have made risk perception and trust crucial elements for users
(Gefen, 2000). Trust is an important factor in many social interactions involving uncertainty and
dependency. Trust in e-banking is defined as willingness of customers to perform online banking
transactions, expecting that the bank will fulfil its obligations irrespective of ability to monitor or
control the banks’ actions (Citera, Beauregard, & Mitsuya, 2005). This definition underlines the two
dimensions of trust proposed by McKnight, Cummings, and Chervany (1998), institutional trust and
trust beliefs. They defined trusting beliefs as the customers’ perception of the capability,
benevolence, and integrity of the web service. The bank’s reputation is considered to be part of the
trusting beliefs domain. Institutional trust, instead, refers to systems factors and elements, such as
security and privacy policies and website quality. The bank can influence customers’ trust beliefs
(perception of trustworthiness of the bank) through institutional trust (trust of the internet control
mechanisms).
According to Laberge and Caird (2001) usability and accessibility are two crucial factors in
adoption of a service. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specific people to
achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Accessibility refers to
understanding, navigation and interaction on the web by anyone, at anytime from anywhere.
Institutional trust can be improved by optimizing the usability and the accessibility of the e-banking
systems (Dayal, Landesbeg, & Zeisser, 1999; Yousafzai, Pallister, & Foxall, 2005). In fact, website
design, quality, and usability may drive perceptions of trustworthiness, giving customers a safe and
comfortable feeling during the website navigation (Kim, & Moon, 1998). According to McKnight,
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Usability and trust in e-banking
et al. (McKnight, et al., 1998; McKnight, Choudhury, & Kacmer, 2002), these website
characteristics drive customers’ trustworthiness giving rise to so-called Situational Normality.
The present study aimed to analyse the interaction between personal, institutional, and
technology factors in structuring users’ trust in e-banking services. Two hypotheses were tested. It
was expected that expert computer users, those scoring high on the ECDL (European Computer
Driving License), would rate themselves as having higher trust of e-banking than would nonexperts.
E-bank users would report usability as being more important than would people who did not use e-
banking (Laberge & Caird, 2001).
Method
Subjects
One hundred and eighty five undergraduate working students attending evening classes of
the University of Milan took part as volunteers in the experiments. One hundred and seven were
men, and 78 were women (M = 31 yr., SD = 3.3).
Measures
The European Computer Driving License. This test of practical skills and competencies
consists of separate modules covering computer theory and practice. The questionnaire has 60
items grouped into six areas (document management, word processing, spreadsheets, database,
presentation, Internet and electronic mail). The scores may range from 0: No competence at all to
360: Highest competence. There were 81 subjects in the Nonexpert group, and 104 subjects in the
Expert group.
E-banking use. One hundred eighty five participants (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1) were
asked to answered to two questions concerning their e-banking services use. The two questions
were: “Have you got an e-banking account?” and “If yes, how many times do you use e-banking
services (collect account information, transaction, and so on) per month?”.
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Usability and trust in e-banking
Trust and Usability. An ad hoc questionnaire developed by authors and previously tested
was administered. Items were grouped into three sections, each having a final score between 0 to
80: Technology trust, Institutional trust, and Usability Importance. The first section of the
questionnaire had 20 items exploring trust about the stability and reliability of the e-banking
system, e.g., “How much do you believe that the connection will be lost during the transaction?”;
“How much do you believe that the system will not allow you to complete the transaction?”. This
scale had a Cronbach coefficient alpha of .78, and a test-retest correlation (Pearson coefficient) of .
80. The second section (20 items) investigated the major concerns about customer beliefs to feel
safe, assured, and comfortable during the transaction, e.g., “To what extent do you expect to
become a victim of fraud?”; “How much do you fear that your personal information will be made
accessible to others?”. Cronbach coefficient alpha of this scale was .80, and the test-retest
correlation (Pearson coefficient) was .79. The third section included 20 items exploring the
perceived importance of the usability of an e-banking Website, e.g., “How important is it that the
website is intuitive?”; “How important is the ease-of-use of the Website?”. Cronbach coefficient
alpha of this scale was .81, and the test-retest correlation (Pearson coefficient) was .83. The test-
retest time interval was 8 weeks for each scale.
