Katoh K, Toh H.. Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Brief Bioinform 9: 286-298

Digital Medicine Initiative, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
Briefings in Bioinformatics (Impact Factor: 9.62). 08/2008; 9(4):286-98. DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbn013
Source: PubMed


The accuracy and scalability of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of DNAs and proteins have long been and are still important
issues in bioinformatics. To rapidly construct a reasonable MSA, we developed the initial version of the MAFFT program in
2002. MSA software is now facing greater challenges in both scalability and accuracy than those of 5 years ago. As increasing
amounts of sequence data are being generated by large-scale sequencing projects, scalability is now critical in many situations.
The requirement of accuracy has also entered a new stage since the discovery of functional noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs); the secondary
structure should be considered for constructing a high-quality alignment of distantly related ncRNAs. To deal with these problems,
in 2007, we updated MAFFT to Version 6 with two new techniques: the PartTree algorithm and the Four-way consistency objective
function. The former improved the scalability of progressive alignment and the latter improved the accuracy of ncRNA alignment.
We review these and other techniques that MAFFT uses and suggest possible future directions of MSA software as a basis of
comparative analyses. MAFFT is available at

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Available from: Kazutaka Katoh, Jan 04, 2014
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    • "The alignment of the cox1 sequences was trivial, as they showed no evidence of indel mutations. The ITS-2 fragments were aligned with the online version of MAFFT (Katoh & Toh, 2008;, using the Q-INS-I strategy with default options. "
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    • "4.9 (Gene Codesª, MI, USA) was used to assess the quality of sequence chromatograms and to edit them when necessary. Sequences were aligned using MAFFT version 6 with the EeINSei strategy (Katoh and Hiroyuki, 2008). Alignments were visualized using MESQUITE version 7.2 (Maddison and Maddison, 2009) and the 5 0 and 3 0 ends were trimmed to a uniform length. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the disappearance of, or drastic changes in, ancestral and indigenous (or native) endosymbiotic microbiota can lead to many adverse health consequences. However, the effects of changes in beneficial endosymbionts in plants are poorly known (except for mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations). We sampled and compared endophytes from hundreds of trees belonging to the economically important genus Hevea, the source of natural rubber, in their native range in the Amazon basin and in plantations. We also conducted antagonism tests to determine the potential effects that some of these endophytes may have on selected plant pathogenic fungi. The natural and indigenous endosymbiotic mycota of the rubber tree (Hevea) contains a high diversity of beneficial fungi that may protect against pathogens (protective mutualism). In contrast, plantation trees have a reduced and different diversity of these beneficial fungi. We propose that abundance, and not just presence, of competitive fungal strains and species (i.e., Trichoderma and Tolypocladium) create a protective effect against pathogens in wild trees. This study provides support for the importance of mutualistic endosymbionts in plant health and ecosystem resilience, and calls for awareness of their potential loss by human-related activities.
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    • ". GenBank numbers for the new taxa are given with the respective collection information. Sequences were aligned using MAFFT version 7 (Katoh & Toh 2008 "
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