Cutaneous head and neck melanoma: The old and the new
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Head & Neck Surgery & Plastic Surgery, Buffalo, NY-14263, USA.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.46). 04/2008; 8(3):403-12. DOI: 10.1586/14737184.108.40.2063
The incidence rate of malignant melanoma has shown a rapid worldwide rise in recent years. The staging and management of head and neck melanoma presents some unique challenges. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment, while sentinel node biopsy is the most accurate staging modality for regional disease. The complex regional anatomy and lymphovascular drainage of this region may account for the increased biologic aggressiveness and treatment challenges of this disease. Improved understanding of the radiobiology of melanoma has resulted in new adjuvant radiotherapy approaches, yielding improved control rates. The treatment outcomes of metastatic head and neck melanoma remain disappointing but important progress has been made in the understanding of melanoma biology.
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ABSTRACT: A b s t r a c t Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury induces alterations of the neurochemical conditions in the vulnerable regi- ons of the brain. The role of calcium in the process of neuronal injury with special attention to participation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen (RO(N)S) species will be discussed. An excess amount of RO(N)S is up-regulated in res- ponse to ischemic stress and participates in neuronal apoptosis by several processes. Paper is focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms of intracellular calcium stores with special attention to neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Acute in vivo ischemia alters both the expression, function and kinetic parameters of Ca2+ transporters and the physical membrane environment. Experimental results present evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of complex processes such as calcium stora- ge, synthesis and folding of proteins and cell response to stress. ER function is impaired in ischemia/reperfusion injury which in turn induce calcium store depletion and conserved stress responses linked with delayed neuronal death. Understanding the mechanisms leading to ischemia-induced disturbation of calcium stores and the ER dysfunction may lead to recognition of neuronal protection strategies and suggestions for further studies on the development of novel prophylactic/therapeutics for neuronal apoptosis-related diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous cancers are among the most common forms of cancer. Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy which is poor in prognosis. Despite of many years of researches, the treatment of melanoma is still a problem. Historically, plants have been main resources in traditional medicine and natural products are considered as important sources of antitumor drugs. Meanwhile, garlic for a long time has been used in man's food as a medicinal plant. In this study, the garlic extract was prepared and fractionated by ultra-filtration method with Amicon system. Garlic extract and its fractions including residue (R) 100, R50, R30, R10, R5, and filtrate (F) 5 were investigated for their cytotoxic activities on Sk-mel3 cell line of melanoma. The results show that garlic extract induced a significant cytotoxic activity on Sk-mel3 cell line. Among fractions R100 and R10 have more potential in cytotoxic activities against Sk-mel3 melanoma cells. In conclusion, garlic appears to be a good candidate as an antitumor agent against melanoma. To clarify the effective molecules and their mechanisms more studies should be applied on animal models and humans.
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