The questionnaire was presented in a paper-and-pencil format. Nonusers were instructed to
answer the questions based on their expectations of an e-banking experience. For each item the
participants were asked to respond on a Likert-type 5 points scale (0: Nothing to 4: Very much).
The sum of the first and the second scale scores was the global Trust score.
Procedure
To evaluate computer expertise, the participants were first asked to complete the European
Computer Driving License questionnaire (ECDL, which is known as International Computer
Driving Licence outside Europe), a standard and recognized tool used to certify computer skills. On
the basis of the outcomes, 185 participants were selected for the experiment (107 men, 78 women).
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Usability and trust in e-banking
For experimental purposes, participants who obtained a score lower than 80 on the ECDL were
included in the Nonexpert group, while those with a score higher than 260 were assigned to the
Expert group. According to how participants answered the two questions on use of e-banking, they
were assigned to one of two independent groups: Users of e-banking services, subjects with a
frequency of use higher than five operations per month (n = 93; 57 Expert and 36 Nonexperts) and
Nonusers of e-banking services (n = 92; 47 Expert and 45 Nonexpert).
Statistical Analysis
Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the distribution of responses between groups.
Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate correlation between scales.
Results
Users reported higher scores on Technology Trust than Nonusers (see Table 1) . Both Expert
and Nonexpert Users had lower scores on the Usability Importance (t = 5.89, p = .021 and t = 6.21,
p = .011 respectively). Finally, both Expert and Nonexpert Users reported lower scores on
Institutional Trust (t = 7.92 , p = .003 and t = 6.82, p = 0.06 respectively) . The correlation
between Technology Trust and Institutional Trust was significant. Usability Importance had only a
moderate correlation with Technology Trust and Institutional Trust.
Table 1
Discussion and conclusions
The results obtained suggest that for Expert Users the use of e-banking depends on the trust
attributed to the bank. Usability did not seem to play a significant role either in the actual use of e-
banking or in trust. Among Nonusers there is widespread psychological resistance to e-banking use:
fears about security, personal data fraud, and lack of reliable customer care (Kim & Moon, 1998).
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Usability and trust in e-banking
The questionnaire successfully differentiated groups according to computer abilities and e-
banking use. In fact, while usability is an envisioned rather than a directly perceived obstacle for the
Nonexpert group - they reported the main usability issues previously noticed by Laberge and Caird
(2001) -, for Expert Users, internet technology was not a problem for interaction; the problems
seem to be related to “trusting the system”.
The study suggests that low use of e-banking may have a twofold explanation. Expert Users
may not make much use of it simply because they do not trust banks (lack of institutional trust) or
internet banking technology, regardless of interface usability and the economic convenience of e-
banking. Thus, overall trust in the bank seemed to play a crucial role in determining actual use of e-
banking. Naturally, generalization is limited by the constraints of the study. The use of non-
standardized measures and the small sample did not permit further analysis that could better explain
the differences between groups. The cross-sectional design does not allow assessment of causal
links. Usability may not always play a crucial role in determining use of e-banking, since other
factors, such as trust in a specific bank, may be more important. However, the usability factor could
influence customer e-banking behaviour at a second stage, when the customer actually uses e-
banking services and has the option of choosing between traditional banking and e-banking, or
between different e-banking providers. Other aspects that may explain the interaction between
perceived importance of usability and e-banking use are the frequency with which e-banking is
utilized and the typical e-services used. A professional user may prefer a reliable transaction than an
easy interface, while an occasional user may be attracted by ease of procedures or graphic aspects.
Future research could address these issues, to better understand individual motivations in e-banking
adoption and to improve customer satisfaction.
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Usability and trust in e-banking
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Page-Thomas, K. L., & Uncles, M. D. (2004) Consumer knowledge of the World Wide Web:
conceptualisation and measurement. Psychology & Marketing, 21(8), 575-593.
Sillence, E., Briggsa, P., Harris, P., & Fishwick L. (2006) A framework for understanding trust
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Yousafzai, S. Y., Pallister, J. G., & Foxall, G. R. (2003) A proposed model of e-trust for electronic
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Yousafzai, S. Y., Pallister, J. G., & Foxall, G. R., (2005) Strategies for building and communication
trust in electronic banking: a field experiment. Psychology and Marketing, 22(2), 181-201.
