Plant embryogenesis requires a tight balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. In animals, embryogenesis is dependent on cell migrations, which is in contrast to plant embryogenesis where the rigid cell wall precludes migration. Therefore, plants have to position cells correctly by defining the direction of the division plane during proliferation and control cell shape by local cell expansion. Both these processes are reliant on the organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton-actin filaments and microtubules. In previous work (7), we have shown that differentiation of the embryo suspensor is accompanied by reorientation of microtubules from random to transverse and reorganization of actin filaments from a fine filamentous network to bundled longitudinal cables. Here, we describe the technique for visualization of cytoskeletal components including actin filaments, microtubules and their associated proteins during the development of plant embryos in whole-mount specimens.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"In addition, the slowness of chemical fixation, which is accentuated in higher plant cells by the presence of a rigid cellulosic cell wall, was suspected to give rise to artifactual cytoskeletal rearrangements [He and Wetzstein, 1995; Doris and Steer, 1996]. Therefore, continuous effort has been devoted to improve chemical fixation procedures and to develop alternative methods such as cryofixation [Vitha et al., 2000; Collings and Wasteneys, 2005; Wilsen et al., 2006; Smertenko and Hussey, 2008]. Despite the wide use of live cell imaging (see below), classical actin immunolocalization or labeling using appropriately fixed material yielded important results, especially in root and pollen tissues [Collings and Wasteneys, 2005; Wilsen et al., 2006]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tight regulation of plant actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics is crucial for numerous cellular processes including cell division, expansion and intracellular trafficking. Among the various actin regulatory proteins, actin-bundling proteins trigger the formation of bundles composed of several parallel actin filaments closely packed together. Actin bundles are present in virtually all plant cells, but their biological roles have rarely been addressed directly. However, decades of research in the plant cytoskeleton field yielded a bulk of data from which an overall picture of the functions supplied by actin bundles in plant cells emerges. Although plants lack several equivalents of animal actin-bundling proteins, they do possess major bundler classes including fimbrins, villins and formins. The existence of additional players is not excluded as exemplified by the recent characterization of plant LIM proteins, which trigger the formation of actin bundles both in vitro and in vivo. This apparent functional redundancy likely reflects the need for plant cells to engineer different types of bundles that act at different sub-cellular locations and exhibit specific function-related properties. By surveying information regarding the properties of plant actin bundles and their associated bundling proteins, the present review aims at clarifying why and how plants make actin bundles.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms can be highly dynamic, but the cross-talk among them and with the genome is still poorly understood. Many of these mechanisms work at different places in the cell and at different times of organism development. Covalent histone modifications are one of the most complex and studied epigenetic mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming and development in plants. Therefore, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of histone methylation in different tissues is important to understand their behavior on specific cells.
Based on the importance of epigenetic marks for biology, we present a simplified, inexpensive and efficient protocol for in situ immunolocalization on different tissues such as flowers, buds, callus, somatic embryo and meristematic tissue from several plants of agronomical and biological importance. Here, we fully describe all the steps to perform the localization of histone modifications. Using this method, we were able to visualize the distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 without loss of histological integrity of tissues from several plants, including Agave tequilana, Capsicum chinense, Coffea canephora and Cedrela odorata, as well as Arabidopsis thaliana.
There are many protocols to study chromatin modifications; however, most of them are expensive, difficult and require sophisticated equipment. Here, we provide an efficient protocol for in situ localization of histone methylation that dispenses with the use of expensive and sensitive enzymes. The present method can be used to investigate the cellular distribution and localization of a wide array of proteins, which could help to clarify the biological role that they play at specific times and places in different tissues of various plant species.