Metabolic Syndrome Status Changes with Fitness Level Change: A Retrospective Analysis

School of Health Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4482, USA.
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders (Impact Factor: 1.98). 03/2008; 6(1):8-14. DOI: 10.1089/met.2007.0013
Source: PubMed


Cardiorespiratory fitness level is inversely related to the incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). This study examined the effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness level on MetS status.
Male and female participants in a health enhancement program (n = 212) were clinically examined for changes in their MetS status and estimated aerobic capacity over a 3-year period. Two physical examinations, each including a maximal treadmill stress test, occurred within this time frame. Participants were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 103) was composed of individuals who presented with MetS at exam 1 and reversed their MetS disease status by exam 2; Group 2 (n = 75) members presented with MetS at both exams; and Group 3 (n = 34) individuals were MetS-free at exam 1 but acquired MetS by exam 2. The relationships between MetS clinical characteristics at exam 1 and exam 2 and changes in graded exercise test (GXT) duration were contrasted for the three groups.
GXT duration, estimated aerobic capacity (VO(2) max), and MetS characteristics improved significantly in Group 1 (P < 0.01). Group 2 individuals also increased GXT duration (P < 0.05) but showed only nonsignificant improvements (P > 0.05) in clinical characteristics. Group 3 members declined in most MetS characteristics and in estimated VO(2) max (P < 0.05).
Increases in GXT duration accompanied MetS reversal while declines in GXT duration occurred with MetS acquisition. On an individual basis, these changes in GXT duration may be an indicator of disease status.

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    • "Several studies have assessed the remission of MetS, all after an intervention. These interventions include diet (remission rate 21-61 %) [16-18], exercise programs (remission rate 42-58 %) [19,20], combinations of both (remission rate 67 %) [21], bariatric surgery (remission rate up to 95 %) [22-24] and medication such as metformin, fenofibrate and orlistat (remission rate 23-44 %) [25,26]. However, data about remission of the MetS without predefined intervention unless the advice to contact the primary care center are scarce. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) definition) among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46) and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91), blood pressure (OR 0.98) and fasting glucose (OR 0.60). Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a strong marker for cardiac health. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated that low VO2max is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality both in healthy individuals and in patients with CVD [2]–[6]. Based on this, more knowledge of the differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO2max-level will be of great interest to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have a potential as an early biomarker of CVD risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO(2max)-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk. Serum samples from 218 healthy individuals with a low VO(2max) (n = 108, 63 women) or high VO(2max) (n = 110, 64 women) were analysed with MR metabolomics. In addition, standard clinical-chemical analyses for glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, micro-CRP, and colorimetric analysis on circulating choline were performed. Individuals in the low VO(2max)-group had increased serum levels of free choline, decreased phosphatidylcholine, increased glucosę and decreased unsaturated fatty acids compared to the individuals in the high VO(2max)-group. Aerobic fitness dependent differences in serum levels of free choline and phosphatidylcholine are observed. They should be further studied as potential early markers of CVD risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: To examine how body composition changes in different body mass index (BMI) categories among young Finnish men during military service, which is associated with marked changes in diet and physical activity. In addition, this study examined how reported previous physical activity affected the body composition changes. Altogether 1003 men (19 yr) were followed throughout their military service (6-12 months). Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Previous physical activity was assessed at the beginning of the service by a questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance assessments (BIA) at the beginning and at the end of the service. The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat percentage (fat %), fat-free mass (FFM), visceral fat area (VFA), lean body mass (LBM), and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). On average, military training decreased weight by 0.7%, FM by 9.7%, fat % by 6.6%, and VFA by 43.4%. FFM increased by 1.3%, LBM by 1.2%, and SMM by 1.7%. The group of underweight and normal-weight men gained weight, FM, and FFM, whereas overweight and obese men lost weight and FM and gained FFM. FM was most reduced in the groups of overweight (20.8%) and obese (24.9%) men. The amount of VFA was reduced in all BMI groups (38%-44%). Among overweight men who reported being inactive previous to the military service, more beneficial changes in body composition were observed compared with those who reported being physically active. The lifestyle changes associated with military service markedly reduce fat tissue and increase the amount of lean tissue. These beneficial changes are prominent among previously inactive subjects with high BMI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Medicine and science in sports and exercise
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