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Table 1. Measures’ Means and Standard Deviations with Correlation Matrix
Users Nonusers
Experts Nonexperts Experts Nonexperts
M SD 1 2 3 4 M SD 1 2 3 4 M SD 1 2 3 4 M SD 1 2 3 4
1. Technology Trust 35.6 5.8 24.5 6.6 24.3 5.3 20.3 5.5
2. Institutional Trust 29.2 5.1.6† 23.5 4.1.5† 48.3 5.0.5† 46.0 6.0.3*
3. Usability
Importance
37.6 5.0 .2 .2 30.1 4.2. 2 .2 54.0 3.1.1 .2 61.4 2.8 .2 .1
4. ECDL 295 9 .4 .3 .2 65 8 .3* .2 .2 289 6 .4*.3* .2 68 5 .3* .3* .2
* p < .05. p < .001
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Usability and trust in e-banking
Table Supplement Scales’ Items
Users Nonusers
Expert Nonexpert Expert Nonexpert
M SD M SD M SD M SD
Technology Trust
1. To what extent do you
believe that the
connection will be lost
during a transaction? * 37.83 4.3 24.78 6.6 25.21 3.89 22.78 4.54
2. To what extent do you
believe that the system
will not allow you to
complete a transaction? * 35.91 4.32 22.89 5.98 24.43 3.82 20.89 5.54
3. To what extent are you
concerned by on-line
transactions? * 34.33 3.93 25.68 5.83 25.76 3.72 21.78 4.3
4. To what extent are you
confident with
information and
communication
technologies? 34.43 5.02 23.78 5.29 22.33 4.07 21.13 4.6
5. To what extent do you
think internet is a reliable
medium for financial
transactions? 37.3 3.95 23.89 4.89 24.45 3.72 22.69 5.05
6. To what extent are you
confident with internet
bank technologies ? 38.32 5.05 24.91 5.73 25.7 3.92 20.48 4.3
7. To what extent do you
believe e-banking
providers are ready to
manage bank
transactions? 35.1 4.59 23.78 5.44 23.12 3.17 21.45 4.6
8. To what extent do you
believe that some aspect
of an internet bank
transaction may go
wrong? * 36.09 3.49 25.89 5.93 23.82 3.9 20.7 3.9
9. To what extent do you
believe that e-banking
providers have sufficient
expertise and resources to
work on the internet? 35.74 3.19 23.78 5.55 24.48 3.01 23.22 4.7
10. To what extent are you
confident that
transactional information
is protected from being
accidentally altered and
destroyed during
transmission over the
internet? 33.33 5.09 23.83 5.66 21.93 2.9 18.91 4.1
11. To what extent do you
believe that it takes too
long to use e-banking
procedures? * 35.39 5.12 24.69 5.34 25.2 2.78 20.11 4.09
12. To what extent do you
think you need tech
support to be able to use
bank websites? * 34.05 4.48 25.48 5.02 24.21 3.43 17.41 3.87
13. To what extent do you
believe that your internet
connection will be too
slow during your
transactions? * 35.51 4.44 23.81 5.94 21.73 3.41 20.02 5.01
14. To what extent do you
think that you will have to
update your computer to
use internet bank
services? * 35.61 3.2 24.64 5.44 25.37 4.09 20.04 4.87
15. To what extent do you 36.97 3.78 25.82 5.29 23.49 5.01 19.08 4.83
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Usability and trust in e-banking
think the internet is not
an adequate medium for
bank services? *
16. To what extent do you
think that internet
technologies need to be
further developed to be
used in financial services?
* 35.22 4.39 23.91 4.9 25.81 3.43 18.98 4.82
17. To what extent do you
believe internet banks are
concerned about
guaranteeing a reliable
connection? 32.99 4.29 24.21 5.09 24.43 3.94 18.29 4.84
18. To what extent do you
think that internet banks
will work effectively with
a slow connection (such
as a 56 kb modem)? 35.39 5.8 26.48 6.09 25.92 2.39 19.92 3.41
19. To what extent do you
believe internet bank
services are available and
easily accessible 24h a
day? 37.21 2.3 23.93 3.45 23.94 5.32 20.08 4.02
20. To what extent do you
think that you will be able
to complete your
transactions over the
internet most of the time? 35.61 2.09 23.97 6.06 25.02 4.92 19.01 3.94
Total 35.61 5.8 24.50 6.6 24.31 5.32 20.34 5.54
Institutional Trust M SD M SD M SD M SD
1. To what extent do you
expect to become a victim
of fraud? * 27.08 4.3 23.78 3.89 48.78 4.33 54.76 5.98
2. To what extent do you
fear that your personal
information will be made
accessible to others? * 29.08 4.6 22.89 3.82 49.81 4.9 41.11 5.83
3. To what extent are you
confident that third party
certification bodies can be
relied on to ensure the
trustworthiness of internet
traders? 30.1 5.05 23.78 3.72 46.76 4.02 43 5.29
4. To what extent do you
believe the bank is
committed to
guaranteeing your
privacy? * 26.87 4.3 24.98 4.07 48.14 5.01 45.64 4.89
5. To what extent are you
confident that internet
banks will not disclose
private consumer
information to
unauthorised parties? 29.98 4.6 24.99 3.72 47.14 4.28 44.91 5.73
6. To what extent are you
confident that internet
banks will not disclose
personal data about you
without your consent ? 28.89 3.9 21.2 3.92 49.31 4.92 45.41 5.44
7. To what extent are you
confident that internet
banks will not request
unnecessary information
about clients ? 30.01 4.7 24.56 3.17 45.51 4.83 47.94 5.93
8. To what extent will
bank reputation guarantee
the quality of internet
bank services? 31.11 4.1 21.91 3.9 45.34 4.32 46.91 5.93
9. To what extent are you
confident that your
personal information will
be protected? 34.19 4.09 19.79 3.01 49.47 4.34 46.01 6.04
10. To what extent do you
believe internet banks
will provide support
29.01 3.87 25.86 2.9 48.78 4.84 43.09 5.55
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Usability and trust in e-banking
during internet
transactions?
11. To what extent do you
believe that the
information provided by
internet banks is as
reliable as the information
given by bank
employees? 26.89 5.01 23.89 2.78 49.89 4.49 45.02 5.66
12. To what extent are you
confident that information
transmitted over the
internet will not be stolen
by unauthorised parties? 30.98 4.87 25.48 3.98 50.33 4.44 47.09 5.34
13. To what extent are you
confident about the
security of your
transactions with internet
banks ? 27.98 4.83 23.81 4.05 49.34 4.03 44.98 5.02
14. To what extent do you
believe that internet banks
provide reliable services? 28.26 4.82 21.64 3.18 51.01 4.09 49.09 5.94
15. To what extent do you
think that internet banks
give attention to
resolution of consumer
issues? 30.01 4.84 25.82 3.19 47.01 4.39 45.04 5.44
16. To what extent do you
expect to become a victim
of some error due to a
technology failure?* 30.8 4.04 20.91 3.48 46.89 4.92 46.08 5.29
17. To what extent are you
confident that internet
banks provide a complete
description of services? 30.02 3.98 24.21 3.35 48.89 4.02 46.46 4.9
18. To what extent do you
believe internet banks
will protect you from
fraud? 29.8 3.58 22.48 3.33 48.09 4.33 46.08 4.89
19. To what extent do you
believe that the
information on the bank
website is up to date? 27.28 4.28 23.4 3.92 48.01 3.98 46.78 5.44
20. To what extent do you
believe the bank will be
ready to refund you in
case of internet fraud? 26.21 4.78 23.9 3.93 47.78 3.49 46.01 5.84
Total 29.23 5.05 23.46 4.07 48.31 5.01 46.07 6.04
Usability Importance M SD M SD M SD M SD
1. How important is it
that the website is easy to
understand?
38.4 4.54 32.05 4.06 53.87 3.06 67.76 2.10
2. How important is the
ease-of-use of the
website?
36.6 4.98 31.01 4.07 53.89 2.99 60.87 2.19
3. How important is it
that internet banking be
enjoyable for you?
35.73 4.84 30.01 3.90 56.89 3.09 58.98 2.49
4. How important is it
that instructions about
how to use internet
banking are clear and
understandable ?
31.85 4.73 28.71 3.89 53.98 2.49 60.09 2.39
5. How important is it
that the information on
internet bank websites is
mostly relevant?
37.25 4.84 29.21 3.82 52.08 2.39 60.9 2.80
6. How important is it
that it is easy to become
familiar with using
internet banking?
39.4 4.73 31.76 4.01 56.09 2.48 60.89 2.49
7. How important is it
that all the content on
internet bank websites is
useful ?
40.03 4.78 33.03 3.72 52.09 2.46 60.34 2.79
8. How important is it 41.73 4.63 28.01 3.72 56.98 2.49 59.9 2.59
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Usability and trust in e-banking
that bank websites are
well designed ?
9. How important is the
simplicity of e-bank
websites?
35.21 5.01 29.71 3.47 52.97 2.19 62.29 2.49
10. How important is the
fact that you do not have
to learn a lot about a bank
website before using it
effectively?
36.44 4.99 30.12 3.59 53.01 2.59 62.9 2.69
11. How important is it
that information provided
with bank websites (such
as online help and other
documentation) is clear?
40.32 4.89 30.76 3.49 52.01 2.67 61.11 2.49
12. How important is it
that individual pages are
well designed?
37.4 4.88 29.07 3.68 56.78 2.73 61.9 2.49
13. How important is it
that the terminology used
on bank websites is
clear ?
35.42 4.33 27.03 3.94 54.09 2.49 63.01 2.49
14. How important is it
that the contents of
websites meet your
expectations?
33.76 3.98 32.32 3.27 53.28 2.67 61.9 2.48
15. How important is it
that bank websites require
the fewest steps possible
for you to accomplish
what you want to with
them?
41.07 4.34 30.12 3.39 52.56 2.73 61.78 2.59
16. How important is it
that you will easily be
able to remember how to
use a website ?
37.01 3.99 28.21 3.32 53.65 2.93 61.9 2.69
17. How important is the
fact that you can use e-
banking services without
written instructions ?
37.51 4.02 30.21 3.39 56.11 2.28 59.78 2.67
18. How important is the
fact that e-bank websites
provide services in an
easy-to-use way ?
37.3 4.05 30.78 3.19 54.9 2.48 58.78 2.61
19. How important is it
that bank websites let you
complete your operations
as fast as possible ?
37.48 4.34 28.98 3.87 53.09 2.43 60.89 2.71
20. How important is the
way in which information
is organized and
displayed on bank
websites?
37.34 4.36 30.51 3.59 52.09 2.91 61.7 2.75
Total 37.36 5.01 30.08 4.07 54.02 3.09 61.38 2.80
15
... Also Alsheyyab & Singh (2013) finds that trust is at the central pivot of an effective function internet banking system in Jordan. More so, a study by Pravettoni, Leotta, Lucchiari & Misuraca (2007) concluded that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the user group, but, instead, institutionbased trust such as the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking. Therefore, banks should educate their customers and manage general consumers' discernment of the risks in transacting on the internet ( Chang's (2008) interpretive findings suggest that scammers such as advance fee fraudsters employ specific methods that exploit the bounded rationality and automatic behavior of victims. ...
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... For example, McKnight and colleagues (2002) found that website appearance is a determinant of the perceived trustworthiness of the intermediary; Morgan and Hunt (1994) showed that a positive evaluation of the communication with the trustee (e.g., the ease with which the trustee can be contacted) increases the trustor's trust in the former. At last, the ways in which products are represented influences the trustor as well: detailed, explicit, and accurate product information is likely to make buyers infer that sellers are professional, dedicated, and responsible, and thus trustworthy (Belanger, Hiller & Smith, 2002;Pravettoni, Leotta, Lucchiari & Misuraca, 2007). ...
... For example, McKnight and colleagues (2002) found that website appearance is a determinant of the perceived trustworthiness of the intermediary; Morgan and Hunt (1994) showed that a positive evaluation of the communication with the trustee (e.g., the ease with which the trustee can be contacted) increases the trustor's trust in the former. At last, the ways in which products are represented influences the trustor as well: detailed, explicit, and accurate product information is likely to make buyers infer that sellers are professional, dedicated, and responsible, and thus trustworthy (Belanger, Hiller & Smith, 2002;Pravettoni, Leotta, Lucchiari & Misuraca, 2007). ...
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